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their jarring opinions with foothing toleration, and left the world at peace.'
What was the fate of that infidelity of which we hear fo many complaints, in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, at the era of the reformation? How far did those go, who preceded I uther, and were advocates of reformation, yet were deemed found members of the church? We are of opinion that the inveftigation of thefe points might throw fome new light on this great event, often and ably as it has been treated; and certainly by no one better than by the incomparable Sleidan. Mr. Planta agrees with thofe who have preceded him, as to the caufes which brought about this fingular revolution in human affairs; the chief of which were, the opprettions exercifed by the Romish hierarchy, the wealth and power which it had amaffed, the claims which it arrogated, and the igno, rance and bad lives of its clergy.A fpecimen of the ignorance of that body will be found in the following pallage:
The generality of the pricfthood did not fcruple to acknowledge their deficiency in the moft elementary parts of learning. The canons of the collegiate church of Zuric having to notify an election to the bishop of Confiance, confeffed that they tranfmitted it in the hand writing of their notary, becaule feveral of them could not write. In the examinations for holy orders, it was deemed amply fufficient that the candidate could read, and tolerably comprehend what he read: even after the reformation had made fome progrels, the people firmly believed, and the priests con
firmed them in the perfuafion, that the bells travelled every passion week to Rome to receive frek hop. tilm; and that the exorcifms of priests could effectually difici fwarms of loe fts, and all mar ner of infects. When, at an ailembly of the clergy in the Valais, ment on was made of the Eble, only one of the priests had ever heard of feet a book: and feveral, on other occafions, did not fcruple to declare, that it would be an advantage to religion if no gofpel were extant; and that the study of the Greek and Hebrew languages greatly favoured of herefy.'
Of the state of morals, the fol lowing extract will give an idea:
All men muft feel a painful conviction when they learn, from the charges that were brought by the citizens of Laufanne agairt their clergy, that the priests nfed often, even in the churches, and in the midft of divine fervice, to finike the perfons to whom they bore ill will, fome of whom had actually died of their wounds: that they walked the freets at night, dilguifed in military drefies, brand:shing naked fwords, and infulting the peaceful inhabitants: and that the frequent rapes, violences, and infults they committed were never punished or even restrained. The following are the words of the eighteenth article: "We have allo to complain of the canons, that they reduce the profits of our town b-thel, feveral of them carrying on the traffic of proftitution in their own honfes, which they thre open to new comers of all defcriptions." It is so fmall corroboration of the merited clamoursroiled againf the clergy, that their own zealnes advocate
advocate and protector, Charles the fifth, publicly declared to them, that if their lives had been lefs reproachable, they would never have had to contend with a Martin Lu
In Chap. VII. which brings down the affairs of Helvetia to the prefent century, we learn that, after the agitations of the reformation had fubfided, the following became the religious flate of the
already profperous city. This religious feparation was by no means, in all cafes, topographical; the inhabitants of different perfuafions in many places living promifcuously together, and many large families having divided into branches, whofe contradictory belief and ftern fanaticifm have frequently proved the fource of deftructive feuds and great calamities.'
Four of the cantons, and among thefe the two principal of them, had adopted the reformation; feven remained firmly addicted to the faith of their ancestors; and two admitted both religions into their country as well their fenates. Of the three-and-twenty fubject diftrias, only Morat and Granfon became wholly proteftant; fixteen retained their former creed, and five became mixed. Among the allies, Geneva, Neuchattel, Bienne, Mulhaufen, and the town of St. Gallen, renounced the doctrines of Rome; while the diminutive republic of Girfau, and the abbey of Engelberg, perfifted in their former worship. In the Grifon leagues, after great difturbances, and many fluctuations, both creeds were at length admitted by public authority. The reformation had at one time made confiderable progrefs in the Valais, the Valteline, and the Italian bailiwicks: but popery at laft prevailed; and at Locarno, thofe who refused to adhere to the established doctrines were compelled to quit the country; on which occafion no lefs than fixty families, among whom were feveral of confiderable note, withdrew to Zuric, and contributed effentially to promote both the commerce and manufactures of that
The affair of the Valteline, mentioned in this chapter, was an event in the hiftory of Europe on which much depended. It is not to be thoroughly underflood without an intimate acquaintance with the ftate of the court of France during that period; many of the proceedings in which are only to be comprehended by connecting them with the bigotry of the queen mother, with the weak counfels which prevailed in the early part of the reign of Lewis XIII. and with the employment furnished to the great ftatefman Richelieu, by hoftile courtiers, and the ever-reftlefs proteftants.
In the fucceeding pages, we have an account of the horrible maffacre · of the Valteline; from which it appears that the disciples of modern French philofophy have not greatly furpated in exceffes the difciples of a better canfe, though the ftability of the caufe, fupported by the formier, is an event hitherto unparal leled in hiftory.
Spealing of the peace of Weftphalia, the author afcribes to the Helvetic States an active interference, in order to obtain an acknowledgement of their independence. Other hiftorians fay that thefe states did not move in the bufinefs, till they were excited by the Swedes and French, who infifted
that the empire should make that conceflion.
On the occafion of Lewis XIV. feizing Franche Compté, the Helvetic Defenfional, or the military code for the defence of the country, was devifed and fettled; and about the fame time the Formula Confenfus, or the Helvetic proteftant confeffion of faith, was established.
Lord Clarendon fays, that a mandate of Cromwell put an end to the perfecution of the proteftants in Piedmont: but Mr. Planta reduces this fplendid interference to the common act of lending money to the fufferers. If the noble hiftorian mil-fiated the fact, which, to favour Cromwell, he was not likely to do, the error fhould have been proved; if he was founded in what he alierted, the prefent author (perhaps, without intending it) has been unjuft not only to the memory of Cromwell, but to the honour of the English name.
Chap. VIII. gives a ftatistic view of the fingular country to which this work relates. The author divides its governments into three claffes; the ariftocratic, the ariftodemocratic, and the democratic. In the first clafs, whereof that of Berne ftands foremost.
Chap. IX. gives the modern hiftory of Geneva, with all the intereft and fidelity which belong to this author. Fatio, though little known to history, appears to have been a very ftriking character; and from the account here given, he feems only to have wanted a wider
theatre, to have descended to fr• ture ages as the most intrepid of patriot martyrs. The annals of Nero or Domitian prefent nothing more foul, than the mockery of juftice carried on by a republican magiftracy, in confequence of which this brave man fuffered death.
The fubject of Chap. X. and laft, is the late overthrow of the Helvetic confederacy by the French. This tranfaction is too recent for hiftory. The feelings of the mo ment will not allow the writer to aflign to each cause its due fare of influence, nor to view each event in its true light. Indignation on the one hand, and commiferation on the other, are too busy in the bofom, to fuffer hiflory to affume her claim and difpaffionate character; and it is impoffible to prevent the pen from running into endlets invective on one fide, and pathetic declamation on the other. Inftead of arraigning the prefent writer for his want of impartiality, we wonder that he has not failed more in that quality.
We must now difmifs this work; offering our fincere congratulations to the author, on the fervice which he has rendered to letters-on the obligations under which he has laid his native and adopted countriesand on the memorial of his induftry, general information, found judge ment, and impartiality, which he has thus erected, and which will fo honourably transmit his name to future times.
For continuing, until the expiration of forty days after the commencement of the first feffion of parliament that fhall be begun and holden after 1ft September, 1801, feveral laws relating to the prohibiting the exportation, and permitting the importation, of corn and other articles of provifion, without payment of duty; to the allowing the ufe of fugar in the brewing of beer; to the reducing the duties upon fpirits diftilled from melaffes and fugar; and to the prohibiting the making of low wines or fpirits from wheat, and certain other articles, in that part of Great Britain called Scotland.
For fhortening, until 25th March, 1801, the time of keeping in freep, for malting, barley damaged by rain in the late harvest.
For continuing and granting to VOL. XLII.
eight hundred and one; and for ap propriating the fupplies granted in this feffion of parliament...
Før taking an account of the population of Great Britain, and of the increase or diminution thereof.
To prevent, until 6th November, 1801, and from thence to the end of fix weeks from the commencement of the then next feffion of parliament, the manufacturing of any fine flour from wheat, or other grain, and the making of any bread folely from the fine flour of wheat; and to repeal an act, pafled in the thirty-fixth year of the reign of his prefent majefty, for permitting bakers to make and fell certain forts of bread, and to make more effec tual provifion for the fame."
To prohibit, until 1ft October, 1801, and from thence to the end of fix weeks next after the commencement of the then next feffion of parliament, any perfon or perfons from felling any bread, which fhall not have been baked twentyfour hours.
To permit, until 1ft October, 1801, the importation of Swedish herrings into Great Britain.
To remove doubts arifing upon the conftruction of an act of this feffion of parliament, intituled, "An act for granting bounties on the importation of wheat, barley, rye, oats, peafe, beans, and Indian corn, and of barley, rye, oat, and Indian meal, and wheaten flour, and rice."
To revive and continue, until the expiration of fix weeks after the commencement of the next feffion of parliament, and amend fo much of an act of the laft feffion of parlia ment, as relates to the reducing and better collecting the duties payable on the importation of starch; and to continue, for the fame time, feve