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donia, Albania, and Thrace as far east as the Tchatalja line of forts, the demolition of the Tchatalja forts, and the payment of a war indemnity. Further, Constantinople was to be put under international control, Salonica made a free port, and the Dardanelles opened to the commerce of all nations. These demands were rejected by Turkey, but negotiations for an armistice between the plenipotentiaries of Turkey and the Allies are still in progress, with rumors of a successful outcome. Bulgaria is said to have modified her original demands.

The London Times, commenting on the situation, says:

The Turks will do well not to be misled by the resistance they are able to offer at the Tchatalja lines. All the valor they can now summon to their aid can never repair in the slightest degree the territorial losses they have sustained.

Austria's opposition to anything looking toward the formation of a new Slavic nation in the southeast of Europe is easily comprehended. Russian endorsement can only be explained on the grounds that Russia prefers to have Slavic rather than Teutonic influence in the lands of which the Turks have been despoiled. Moreover, the Tsar without doubt has his dreams of a close alliance with the Turk's successor, whereby the influence of Slavic institutions will be made predominant in eastern Europe at least.

Meanwhile, a powerful peace advocate has made its appearance within the Turkish army. Army typhus and Asiatic cholera are likely to prove as effectual arguments for peace as the rifles of the Allies. The London Daily News, commenting on the cholera horrors, says that, "Of all the hundreds and thousands of men dragged here from Asia, scarcely one per thousand will return to their families, and their friends will never learn their fate."

In order to prevent, if possible, the fulfillment of the Bulgarian boasts that the Allies would celebrate their entry into Constantinople by a triumphal celebration of Mass in St. Sophia, the Turkish authorities have turned their famous mosque into a pest house.

The Bulgarians have apparently been forced from their advanced position in the attack on the Tchatalja lines. Whether this was due to an actual repulse or was a vol

untary retirement from a reconnaissance does not appear in the reports.

It is a fact, however, that the modification of the original demands were not made until rumors of Bulgarian reverses had been received from Constantinople. But the Turk is defeated; and, if allowed to hold European territory at all, it will be due only to the rivalries `and jealousies of the Christian powers of Europe.

The preliminary peace conditions, acceded to by Turkey on November 30, would have seemed preposterous at the beginning of hostilities. Turkey is permitted to retain but a small fraction of her former possessions in Europe, and that only through the charitableness of her enemies. The campaign appears Napoleonic in its wellplanned execution, but whose the master mind directing its movements has thus far been carefully hidden. A general view of the situation leads to the belief that the Balkan allies have had the moral support, at least, of the nations forming the triple entente; while Turkey has been encouraged by an understanding with the triple alliance tnat the status quo would be maintained. The loudly proclaimed assertions of Austria that she would not assent to Servia securing a post on the Adriatic lends probability to this conclusion. The statement of Dr. Bethmann Holweg, the German Chancellor, evidences that Austria is backed by the full power of the triple alliance. On December 2, the German Imperial Chancellor made the following statement:

When our allies, Austria-Hungary and Italy, in maintaining their interests, are attacked,- although this is not the present prospect,- by a third party and thereby threatened in their existence, then we, faithful to our compacts, will take their part firmly and decisively.

Then we shall fight side by side with our allies for the maintenance of our position in Europe and in defense of the security and future of our own fatherland.

I am convinced that we have the whole nation behind us in such a policy.

The immediate cause of Turkey's spectacular defeat was her utter unpreparedness, coupled with the extreme inefficiency of her army organization. The old Turkish fighting spirit was entirely lacking, while her enemies. were embued with an almost fanatical desire for revenge.

NOTE AND COMMENT

Architects

THE twentieth Annual Meeting of the Society of Marine Architects and Naval Engineers was held on November 21 and 22. Colonel Robert M. Society Marine Engineers Thompson was elected President, in place and Naval of Mr. Taylor, and Mr. D. H. Cox was reelected treasurer and secretary. Captain A. P. Niblack, U.S.N., was chosen a vice president, to fill the place of the late Rear Admiral R. D. Evans; and G. W. Dickie, a vice president, in place of the late Rear Admiral G. W. Melville. Commander L. H. Chandler and Captain C. A. McAllister were elected members of the council. Naval Constructor F. L. Fernald was chosen honorary vice president, and Mr. Lewis Nixon a vice president.

The following papers were presented:

"Experiments on the Fulton and the Froude," by Professor C. H. Peabody.

"The Design and New Construction Division of the Bureau of Construction and Repair of the Navy Department," by Naval Constructor R. H. Robinson, U.S.N. "Engineering Progress in the U. S. Navy," by Captain C. W. Dyson, U.S.N.

“Marine Lighting Equipment of the Panama Canal," by Mr. James Pattison.

"Notes on Life-Saving Appliances," by Mr. W. D. Forbes. "Developments in Oil Burning," by Mr. E. H. Peabody. "The Preservation of Metals Used in Marine Construction," by Lieutenant Commander Frank Lyon, U.S.N.

"An Electrically Propelled Fireproof Passenger Steamer," by Mr. W. T. Donnelly and Mr. G. A. Orrok.

"Notes on Fuel Economy as Influenced by Ship Design," by Mr. E. H. Rigg.

"Active Type of Stabilizing Gyro," by Mr. Elmer A. Sperry. "Rudder Trials, U.S.S. Sterrett," by Assistant Naval Constructors R. T. Hanson and J. C. Hunsaker, U.S.N. "Logarithmic Speed-Power Diagram," by Mr. Thomas M. Gunn. "Tool Steel for the U. S. Navy," by Mr. Lewis Hobart Kenney. "The Sperry Gyro-Compass in Service," by Lieutenant R. E. Gillmor.

THE International Morse Code of Signaling has been adopted for use in the naval service, to replace the Myer Code. Commanders in chief and comInternational manding officers are to place the InternaMorse Code tional Morse Code in effect as soon as for Navy practicable, and not later than two months from the receipt of this order; and are to report to the Department when it is in effect.

The International Morse Code is to be applied to the following methods of signalling, in communication with the army, between vessels of the navy, and naval vessels and shore stations: Radio, wigwag, occulting light, and sound signals, Ardois and Very systems.

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Immediately following Midshipman Brown's kick-off, which was caught by Captain Devore of the West Point team, the West Pointers swept away the navy's defense until they reached the 15-yard line. Then the navy rallied and stubbornly resisted every attack, finally compelling Keyes of the army team to try for a goal from the 27-yard line. The ball swerved to one side just before it reached the uprights, and the army failed to score.

Another narrow escape for the navy was when Leonard faltered in making a punt and Hobbs broke through and blocked it. Markoe, who secured the ball on the navy's 30-yard line, raced away toward the goal, but was downed by Leonard on the yard line. Later, Leonard, from his own goal line, kicked the ball for sixty yards.

In the second period, Leonard made one of the most brilliant dashes of the game, making a gain of thirty yards; and the same player's kick to the army's 15-yard line gave the midshipmen visions of a goal.

Victory came to the midshipmen, in the last quarter, when two field goals were scored.

The line-up of the teams were as follows:

Positions.

Left end.

Left tackle.

Left guard.
Center..
Right guard..
Right-tackle.
Right end.
Quarterback..
Left halfback.
Right halfback.
Full back....
Substitutes: Overesch for Ingram, Vaughan for Howe, Redman
for Ralston, Ralston for Redman, Hoge for Merillat, Larkin
for Wynne, Milburn for Hobbs, Hobbs for Milburn, Lanphier
for Keyes.

Goals from placement: Brown_(2).
Referee: W. S. Langford, of Trinity.
Umpire: Dr. A. L. Sharpe, of Yale.
Linesman: A. H. Smith, of Pennsylvania.
Time of periods: 15 minutes each.

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Ingram

Hall

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Perry

Brown

Ralston

Gilchrist

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Army. Merillat

Wynne Weyand

Purnell

Huston

Devore

Mark

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Leonard McReavey Harrison

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Prichard

Hobbs

Benedict Keyes

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THE Atlantic Fleet completed its target practice during the period between November 1 and 12. Vessels that had missed the practice in September conducted the exercises that had been prescribed at that time, and all ships except those at the navy yards conducted forms of experimental long range firing. Experimental firing was conducted with the old torpedo boats Cushing, Ericcson, and McKee as targets.

The practice was in every way successful and satisfactory, except that in certain instances ships had little or no opportunity to prepare, because of their being delayed in navy yards later than the dates originally intended.

Atlantic Fleet Practice

During the week beginning December 2, the Arkansas will fire her guns for the Board of Inspection as a part of her acceptance trials. This firing will take place in Chesapeake Bay, and the Director of Target Practice

and representatives from the Bureau of Ordnance will be present.

REAR ADMIRAL BADGER, the future Commander-in-Chief. will probably relieve Rear Admiral Osterhaus about January 4, and expects to sail for Guantanamo about January 6. Rear Admiral Badger will hoist his flag on the Wyoming and go south in that vessel. The Wyoming will be detached, and the Commander-in-Chief will probably fly his flag on the Connecticut while the Wyoming is conducting her acceptance trials for the Board of Inspection during the spring.

Plans are now being formulated by Rear Admiral Badger for a program of exercises to be carried on while the vessels of the fleet are in Southern waters. Combined exercises with battleships, destroyers, and submarines will be conducted. The battle torpedo practices for all these three classes of ships will be held.

The usual small arms practice and landing drills will be held in Guantanamo.

Atlantic

Fleet

in South

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REPORTS from the State of Oaxaca are that the government troops have destroyed twenty-five villages in that region, in order to terrify the inhabitants into submission. Five hundred unarmed Indians have surrendered, but it is feared that the activity of the rebel troops will be increased from a desire to avenge the government action. The Mexican rebels captured the port town of Palomas November 21.

Mexico

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ing to a correspondent of the New York Herald, was closely invested by the rebels, the inhabitants depending on supplies landed from vessels.

The American Commissioners who arrived at Puerto Plata apparently accomplished but little and left for Samana Bay on November 6, on board the Wheeling.

When the commissioners first arrived at Santo Domingo they entered into an argreement with the Government to advance $900,000 from the reserve funds in New York; $500,000 of which was to be used to pay arrears of salaries, $200,000 for public works, and $200,000 for prosecuting the war. In accordance with the Dominico-American Convention, the reserve mentioned can be used only for Dominican public works.

The Prairie, with 750 marines, which was despatched to Santo Domingo in September, has been ordered home by the Navy Department.

Commissioner W. T. S. Doyle will remain in the island, and the Nashville, Petrel, and Yankton will continue to patrol the coast.

The American Commission which induced Victorio to resign the presidency has arranged for the election of a provisional government.

Desderio Arias, one of the revolutionary leaders, refuses to recognize the American intervention and continues fighting. His latest exploit was the capture of the town of Monte Cristi.

BOOK REVIEWS

THE BRITISH BATTLE FLEET"

By FRED T. JANE. Illustrated. London: S. W. Partridge & Co., Ltd.

"The British Battle Fleet" is an epigrammatic history of British naval development from the traditional account of its inception in the early Saxon era to the year 1912.

In 896 occurred the first Naval Reform, often referred to as the "birth of the British Navy," when King Alfred built ships which, according to "Asser," were "full nigh twice as long as the others, shapen neither like Frisian nor the Danish, but so it seemed to him that they would be most efficient." This is the first naval reform in British history, and followed the annihilation of King Alfred's fleet by the Danes in 884, at the battle of the Stour.

Mr. Jane thinks that the history of the early British Navy "is not that of a people born to the sea, but rather that of a people forced thereto by the circumstances and the need of self-preservation." He sees "a stange analogy" between the rise of the British sea power and the modern rise "of the sea power of that other Island Empire,” — Japan.

The success of the Norman Invasion is laid to the fact that the Saxon king Harold failed to provide "an adequate fleet,"

and "a neglected fleet entailed the destruction of the Saxon dominion." The subsequent exploits of the British sailors in their galleys, and the change from the galley to the galleon as a result of the attack of a fleet of Spanish galleons upon English commerce in the Channel in the middle of the fourteenth century, is clearly depicted.

Henry VII laid the foundation of the Modern British Navy, on the principle that the maintenance of a navy was a financial economy. A reiteration of this principle was made by Lord Charles Beresford in 1910, when he stated that "Battleships are cheaper than war."

Mr. Jane has produced an admirable epitome of the gradual expansion of England's sea power. There is no branch of its growth which has not been dealt with in a manner so concise and interesting as to instantly gain the attention of the most casual reader.

Especially worthy of note is the story of the Spanish Armada. The general impression among laymen is that this formidable array of war vessels were practically destroyed; but Mr. Jane is authority for the statement that the larger part of the Spanish fleet returned in safety to Spain, the vessels which were reported as having been destroyed being mainly auxiliaries and transports.

Among the many important points touched upon, a few are: Period of the Dutch Wars, Early French Wars, Birth of Modern Warship Ideas, The Coming of the Ironclad, Battle of the Boilers, The Dreadnought Era, Submarines, and Naval Aviation. Not least worthy of notice are the fine illustrations scattered in profusion throughout the work, giving a clear idea of the development of naval construction during the last fifteen hundred years.

"ALL THE WORLD'S AIRCRAFT "

By Fred T. Jane. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Ltd.

"All the World's Aircraft" is the new title with which Mr. Jane has rechristened his former publication, "All the World's Airships." The book is divided into three parts:

Part I. Aeroplanes and Dirigibles of the World.
Part II. The World's Aerial Engines.
Part III. Aerial Who's Who and Trade Directory.

The volume is an encyclopedia of aerial statistics, covering every type of machine produced by any nation of the world. Plans and specifications are given with such elaborate detail that the work is a sine qua non to students and experimenters in aeronautic science.

"FIGHTING SHIPS, 1912 **

By Fred T. Jane. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Ltd.

Jane's Fighting Ships has become so well known to naval men of all nations that it is now recognized as the "Naval Bible" of the world.

The 1912 edition has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date in every particular. A reader of the new edition is forced to the conclusion that the typography and presswork of the new edition is the best yet. The clearness and sharpness of the numerous halftones are remarkable,

FLEET OPERATIONS DURING 1912

(From Secretary Meyer's Report)
Atlantic Fleet

Throughout the fiscal year the Atlantic Fleet has been under the command of Rear Admiral Hugo Osterhaus, and exercises, maneuvers, and fleet training have been carried forward in a very satisfactory manner. In the summer of 1911 the fleet based at Cape Cod Bay for several months, and the following winter made the usual. visit to Guantanamo Bay. Target practice, docking periods, divisional cruising, and opportunities for granting liberty and leave to officers and men were scheduled so as to occupy the intervals between these two periods, and it is felt that the year has resulted in decided added efficiency of the fleet. Advantage has been taken of opportunities on long passages to exercise the fleet, with all auxiliaries, in strategical exercises and war games on a larger scale than ever before.

No foreign cruises were made by the fleet during the year. One squadron had the pleasure of welcoming the German vessels that called at Hampton Roads and New York in June, in return for the visit of the second division of our fleet to Kiel one year before.

In the latter part of May it became necessary to employ one squadron of the fleet in the waters of Cuba and vicinity because of the disturbed conditions existing in that Republic, but fortunately by the end of June conditions had so improved as to permit their release and return to their usual exercises.

Pacific Fleet

The Pacific Fleet, consisting of two divisions of armored cruisers, three in the first division and two in the second, was under the command of Rear Admiral Chauncey Thomas until March 7, 1912. On that date, Rear Admiral W. H. H. Southerland assumed command, the West Virginia being detached and placed in reserve, due to shortage of personnel, and the remaining. four vessels united in one division.

The early part of the fiscal year was spent by the Pacific Fleet in overhauling, docking, target practice, and the usual cruising and exercises on our own coast, but in November conditions made it appear desirable for it to base on Honolulu, and the fleet sailed from San Francisco for that place on November 21. Some three and one-half months were spent in that vicinity, visits being made to the surrounding islands, and drills and exercises carried out at sea, with Honolulu as a base.

On March 18 these vessels sailed for the naval station, Olongapo, P. I., and operated in that vicinity until the latter part of June, when a cruise to China and Japan en route home was Started.

Asiatic Fleet

The Asiatic Fleet, under the command of Rear Admiral Joseph B. Murdock, throughout the fiscal year, continued the usual operations on that station in safeguarding American interests. Particularly during the revolution in China in the winter of 1911 and 1912 very valuable services were rendered, and all available vessels, including the destroyers, were concentrated in Chinese waters at this critical period. Rear Admiral Reginald F. Nicholson succeeded Rear Admiral Murdock in July of this year. In accordance with the policy of the department that extensive repairs be made at the home yards, the New Orleans returned to the navy yard, Puget Sound, being relieved by the Cincinnati on the Asiatic station. The submarines of the Asiatic Fleet made a very successful cruise to the Southern Philippine Islands in April, 1912.

Special Operations in Central American Waters

The Navy and Marine Corps have taken a conspicuous part in Nicaragua during the revolution that started in that country on July 29, 1912, and have performed most valuable services in protecting the lives and property of American citizens and other foreigners in that country.

When the revolution broke out under General Mena, the Annapolis was performing the usual routine duties on the west coast of Central America, and proceeded promptly to Corinto. A few days later, upon the recommendation of the President of Nicaragua, conveyed through the American legation, a force of about 100 bluejackets was sent on August 4 from the Annapolis to Managua, the capital, and this force protected American citizens and acted as a legation guard during the ensuing bombardment of Managua by the revolutionists.

Meanwhile, it became advisable to send the Tacoma to Bluefields, on the east coast of Nicaragua, and this vessel remained there from August 6 to October 19, a landing force of about 50 men being ashore most of this time to insure protection of American life and property in case of disorder.

Also a force of 350 marines from the Canal Zone was brought north in the collier Justin and at once proceeded to Managua, arriving there on August 15 and reenforcing the legation guard. The effect of their arrival was excellent and was much appreciated by the Nicaraguan Government and all foreigners.

On August 10 the Denver was diverted from a projected cruise to the Mexican coast and ordered to Nicaragua, and affairs continued to grow so serious, with increasing menace to the railroad and other American properties, that on August 21 it was decided to send an

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