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charge more than three cents (American) per month for one hundred weight (equal to 104 pounds American) of liquids per month, and two cents for all other kinds of goods. The
goods can never be removed until all claims of the government are satisfied. This being an inland town, the forementioned regulations and formalities apply to goods brought by common carrier or by boats. The custom-house regulations in force were framed in 1838, but their main features apply to the modern transit by railroad ; the companies are considered common carriers, and are held responsible as such; they are therefore exceedingly cautious in receiving goods to see that the custom-house regulations are strictly complied with. Declarations are made out in two languages, German and French. Statement showing the exports from Aix-la-Chapelle for the several quarters of
the year 1862.
Cologne-GEORGE Holscher, Consular Agent.
DECEMBER 31, 1862. Statement showing the value of the exports from Cologne to the United States
First Second Third Fourth quarter. quarter. quarter. quarter.
Eau de Cologne....
Thalers. Thalers. Thalers. Thalers.
BARMEN-J. H. Alleers, Consular Agent. Comparative statement showing the description and value of the exports to the
United States from the port of Barmen during the several quarters of the year ended December 31, 1862.
Crefeld-P. VONWINKLEMAN, Consular Agent. Comparative statement showing the description and value of the exports to the
United States from the port of Crefeld during the several quarters of the year ended December 31, 1862.
MUNICH-FRANKLIN WEBSTER, Consul.
NOVEMBER 2, 1863. I have the honor of presenting herewith a commercial and statistical report for this consulate for the year ended September 30, 1863.
The kingdom of Bavaria, the third in size of the German confederacy, contains 29,261 square miles, of which 2,292 square miles lie at a distance of some fifty miles from the main body of the kingdom, on the west bank of the Rhine, and constitute what is called the Pfalz, or Rhenish Bavaria. Her population, according to the census of 1861, amounts to 4,689,837 souls, of whom 3,176,333 are Catholics, 56,033 Jews, and the remainder Protestant.
The Pfalz hag 608,069 inhabitants, of whom 316,806 are Protestant, and 247,851 Catholic. Bavaria, being situated in the very heart of the continent of Europe, is almost destitute of navigable waters, and is therefore dependent for commercial facilities mainly upon railroads. With these she is now well supplied, her capital (Munich) being connected by rail north, via Nuėmberg, with Bremen, Hamburg, and Berlin ; northeast, via Regensberg, (often miscalled, in French and English, Ratisbon) with Prague and Dresden; cast with Vienna; south with innsbruck ; southwest with Lake Constance, at Lindau; west with Havre, via Stuttgart and Paris; and northwest, via Aschaffenburg, Frankforton-the Main, and Cologne, with Ostend, Brussels, and the Hague.
The principal ports of exit for the trade of Bavaria with America are Bremen, Hamburg, and Havre. Of the 52 invoices veritied at the consulate since the 1st of April last, 25 were shipped at Bremen, 19 at Hamburg, and 6 at Havre. The other 2 were shipped, one at Amsterdam and the other at Liverpool.
Goods can be sent by rail as express (eil-gut) which go with the mail trains, or as first and second class freight (fracht-gut.) Èxpress goods for Bremen or Hamburg require about five days for the transit from Munich, to Havre nine. Freight goods require about double that time. The freight upon goods bound to Hamburg or Bremen is reckoned in Prussian money (thalers at 30 silbergroschen each) at so much the zoll-centner (tariff union hundred weight;) on those to Havre in French money, (francs at 100 centimes each) at so much the 100 kilogrammes. The subjoined table gives these rates with their equivalents in Bavarian money.
404 egts Breinen Florins, 5-164 xr 2 f., 464 xr.
2 f., 124 xr.
2 f., 14 xr.. Hayre...
38 francs, 60 centimes. 15 frs., 8 centimes 12 fry., 49 centimes. Per 100 kilogrammes, or
3f., 31 xr....
NOTE.—1 zoll-centner=50 kilogrammes=110.231 pounds avoirdupois. Sgr=silbergroschen f. = gulden of Bavaria=60 kreutsers each marked xr, f.=$0 40 cents.
The German letter Z (tset) has no corresponding English letter. It differs from the English letter Z (which is commonly substituted for it more as a matter of custom or convenience than propriety, and is hence often erroneously confounded with it) in sorm, name, and power. Its true English equivalent is the two letters ts, which ought rightfully to be substituted for it in the transfer of all such words as zoll (tsoll,) pfalz (pfalts, &c.,) into English print.
All manufactured goods are allowed to leave Bavaria (and Germany) free; but it being the policy of the government to encourage the manufacture of all raio materials at home, a specific export duty is imposed upon most of them ; as, for instance, upon raw hides f. 2.55 xr. per cwt.; furriers' skins f. 1-10 xr. per cwt. ; cattle hair 17+ xr. per cwt. ; rags and all paper materials f. 5.15 xr. per cwt. ; wool 35 xr. per cwt.
AN duties, both upon exports and imports, are specific.
The entire number of invoices verified at this consulate during the year ended September 30, 1863, is ninety-five, amounting in value to f. 138,613.54 xr. These in detail were as follows, viz:
In July last was also exported the door for the capital at Washington, designed by Mr. Randolph Rogers at Rome, and executed in bronze at the foundry here, the value of which, so far as it is of Bavarian origin, is fixed by the director of the foundry at f. 50,000.
The miscellaneous exports consist of artificial flowers, artist's colors in oil, books, chiccory, clocks, compass saws, chenillien, fancy goods, family goods, housekeeping goods, linen goods, matches, match-boxes, paints, photographs, pipes, porcelain ware, portemonies, rifles, soaps, in foil, paper, trees, and plants.
The contents of all the said invoic.'s except the chiccory, chenillien, matches, match-boxes, meerschaum pipes, and portemonies, were produced in Bavaria.
The leather, all from one manufactory in Munich, is called “ calf kid,” it being calfskin so dressed and colored as to resemble fine kid leather. The wool
, amounting to 22,6534 pounds, was all exported in the fourth quarter of 1862. Violins and other stringed intruments are largely manufactured in the Bavarian Alp, on the Tyrolian frontier. Elegant Bohemian glass (so called) is manufactured in the mountain district east of Regensburg. The Catholic goods consist of altar furniture, banners, images of wood or composition, paintings, and vestments. It is a fact worthy of remark, that eleven of the twelve invoices of paintings verified during the year were presented at the consulate during the month of August and September last. During these months exchange, which for so long a period bad remained at so excessively bigh rates, experienced, as is well known, a very great reduction; showing how dependent is the sale of works of art, a most important branch of trade in Munich, upon easy exchanges with the country to which they are destined.
As a centre of art Munich is celebrated. Her “academy,” or school of art, is the resort of diany students from abroad, including a number from America. Here a director, (Von Kaulbach) twelve professors, and two teachers, give instruction and lectures (in German of course) in drawing, perspective anatomy, painting, composition, sculpture, architecture, engraving, and art-history. Its terms commence the middle of October, and the Monday following the Easter holidays. It was formerly free, but now each student pays an entrance fee of f. 8 and a fee of f. 5 for each term. - The production and original cale of salt in Bavaria is a monopoly of the government. Bavaria possesses seven salines, (mines and springu,) and eight works, viz: 4 in Oberbagern, (the Munich district,) they being a mine and