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dom--from Botzen to Inrsbruck, and from Padua to the river Po, to connect with the line to Ferrara and Bologna. No other public enterprises have been undertaken since my last report, and no progress has been made in the work on a new canal from the harbor mouth at Malamocco direct to the basin of St.Mark, at Venice.
STATES OF THE ZOLLVEREIN.
STETTIN-CHARLES J. SUNDELL, Consul.
May 15, 1863. With the appearance of the report of the convention of merchants here, which has just been completed, I am now being enabled to transmit a short synopsis of the trade and shipping of this district during the year 1862; and by referring to my report of the year previous, it will be found that what I then stated concerning the commercial progress of the Prussian Baltic ports bas been well sustained by the general business of the last year, especially as regards Stettin and Dantzic.
Stettin, as the chief place, has consistently been doing the largest total business, and its imports (mostly transit, it is true,) during the year, amounted to 45,015,230 thalers, while in the same period its exports have reached the sum of 28,342,814 thalers, or only a trifle below the figure of 1861, and which year was by far the most favorable in the whole commercial history of the place.
With the redress of some drawbacks still existing, such as the irregularity of the water-course of the “Oder," the hemming in effects of the fortifications around the city, the extraordinarily large dues for vessels entering and clearing, with some others of minor importance, it is but just to presume that Stettin will, in the course of an immediate future, enlarge the extent of its business so as to become one of the leading places in this region.
Its merchants mostly young, enterprising, and considerate; its favorable location for transits of foreign imports, as well as produce exports; with mechanic shops, mills, ship-yards, and manufactories steadily gaining reputation; with superior facilities of communication to all parts of the interior and Europe at large; all this, with the continuance of peace at home and abroad, seems to guarantee to the place unabated progress and expansion.
The mighty influence all over the commercial world of the insurrection in the United States has also been felt here, and the merchants in their reports feel themselves, and as I think on sufficient grounds, called upon to say in relation thereto, “along with the lasting hindrances to our trade, the effects of the North American civil war made themselves especially discernible.
"This war and its consequences stand before the whole civilized world as an interposing fate, which no nation, however insignificant its direct relations to the field of the contest may be, is enabled entirely to avoid ; and never before did the intimate relations existing between all the countries connected through the commerce at large so strikingly appear.
“Our place has at no time been in any considerable direct connexion with the United States, but, nevertheless, have the most different branches of our trade, partly direct and partly indirect, been suffering from the consequences of this fearful struggle. From the unexpected abundance of breadstuffs which the northwest of the United States was compelled to throw exclusively upon the English market, our grain trade found itself thwarted in its most reliable calculations; and again, from the want of cotton, which crippled the operations
of our own manufactories and those of Austria, the forwarding bnsiness was deprived of a large portion of its activity, and many of the merchandise trading branches suffered no less."
During the year the principal exports of Stettin were wheat, 108,905 “wispels,” equal to 4,356,200 bushels; barley, 54,784 "wispels,” equal to 2,191,360 bushels; rye, 18,023 "wispels,” equal to 720,920 bushels; oats, 7,663“ wispels," equal to 306 520 bushels; peas, 6,215 “wispels,” equal to 208,600 bushels ; clover seed, 33,474 centners; mill products, such as flour, meal, grits, &c., 186,056 centners; alcohol and spirits, 53,578 centners; zinc, 311,294 centners ; linseed and other oils, 66,656 centners; green fruits, 10,906 centners; timber and lumber for house and ship building, 558,283 pieces; ties and sleepers for railroads, 34,314; masts and spars, 190.
The manufacturing establishments, although along with the mercantile business suffering from the general hindrance to trade, showed a very good year's work. The Vulcan machine and iron works, for instance, consumed 33,127 centners of cast iron, 16,615 centners common and 3,540 centners fine bar iron, 13,112 centners iron plates, and 3,225 centners of steel, copper, lead, &c., the building of engines for railroads being the largest part of its business for the year.
The chemical works produced, on an average, more than the year previous, and the two cement mills turned out some 127,000 barrels of Portland cement together—an increase of more than twenty-five per cent. on the last year. This branch of manufacture has been largely extended here of late, as the article produced is fully equal to if not better than the best English, and a new mill for the same purpose is now being erected in the immediate vicinity of the city by a wellknown firm here, (G. A. Toepffer & Co.) A new branch of manufacture has also lately been called into existence by the same enterprising firm, namely, that of cocoa matting, and which is already competing successfully with the British, and some 2,000 centners of raw material were consumed here during last year. Manufacturing of paper boxes, &c., is also on a steady increase, America receiving the largest of those made here. The principal imports (mostly transit) of Stettin during the year were
Centners. Cotton, raw
84, 407 Cotton, twist.
64, 367 There being in both those articles a falling off by more than sixty per cent. from the year before.
161, 060 Rice ..
90, 481 Wine.
67, 611 Tar, pitch, and asphalt.
51, 228 Lard, (mostly American, from Hamburg and Bremen).
30, 190 Brimstone
85, 000 Soda....
63, 750 Tallow and stearine...
91, 115 Potash.
55, 480 Linseed
58, 827 Guano
38, 753 Copper
29, 162 Cast iron..
436, 665 Bar and fashioned iron.
75, 351 Dye-wood....
111, 438 Coal .....
2, 623, 144 Train or blubber oil....
Of all imports none made a larger leap upwards than that of pickled herrings, of which here arrived
Barrels. From Scotland..
176, 743 From Norway..
65, 615 Or, together...
.. 242, 358 Besides some 5,000 barrels from the Baltic coast. Of this enormous quantity nearly all was consumed within this kingdom and the neighboring German states, the abundant yield of potatoes causing the poorer classes to subsist more exclusively than usual on those two articles of food, as with the large influx the price of herring also ruled considerably lower than at any time before. So extraordinary was the last year's crop of potatoes in this province that the best kinds thereof are now sold here at seven silbergroschen, or about seventeen cents per bushel, and this fact has, as a matter of course, given a great stimulus to the manufacturing of alcoholic spirits, and distillers here now confidently expect to be enabled to compete successfully with the American article in the Mediterranean ports.
The total shipping of Stettin was, during 1862, somewhat less than the previous year, and there arrived altogether 1,993 vessels of all classes, having a burden of 170.571 "lasts," while in the same time the clearances were for 2,523 vessels.
The revenue collected at the custom-house office at this point amounted during the year to 1,407,86948 thalers for incoming, and 1,35118 thalers for outgoing goods and merchandise, being together 1,409,2213; thalers, or 48,505;: over the amount of 1861.
The shipping of Swinemünd, taken altogether, was in excess of the year previous, and there entered, including those coming to Stettin, 3,219 vessels, of which 271 in ballast and three cleared; including those from Stettin, 3,508, among which 537 in ballast. Out of the above number eighty-eight vessels came to Swinernünd for relief or in distress, and seven were ships-of-war, namely, six Prussian and one Russian. The cargoes for Swinemünd were almost exclusively coal.
Next to Stettin in importance as a Prussian trading and shipping place is Dantzic, and its exports during 1862, consisting chiefly of grain, timber, and lumber, exceeded even that of Stettin, with about 40,000 thalers in value; at the same time the imports, transits, and others did only amount to about twelve per cent. of the sum reached in Stettin.
Thalers. The exports of cereals and seeds amounted in value to
22,051, 250 Of timber and lumber
5, 888, 000 Sundry articles .
443, 646 The principal imports wereCoffee, to the value of
622, 882 Rice.
118, 998 Wine.
321, 916 Soda and potash
204, 609 Hides, (raw)...
143, 400 Cast iron ..
181, 293 Bar iron and rails
718, 400 Pickled herring.
870,000 The maritime trade of Dantzic also shows a very considerable increase, and the vessels entered during 1862 numbered 3,157, of which 2,030 came in ballast and freight-seeking. Clearances there were, altogether, 3,200, out of which only twenty-four left in ballast, proving, by comparison, Dantzic a port where freights are readily obtained. The United States consular agent at this port reports no arrivals or departures of American vessels there during last year, and of official fees received in the same period, as per statement which here follows.
Like last year, unable to obtain any statement from the United States consular agent at Koenigsberg regarding the trade and shipping of that port during the year gone by, I only know what the newspapers learn in regard thereto, and find the trade of that place to have been less prosperous than in 1861, with the exception, perhaps, of the export of cereals and seeds, which was very considerable, and amounted in all to a quantity equal to 9,645,600 bushels.
The number of vessels entered at this port and Pillau, the outport of Koeningsberg, was 1,982, of which 592 were in ballast; and there cleared at the two places 1,949 vessels, among which were 80 in ballast.
Although reminded thereof in due time, no report has come to hand from the said consular agent as to American vessels arrived and departed, or of fees received at his agency during the last year.
The commercial report from Memel complains bitterly over the indifference with which the well-founded requests for railway and canal communication to that fine harbor and trading location are treated by those in power, and says in regard to the demanded railroad to the interior: “It appears to us that in the whole state no railroad is more necessary and just than ours, as the question is not so much about procuring new means of communication as the maintenance of a good harbor and a fine piece of German soil; and our demand is the more just as we do not wish anything further than to be placed on equal footing with neighboring ports.”
It is found that, with a far better location on the Baltic than Koenigsberg, and nearer to the grain-growing provinces of Russia, the export of cereals from Memel during 1862 was, for want of inland communication, only one-ninth part of that of Koenigsberg, the decline in the export being about two-thirds from that of 1860 and one-third from that of 1861; the whole quantity shipped during last year amounting to 9,120 " lasts,” equal to 1,094,400 bushels, and the entire export of all articles from Memel for the year ended December 31, 1862, amounted in value to 6,116,640 thalers, and the imports for the same period to 1,508,356 thalers.
The total shipping of Memel for the year comprised 876 vessels entered, out of which 410 were in ballast, and 886 vessels cleared, among which were 10 in ballast; and out of the whole number cleared, more than half, or 499, were for Great Britain.
The United States consular agent at that port reports of no American vessels arrived or departed, nor any fees received at his agency, during 1862.
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE-W. W. VESEY, Consul.
FEBRUARY 21, 1863. I have the honor to acknowledge the reception of the circular of the department No. 30, and dated the 24th of December last, directing me to forward to the department information as to the means adopted in the country of my official residence for the protection of the revenue and the collection of duties in the passage of goods across the national frontier. I beg to refer to the accompanying extract of the general instructions of this government to its officers upon the subject. The sheet marked A shows the formalities and regulations when foreign goods are imported and forwarded in transitu, or stored in public warehouses with the privilege of entry for home consumption or for re-exportation. The system is, I am informed by those who are in business, very com. plete, and a great prevention against frauds on the revenue. The national frontier is the custom-house boundary; localities are designated on the line as stations through which goods are allowed to be brought into the country. Where canals or rivers form the boundary, the legal landing places are designated by the government. The custom-house boundary is protected by a body of men, who are uniformed and armed ; and all other government functionaries are enjoined to render assistance in case of need, to prevent frauds or smuggling. Goods passing the frontier must travel the roads prescribed by the government, and by daylight, from sunrise to sunset. The carrier, boatman, or person in charge of the goods, is obliged to report himself, on arriving in the country, at the nearest custom-house establishment, whether the goods are liable to duty or exempted; he must make a declaration of all goods, wares, merchandise, or provisions under his charge. The form for this declaration is herewith transmitted, and marked B, with the general instructions for its use indorsed upon it. It is at the option of the party importing goods to enter them for home consumption and pay the duty at the frontier, or have them taken to a custom-house of the interior more convenient to the owner; it is also optional to have the goods examined and verified, and the duty ascertained, either at the frontier or at any locality of the interior, where the amount may be paid. But in either case the goods are always in possession of the customhouse authorities in the transit from one place to another, and are kept under lock and key; or where such mode is impracticable, one or more leaden seals (plombage) are attached to each package, a given time, according to distance, is allowed,
and the carrier and the owner of the goods are jointly and severally held responsible for the delivery at the place of destination, and presentation at the custom-house. In order to insure the performance of these obligations, security must be deposited for the approximate amount of the duty, or a bond entered into by a third party; the bondsman and the owners of the goods are held jointly and severally responsible for the payment. Under the same regulations goods may be stowed at the depots of the frontier, or removed to other custom-houses within the limits of the German Confederation, with privilege of being entered for home consumption or re-exportation. The bondsman in this, as in all other cases, must be a third party. The return of the securities de posited, or release from the bond, is granted upon a certificate being presented that the obligations have been complied with. All goods sent in transit, either to another custom house or to the frontier for re-exportation, must be accompanied with a way-bill granted by the custom-house, a copy of which, marked O and D, is herewith transmitted. The first named (C) shows that the goods have been examined, and the amount of duty ascertained at the frontier, but allowed to be removed to another custom-house for the payment of the duty. Form D is used for goods that are removed under bond, either for storage in a public warehouse or for transhipment to another country. These documents are is. sued in duplicate, one given to the owner and the other to the carrier, and they are required to sign an obligation faithfully to comply with the terms and regulations set forth therein. When the goods are presented, and over the frontier, the way-bill is indorsed, the bondsman released, or the amount de posited refunded. The manner in which the record of way-bills is kept, and the receipts granted for the same, is exhibited in the copies of four forms, marked from E to H, herewith transmitted. No printed forms can be obtained at the custom-house here. To guard against frauds, the forms are counted over to each clerk of a department, who is held responsible for the number received. Goods must not exceed a reasonable time in reaching their destination; and in no case are way-bills granted for a longer period than four months. No fees are exacted for the performance of any duties of public functionaries. The cost for leaden seals, roping, labor-hire, &c., is charged by the customhouse, but officers and clerks receive no fee or gratuity. Goods may be stowed in the public warehouses for any time not exceeding two years. The charge for storage differs at different places, according to locality; but in no case is the