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Statement showing the imports and exports at the island of Fayal during the
quarter ended June 30, 1863.
Nature of imports.
Value in reis.
39, 307, 000
Great Britain..... Coal, goods, salt, sugar, tea, iron, and
Terceira, Gracioza, liquors, spices, furniture, hides, grain,
vinegar, coal oil, salt beef, pork, &c. Brazil
Sugar, coffee, and sundries.
5, 852, 800
59, 159, 800
Nature of exports.
Value in reis.
22, 815, 200
Lisbon, St. Michael's, Butter, old metal, hides, wine, coffee,
Terceira, Gracioza, straw hats, glass, tobacco, sugar, and
14, 764, 700
37, 579, 900
Sır. PAUL DE LOANDO—John S. BRADBERRY, Consul.
AUGUST 22, 1863. The commercial currency of this coast differs materially from the legal-tender money of Portugal as known in the United States; it is called millreis, worth about 66% cents. The legal-tender is called millreis fran. cos ; 920 reis to one dollar, making a millreis of this money worth about $1 085.
Besides St. Paul de Loando, there are trading stations at Benguela, Misamidos, Congo, Ambrizetta, Ambrize, Londona, Hutela, and several others of less note. The American trade to and from this coast is larger in amount than that of
any other foreign nation, and competition would doubtless increase it.
Price current of articles of export at St. Paul de Loando on August 22, 1863.
in millries, at 663 cents, in American dollars.
Exchange on New York, 15 per cent. discount.
The annual exports to the United States from the south coast of the articles enumerated amount to about $500,000.
ST. MICHAEL, (AZORES)—THOMAS HICKLIN, Commercial Agent.
Statement of export of oranges from St. Michael in the seasons of 1856 to 1861, large and small crops alternating.
Seasons. Boxes averaging Increase.
800 oranges each. Large crop of....
1855–56 123, 327
1857-58 179, 922 56, 595 Do...
1859-'60 262, 086* 82, 164 Small
1856-'57 160, 079
139, 858) Do...
1860-'61 211, 554 71, 696
Increase in six years, boxes....
250, 234 Annual average, 41,705, or about 60 cargoes of 700 boxes.
The crop of 1861-'62, 198,300; crop of 1862–63, 161,315. This diminution was occasioned by the unusual constancy of westerly winds from January to May, which blew down the fruit and blighted the flowers, which commence to bud in January—the trees being full of flowers and fruit at same time. The last winter was 80 mild that not one gale of note occurred, and the blossoms were so abundant that it is expected that the export in the season of 1863–64 will exceed 320,000 boxes, or 356,000,000 of oranges, for about 457 cargoes,
In 364 British vessels, all to that country.
equal to 1,280,000 Sicily sized boxes, besides probably 80,000,000 of oranges blown down by the elements. No country exists that produces and exports so much. The cultivation is rife. Such a redundancy will reduce the price to a fraction, and shows the impotency of ad valorem duties in general, as also its injustice, as the same article has not the same value in every country; the higher the cost, so is more duty to pay. I notice the excess of oranges imported into Great Britain; that the markets there are often overstocked, resulting in heavy losses. The shippers, including eight companies, must resort to other markets, consequently much must be sent to the United States in future. The duty in England is only about one penny per box. The export commences early in November and continues to the end of April. Ice and snow are sometimes seen on the tops of the mountains. Fahrenheit's thermometer was not lower last winter than 52° in February, and 79° in August, the medial for the year in the shade being 6630 in the city, the population of which is about 20,000, and of the whole island 106,546.
The amount of ex was 493,291.91 francs, of which 278,344.05 were to Great Britain ; and the imports, 722,695.26 francs, including 418,971.26 francs from Great Britain, which shows that she engrosses the chief trade. Of grain, say wheat, maize, and beans, some years 250,000 to 300,000 bushels are ex. ported, besides feeding the inhabitants, cattle, poultry, &c. This in an island not more than 40 by 8 miles in extent.
MACAO-W.P. JONES, Consul.
June 30, 1863. The insurance companies, which have taken advantage of our unfortunate increase of marine disasters to American vessels to advance insurance on goods in American bottoms, have added grievously to the embarrassments of our carrying trade. As a consequence, our vessels are fast going under other flags.
Americans cannot fail to desire the prosperity of Macao. Since the time when it bestowed the first welcome our flag had ever received in these waters, (vide letter of Mr. Samuel Shaw to Mr. Secretary Jay, dated May 19, 1785,) down to the present time, Macao has not failed, I believe, to treat that flag with all honor, and those who have been privileged to claim its protection, with marked courtesy and good will.
DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS.
ROTTERDAM-GEORGE E. Wiss, Consul.
MARCH, 13, 1863. I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of circular 29, of the Department of State, Washington, November 20, 1862, and in reply to section 9 of this document, "requesting the consular officers to ascertain and report if, under the laws of the countries in which they reside, they are authorized to administer oaths,” I beg to state that according to existing treaties between the United States and this kingdom American consuls are authorized to administer oaths.
In the treaty dated January 19, 1839, is provided by section 3: “It is further agreed between the contracting parties that the consuls and vice-consuls of the United States, and the consuls and vice-consuls of the Netherlands in the ports of the said States, shall continue to enjoy all privileges, protection, and assistance as may be usual and necessary for the duly exercise of their functions in respect also of the deserters from the vessels whether public or private of the countries.”
In consequence of this, American consuls enjoy the same liberty and privilege here as the Dutch consuls in the United States who are authorized to administer oaths. Besides, the said authority is general to all consuls of other powers at this place.
Although this seems to be satisfactorily answering your question, I would not, while considering the beginning phrases of section 7, leave this matter without rendering it perfectly perspicuous in reference to the spirit of our laws. Thus it seems to me you are under the impression that in all cases where consuls have authority to administer oaths, such oaths made to invoices would have “ legal force,” (while saying in that section 7, " in those countries where an oath to an invoice; to be of legal force.”)
In the full sense of the word, they have not everywhere ; according, at least, to the laws of Holland, they have not. For, would you raise the question whether persons having made a false oath to an invoice, could be prosecuted according to the laws of Holland, I have to state, on the authority of learned men of the law, that it would not make any difference whether such an oath be made before a consul or before a Dutch magistrate, but that in neither instance could a person, according to the Dutch laws,
be punished for falsely swearing to an invoice of his own.
The law bere punishes those who bear false witness (valsch getaigenis) in criminal cases (straf zaken,) in lawsuits (civile zaken,) &c.; but the supreme court of the Netherlands has decided, in several instances, that witness (getaigenis) is a testimony given, not in one's own case, but in that of another, and that therefore a false oath inade to a certificate of origin by the person
who himself is interested in the affair, is not a witness (getaigenis) according to the spirit of the law, and, in consequence, not punishable.
Now, is a "certificate of origin" a docuinent serving to prove that goods imported from the Netherlands into the Dutch colonies are produced or manufactured, in order to save the higher duties levied on products of other countries, and in this regard of a similar use and of the same character as the certificates to invoices prescribed by our government?
Therefore, if the supreme court of the Netherlands does not attribute to an oath made to a certificate of origin, concerning the revenue of their own country, as much legal force as to enable their government to prosecute false swearing, we cannot by any means expect that they would give a decision different from the above in case of a false oath being sworn to an invoice, either before a consul or before a Dutch magistrate, concerning the revenue of the United States.
Views of law like these are not extraordinary ones in Europe; as I have known that, in many states of Germany, it is a steady principle of law that no person shall be allowed to swear for his own cause and behalf, except in serious criminal cases.
Thus, our government cannot but take those certificates to invoices as solemn private declarations, sworn to on our request by the respective firms, (except those sworn to by other persons, per procuration, because they are really bearing “witness,”) and issue stronger measures to take on the entrance of foreign merchandise in our ports.
ds to measures of that kind, I shall have the honor to give you, in my next despatch, all that I shall be able to learn from the administrative rules usual at the frontiers of this country.
October 10, 1863. I have the honor to transmit herewith my annual report of the commerce of this port, with a tabular statement, in United States currency, of American merchandise imported, together with a statement of exports to the United States, with some general abservations.
The remarkable feature in commercial affairs, during the past year, is the influence our civil war has exercised over the commerce of this port, as over that of the whole world.
If we consider that this influence was not felt abroad in all its force, until the second year of the war, it is right to presume that the coming peace, with its blessings, will not restore the commercial equilibrium which the war disturbed, and quiet the exaggerated fears and hopes of our trading population until a second year after its conclusion.
Although the influence of our war was more immediately felt in the cotton manufacturing districts, it did not fail to affect all commercial relations of this country with the United States, especially the produce market.
The diminution in the importation of Carolina cotton, Virginia and Kentucky tobacco, was followed by a diminished export to the United States of our goods, compared with that of other years. This was especially the case with coffee, gin, nutmegs, madder, and herrings.
The export of gin from this port to the United States was insignificant, owing to the high duties. Madder and garancine were exported to the United States only in small quantities, partly from the reduced demand, and partly from the low price asked by French dealers in this article.
The importations of this new article of American commerce into this country have been very small, compared with those of other countries. This has arisen partly from the Dutch unwillingness to accept of an article of commerce unwonted to them, and partly from fear of danger from using it in lamps. I shall make it my business to have the community informed, through the press, of the difference between raw and refined petroleum, so as to increase the importation of this article, so important in our international trade.
As to the money market, I have to state that United States bonds are not in demand here. Our national credit, in spite of the great debt we have had to incur, has proved to be very substantial in Europe, as can easily be shown by a single instance. Even before the battle of Gettysburg our paper sold here at 68 a 70, while the Austrian national loans, at the commencement of the Italian war sunk to 30 a 34; a difference in comparison of the two powers, under similar circumstances, quite favorable to our national credit abroad. Annual report of merchandise exported from Rotterdam to the United States
for the year ended September 30, 1863.
FOR THE QUARTER ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1862.
$943 00 2, 252 36 1,835 36 3,560 96
168 00 2, 496 04 13, 254 46 23, 570 00