« AnteriorContinuar »
-and Cupid playing on the tibia.In one of the houfes likewife is a painting of a Grecian temple, a dorned with twenty fluted doric pillars. One of the fhops (in appearance a foap-boiler's) had foap found in it-another fhop evidently was a coffee-houfe, and the marks of the cups ftill remain upon the marble dreffer. Without fide of another hop are Hebrew characters (not written with vowel-points) and other oriental characters, which do not feem to be Hebrew. The iron-work of a calafh, apparently like thofe ufed at prefent in Naples, was found in the court of a houfe. The city-gate is highly interefting; here is the centry-box for the guard-a femi-circular feat in which the Romans used to affemble and converfe and a couple of tombs-all in great measure perfect -near one of the tombs is a court containing a ftone, on which the bodies of the dead were burnt; and on the walls of this court are large frightful earthern masks with weeping faces. The tomb contains one large and feveral fmall niches for urns; the large one is fuppofed to have been for the head of the family. The excavated villa is more entire than any of the ruins yet laid open, feveral rooms, the garden and the cellar, being quite in their original ftate; the laft contains wine-vellels cemented to the wall by the cinders which overwhelmed the city, and likewife filled with them. The paintings ftill remaining in this villa are beautiful--the hot and cold baths almoft entire-the kitchen entire alfo-in fhort, by examining thefe apartments, you precifely afcertain the plan and manner of ornamenting a Roman country-houfe, which feems to dif
fer very little from modern Italian villas, except that the ftucco is infinitely finer than any we now fee, as likewife are the colours and varnifh laid over them. Pompeii was built and paved with lava; carriage wheels have worn traces in the pavement, and these traces are only four feet wide; nevertheless so narrow are the ftreets already excavated that there is barely room fufficient for two carriages to país each other; the streets have raised footways on each fide three feet broad.
Perhaps the whole world does not exhibit fo awful a fpectacle as Pompeii; and when it was firft difco- « vered, when fkeletons were found heaped together in the streets and houses, when all the utensils and even the very bread of the poor fuffocated inhabitants, were difcernible, what a fpeculation muft this ill-fated city have furnished to a thinking mind! To vifit it even now is abfolutely to live with the ancient Romans: and when we fee houses, fhops, furniture, fountains, ftreets, carriages, and implements of hufbandry, exactly fimilar to thofe of the prefent day, we are apt to conclude that cuftoms and manners have undergone but little variation for the laft two thousand years.The cuftom of confulting augurs, and that of hiring perfons to weep at funerals, are ftill kept up in the mountainous and fecluded parts of Tufcany; and I have frequently feen the Tufcan cattle, when del tined for flaughter, adorned with chaplets of flowers, precisely as the ancients used to adorn their victims for facrifice. The Roman butchers, likewife, ftill wear the drefs, and use the knife of heathen facrificing priefts. The old Roman custom of not eating above one regular meal a day,
day, and that about the ninth hour of Italy, (three o'clock with us) is kept up by many of the Italians: and during the month of May it is common to fee fhepherds dreffed as in ancient times tike Pan, Satyrs, &c. I do not, however, mean to infer from what I have faid, that modern Italians equal the ancients in works of art; for, in this respect, there seems as much difference between the prefent race and their forefathers, as there was be tween the ancient Romans and their teachers, the Greeks.
Not more than from forty to fifty fkeletons have yet been found in Pompeii-one third of the town only, however, is yet uncovered; but the excavations are going on daily; and a new ftreet, with a noble portico, have very lately been laid open.
Particulars concerning Tobacco, digeted in a chronological Order; from Profeffor Beckmann's Introduction to Technology.
N 1496, Romanus Pane, a Spa
his fecond departure from America, had left in that country, published the first account of tobacco, with. which he became acquainted in St. Domingo. He gave it the names of Cohoba, Cohobba, Gioia.
In 1535, the negroes had already habituated themselves to the ufe of tobacco, and cultivated it in the plantations of their mafters. Europeans likewife already fmoked it.
In 1559, Jean Nicot, envoy from France at the court of Portugal, fift tranfmitted thence to Paris, to queen Catharine de Medicis, feed of the tobacco plant. And VOL. XLII.
pipes in Europe.
In the beginning of the feventeenth century they began to cultivate tobacco in the Eaft Indies.
In 1604, James the firft of England endeavoured, by means of heavy impofts, to abolish the use of tobac co, which he held to be a noxious weed.
In 1610, the finoking of tobacco was known at Conftantinople. To render the custom ridiculous, a Turk, who had been found fmoking, was conducted about the streets with a pipe transfixed through his nofe. For a long time after the
Turks purchased tobacco, and that the refufe, from the English. It was late before they learned to cultivate the plant themfelves.
In 1615, it appears that tobacco began to be fown about Amersfort, in Holland.
In 1616, they began to cultivate tobacco in Virginia; the feeds had probably been carried thither from Tobago.
In 1619, king James the fift wrote his "Mifocapno" against the ufe of tobacco; and ordered that no planter in Virginia fhould cultivate more than 100 pounds.
In 1620, fome English companies introduced the cuftom of fmoking tobacco, in Zittau, in Ger
In 1620, Robert Konigsmann, a merchant, brought the first tobaccoplant from England to Strafburgh..
In 1624, pope Urban VIII. publifhed a decree of excommunication against all who fhould take nuff in the church, becaufe then already fome Spanish ecclefiaftics ufed it during the celebration of
In 1631, fmoking of tobacco was firft introduced into Mifnia by the Swedish troops.
In 1634, Imoking was forbidden in Ruffia, under the pain of having the nofe cut off.
In 1653, they began to fmoke tobacco in the canton of Apenzell, in Switzerland. At first, the children ran after those who imoked in the ftreets. The council likewife cited the fmokers before them, and punished them; and ordered the innkeepers to inform againft fuch as fhould fmoke in their houfes.
In it the prohibition to fmoke tobacco ftands under the rubrick— "Thou shalt not commit adultery!" The prohibition was renewed in 1675; and the tribunal particu larly inftituted to put it in execution," Chambre du Tubac," continued till the middle of the prefent century.
In 1670, and in the following years, the smoking of tobacco was punished in the canton of Glarus by a pecuniary fine of one crown Swifs money.
In 1676, two Jews first attempted the cultivation of tobacco in the margraviate of Brandenburgh; but which, however, was not brought to bear till 1681.
In 1686, tobacco first planted in the canton of Bafil.
In 1661, the police regulation of Bern was made, which was divided according to the ten commandments.
In 1689, Jacob Francis Vicarius, an Auftrian phyfician, invented the tubes for tobacco-pipes, which have capfules containing bits of Tponge; however, about the year 1670, already pipes were ufed with glas globules appended to them, to collect the oily moisture exluding from
In 1690, pope Innocent XII. excommunicated all who fhould be guilty of using fnuff or tobac co in the church of St. Peter, at Rome.
In 1697, great quantities of tobacco already produced in the pala tinate and in Heffia.
In 1719, the fenate of Strafburgh prohibited the culture of tobacco, from an apprehension left it should prove injurious, by diminishing the growing of corn.
In 1724, pope Benedict XIV, revoked the bull of excommunication published by Innocent, becaule ir himfelf had acquired the habit of taking fnuf
In 1753, the king of Por- Rix
fary an article of drefs; the form of the pipes, from which the Dutch feem to have taken the model of theirs, to original; and, laftly, the preparation of the yellow leaves, which are merely rubbed to pieces and then put into a pipe, fo pecu. liar; that we cannot poffibly derive 40,000 all this from America by way of Europe; efpecially as India, where the habit of fmoking tobacco is not fo general, intervenes between Perfia 806,000 and China. May we not expect to find traces of this cuftom in the first account of the voyages of the Portuguefe and Dutch to China?' To inveftigate this fubject I have indeed the inclination, but, at prefent at leaft, not fufficient leifure; and muft therefore, leave it to others. However, I can now adduce one important confirmation of my conjecture from Ulloa's voyage to America: It is not probable,' fays he, that the Europeans learned the ufe of tobacco from America; for, as it is very ancient in the Eaftern countries it is natural to fuppofe that the knowledge of it came to Europe. from thofe regions, by means of the intercourfe carried on with them by the commercial ftates on the Mediterranean Sea. No where, not even in thofe parts of America where the tobacco-plant grows wild, is the use of it, and that only for fmoking, either general or very frequent.
In 1759, the duties on tobacco in Denmark brought in
In 1770, the empress
In 1773, the duties on
18,372,933 a fum greater than the revenues of the kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden together, on an aver age, amount to.
To me it appears probable, remarks profeffor Beckmann, that, even before the difcovery of the fourth quarter of the globe, a fort of tobacco was fmoked in Afia. This conjecture being mentioned to the celebrated traveller, M. Pallas, he gave the following anfwer: That in Afia, and especially in China, the ule of tobacco for fmoking is more ancient than the difcovery of the New World, I too fcarcely en-. tertain a doubt. Among the Chinefe and among the Mongol tribes who had the most intercourfe with them, the cuftom of fmoking is lo general, fo frequent, and become so indifpenfable a luxury; the tobaccopurfe affixed to their belt. fo necs!
A short chronological Account of the religious Establishments made by English Catholics, on the Continent of Europe; by the Abbé Mann.
the object which I take in hand appears little interefting at a time when the reigning fpirit of feveral nations is far more difpofed to deftroy all the monuments of the Le 2 piety
piety of their ancestors, than to preferve any memory of them, and has already deftroyed the greatest part of thefe I am going to mention; I hope it will appear in a different light to the learned fociety of Antiquaries, whofe chief care is to colled and preferve to futurity a faithful remembrance of whatever concerns former ages.
If a time fhould ever come when an exact account of this fmall part of the British nation fhall be found interefting, the following lifts of thefe establishments, collected with care and exactness, may not prove unwelcome, as they may lead to fources where a complete account of each of them may be found.
I fhall make no farther apology for this effay than to beg it may be confidered rather as a teftimony of my profound refpect for the learned fociety to which I have the honour of prefenting it, than for any intrinfic value which I attribute to it. Abbé Mann.
Leutmeritz in Bohemia, July 16, 1797.
A fummary View of the English religious Etablishments on the Continent, under the Heads of the different Orders to which they belonged.
I. Secular Clergy
1. The English college of fecular
2. The English college at Rome