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present, no limit was placed on the time of replacing our various units so as to secure their substitutes and maintain the fleet by means of a permanent number of elements. Germany was probably first to fix definitely the age for the retirement of her ships. For battleships, this age was first fixed at twenty-five years; then, by the amendment of April 6, 1908, lowered to twenty. This is a rational rule, for the military value of a ship depends upon several considerations: first, its age; then, its obsolete type, brought about by constant improvements.
Our program fixes that limit at twenty years for battleships and scouts, at seventeen years for destroyers and submarines. The replacing unit is to be laid down in time for its going into commission at the moment the ship to be replaced has reached the age limit.
The entire construction activity is first to be concentrated on battle-ships, in order rapidly to remedy the enormous deficiency in that class, and fill the void caused by the obsolete units.
Long ago, the Conseil Supérieur called attention to the battleship as being the weak point in our naval organization. There is no doubt as to that unit being the standard, the common measure, and the fighting instrument par excellence, carrying the most formidable armament and the thickest armor.
Subtracting from the programme the 11 existing modern battleships (5 Patries and 6 Dantons), France will have to build 17 battleships of 23,500 tons in the near future, that is, in eight years, between 1912 and 1919, or two every year, the substitute for the Liberté being in addition. Two of the battleships to be begun in 1912 will be built by the government, the third and the Liberté's substitute will be awarded to private builders. The new Liberté will be of 23,500 tons displacement, instead of the 15,000 tons of the old one, and will carry ten 340 mm. guns. With all the ammunition on board, its cost will be sixty-four million francs, in round numbers. Adding 8,500,000 francs for spare guns and ammunition, the total cost will reach seventy-three million ($14,600,000).
The tool outfits of the Brest and Lorient navy yards, both of which build large units, have been greatly improved.
The Jean Bart at Brest and the Courbet at Lorient, were launched ten and a half months after the laying down of the keels. At Brest, the daily average of the worked material has increased thirty-five per cent, being now between twenty and twenty-five tons, and it is expected it will reach thirty-eight tons, thus anticipating the time of the launching of the future battleships. Upon the whole, it will be made possible to launch a Dreadnought in thirty-four months. This is the allotted time
for two battleships of 23,500 tons to be begun in 1912. This rapidity can only be maintained on condition of properly spacing the constructions, without spasmodic efforts. Such being the case, the whole program will be completed by December 31, 1919, as above stated.
The value of a fleet does not depend solely on the number of its units, but also on its mobility facilitated by its bases. Hence the necessity of multiplying the numbers of the points of repairs and of renewal of supplies.
The improvements of the French harbors include the deepening of seven repair docks, four at Toulon, one at Lorient, two at Bizerta, and the addition of a large basin for the units of the flotilla at Dunkirk.
With the addition of the docks under construction or the enlargement of existing ones at Brest and Cherbourg, France in 1920 will have twelve docks-six on the Atlantic and Channel, and six in the Mediterranean-capable of admitting Dreadnoughts.
In the meantime, other works are under way in the secondary bases. The interests presented to Brest by the auxiliary ports of Lorient and Rochefort is fully recognized. With the completion of the dredgings going on at Lorient, the latter will afford a shelter to a certain number of ships, which, from certain causes, may happen to be cut off from Brest. In the same way, the roadstead of Trousses (Rochefort), at the mouth of the Charente, is to constitute a shelter and a base of supply. It will be necessary only to establish at that point a coal depot and the necessary facilities for renewing supplies, as Rochefort can be easily connected by rail. But, most important of all, is the work to be done at Brest, our advanced port in the Atlantic, which is to be fully equipped to serve as a base for a naval force (18 battleships, 6 armored cruisers, with their accompaniment of scouts and flotillas of small craft).
In short, to be obliged to play a part in the world of naval affairs requires a powerful navy. Turkey, in her struggle with Italy, knows now what it costs to be without a navy. France was in a perilous situation in the face of the increasing fleets of the Triple Alliance. A reorganization was imperative. The naval program assures it, at least for the time being.
Within eight years France will possess twenty-eight battleships, of which twenty-two will be Dreadnoughts. This is absolutely necessary in the face of the present state of armaments of the nations. Kant was right when, over a century ago, he wrote:
"I am firmly convinced that some day the United States of Europe will be constituted; but, until then, each nation should keep its hand on its sword-hilt."
LETTER FROM ROME
ADMIRAL AUGUSTO AUBRY
The death of Admiral Augusto Aubry, Commanderin-chief of the Italian fleet mobilized for the war against Turkey, which took place on board his flag-ship, the Vittorio Emanuele, on March 4, 1912, has caused a commotion throughout Italy, because no other man better than he personified what the Italian navy is and the revolution that has taken place in it in the last fifty years.
Up to 1860, when Garibaldi with his "thousand" conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, there were in Italy two navies which could aspire to that designation: the Neapolitan and the Sardinian, the former having still a feudal character, and the latter being already open to modern ideas and having received a considerable impetus from the genius of Cavour, who, with his wonderful intuition, foresaw that the future of Italy depended upon the sea. Both navies however, were far from having the spirit and the initiative of those glorious mediæval navies that gave power and prosperity not only to Genoa and Venice, but to Pisa and Amalfi.
Aubry was born April 28, 1849. At that time Naples possessed a naval academy for cadets, which was reserved for the jeunesse dorée, nobility of family being required to enter when the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies were annexed to Italy, the laws of equality among all the citizens were extended there, and Aubry, then a boy, was the first son of the people to enter the Noble Academy. The event was considered a scandal. Not only was he in no way connected with the nobility, but he was the son of a barber, and, what aggravated the circumstances in the eyes of the Neapolitan aristocracy, the son of the barber employed by Court circles. How did he dare to violate the Institution, throughout centuries reserved to the nobility? The barber shop was boycotted, and the boy in the Academy went through a very bitter time, being guilty, in the eyes both of his companions and of his professors, of having demolished one of its oldest. traditions. It was, however, good discipline for his character, and proof of his intelligence and ability is the fact that notwithstanding every opposition, he stood at the head of his class. Promoted to be officer, he participated in the unfortunate campaign of 1866 against Austria, on board the Carlo Alberto. On July 20, he was at Lissa, and he saw Italy, with thirty ships of 77,000 tons, whipped by Austria, with seventeen ships of 57,000 tons, and ever after said that that lesson taught him that battles are not won by numbers, but by the spirit animating the men.
Aubry advanced rapidly in his profession. In 1896 he commanded the royal yacht Savoia, on the occasion of the marriage of the present sovereigns, afterward becoming Aide to the Duke of Genoa, uncle of the King and Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. Six years later, he became Rear-Admiral and Under Secretary of State at the Ministry of Marine; became Vice-Admiral in January, 1907, and since the 21st of September last, has been the Commander-in-Chief of the naval forces-about one hundred ships-mobilized by Italy for the present war. During this campaign the student who fifty years ago entered the Naval Academy of Naples amidst such bitter opposition, commanding general respect and unlimited confidence, has had under his command the pick of the Italian nobility from the Colonna of Rome, whose ancestors were the heroes of Lepanto, to the Venetian descendents of the Doges, the feudal Neapolitan Barons, and the younger and even prouder nobility of Piedmont.
Aubry maintained that the personal humiliation suffered at the Naval Academy and the national humiliation at Lissa were both the result of the division in which the Italian regions and the Italian classes were kept, and that only through their fusion could the single individual, as well as the whole country, aspire to greatness. The whole nation mourned the death of this humble son of the people, who personified United Italy and her navy, his funeral giving the unprecedented spectacle of the King following the coffin on foot, next to the humblest sailor. C.
THE NAVY LEAGUE OF THE UNITED STATES
President: GENERAL HORACE Porter
Counsel: HERBERT L. SATTERLEE
805 15th St. N.W., Washington, D.C.
23 Wall St., New York, N.Y. Better to be despised for too anxious apprehensions than ruined by too confident security."—Burke.
It is increasingly evident that the Navy League must be put on a better financial basis, in order to meet the needs of the hour. The membership is gradually increasing and it is to be noted that the policy of securing "new members through members," is, in a measure, successful. During the past month Captain David H. Lyon of Ogdensburg, and Mr. Frederick J. Peacock and Mr. A. K. Andriano of New York City have, among others, sent in a gratifying number of membership applications; but, aside from the probable membeship receipts, the officers of the League feel that it is necessary to have an assured income of $10,000 a year for the next five years, as a guarantee fund to meet the legitimate expenditures of educational work on behalf of the navy. Some three thousand dollars has already been raised (and spent for the annual convention, and for publications and other printed matter, including its circulation) and there yet remains $7000 to be raised. The Carnegie Peace Foundation of $10,000,000 furnishes an income of practically one-half a million dollars each year. There are some evidences that a portion of this income has been spent with the direct purpose of influencing public opinion against the policy of building more battleships and of making reasonable appropriations for the army and navy.
Unfortunately the usefulness of the League is limited by the financial support it receives, and the officers, therefore, urge all members and friends to assist, as far as lies in their power, by subscribing toward their $10,000 Guarantee Fund.
ADMIRAL DAHLGREN SECTION
Through the efforts of the officers of the Admiral Dahlgren Section of the Navy League, the city of Scranton will receive one of the limited number of ten inch shells recovered from the battleship Maine. The shell will be mounted and placed in one of the public parks of the city. The Admiral Dahlgren Section is to be congratulated on securing an interesting relic of the Maine.
ORDERS TO OFFICERS, MARCH 1-31, 1912
(Names of vessels of the Navy are in italics)
P. A. Surg. A. A. Allen.
Lieut. W. P. Beehler.
Surg. E. S. Bogert..
Paym. Clerk W. D. Bollard..Naval
.Oregon Home; wait orders ..Asiatic Station ..Oregon Ch. Mach. B. F. Beers, ret.. Home Lieut. Charles Belknap. Naval Station, Guantanamo Btsn. W. K. Bigger.. Indiana Home; wait orders .Richmond Torpedo Sta., Newport Lieut. G. H. Bowdey.. New Hampshire Btsn. M. J. Bresnahan. New Hampshire Ch. Btsn. F. Bresnan. Home; wait orders Comdr. M. L. Bristol.. ..Albany Lieut. E. A. Brooks. .Denver Captain G. W. Brown. .Denver Paym. Cl. H. E. Brown. .Appt. revoked Midsh. M. S. Brown. Nebraska Paym. J. A. Bull.. ..Iowa Mach. Peter Burke. Wisconsin P. A. Surg. H. Butts.. .Naval Hosp., Canacao Midsh. L. C. Carey. .Hartford Gunner J. F. Carmody. .Iowa Civil Eng. F. T. Chambers..Naval Training Sta., North Chicago P. A. Surg. W. Chambers..... Home; wait orders A. Surg. C. F. Charlton..Naval Hosp., Newport Asst. Paym. R. S. Chew..Naval Training Sta., Newport Midsh. H. S. M. Clay.. .Connecticut Ch. Mach. J. E. Cleary. Home; wait orders Mach. P. B. Cozine.. ..Connecticut Lieut. J. H. Collins..Naval Rec. Station, Dallas Btsn. M. J. Conlon..Naval Station, Guantanamo Lieut. M. G. Cook ..St. Louis Asst. Paym. R. E. Corcoran.. Home; wait orders Gunner W. Cronan... . . . . . .Home; wait orders Btsn. E. Grouch..Treatment, Naval Hosp.,
Asst. Surg. R. Cuthbertson.
Mach. W. D. Dadd..
Chap. C. H. Dickins...
Asst. Surg. J. T. Duhigg.
Paym. Cl. L. A. Dykeman.
Surg M. S. Elliot.
Comdr. C. M. Fahs.
Mach. G. W. Fairfield..Naval Coal Depot,
Melville Sta., R. I. Lt. Comdr. W. M. Falconer.. Home; wait orders P. A. Paym. N. B. Farwell..... Pennsylvania Lt. Comdr. C. C. Fewel..Navy Yard, Philadelphia Surg. C. N. Fiske. Nebraska Virginia Ens. H. H. Forgus..Treatment, Naval Hosp.,
Midsh. J. A. Fletcher.
Olongapo Mississippi .Home; wait orders Mississippi .Home; wait orders ..Glacier .Rhode Island Celtic . California
Midsh. M. J. Foster.
Ch. Mach. C. H. Gilhuley.
Comdr. W. W. Gilmer..Navy Rec. Sta..
Asst. Paym. W. W. Gower.
P. A. Paym. E. M. Hacker. Home; wait orders
Mach. J. C. Hines.
Ch. Gunner F. L. Hoagland.. .E. W. Bliss Co.
. Home; wait orders
Comdr. J. F. Hubbard.
Lieut. B. K. Johnson..
Btsn. J. L. Kelley..
Lieut. G. W. Kenyon..
Capt. G. Kaemmerling.. Bureau Steam Engineering
P. A. Surg. J. F. Murphy.
Paym. Cl. Joseph O'Reilly..Navy Yard, New York
Capt. J. P. Parker......Navy Yard, New York
Ch. Mach. A. T. Percival.
P. A. Surg. J. R. Phelps.... Home; wait orders
in-Chief, Pacific Fleet, on California P. A. Paym. R. Spear..
Asiatic Station .Command Ammen ....Raleigh
. Home; wait orders .Helena ..Command Peoria
Lieut. Comdr. V. A. Kimberley..
Ens. F. R. King.
Midsh. H. F. Kingman.
Btsn. J. Sperl..
.Chester Midsh. F. S. Steinwachs. Idaho Lieut. L. M. Stevens......Naval Sta., Honolulu Asst. Surg. D. D. V. Stuart..Treatment, Naval Hospital, Washington, D. C. Btsn. D. J. Sullivan.. West Virginia Lieut. Comdr. J. K. Taussig.. Home; wait orders Comdr. W. J._Terhune.. ..Pennsylvania Midsh. J. C. Thom. .Pennsylvania Rear Adm. Chauncey Thomas.. Home; wait orders Midsh. D. O. Thomas. .Raleigh Civ. Engr. C. D. Thurber..Navy Yard, New York Gunner C. L. Tibbals. Connecticut Home .Idaho
Comdr. E. H. Tillman, Ret..
Lieut. F. A. Todd..
Lieut. J. C. Townsend..Naval Hosp., Las Animas Ens. H. C. Train.
California Act. Surg. C. E. Treibly..Navy Rec. Sta., Baltimore Paym. E. H. Tricon.. Home; wait orders Paym. Cl. F. R. Tuck. Appt. revoked Ens. W. W. Turner. Jenkins P. A. Surg. E. V. Valz.. .St. Louis Mate E. E. Wagener. .Maine P. A. Paym. D. B. Wainwright. Montgomery Btsn. D. Wait.. Supply Midsh. F. Walden. .Pennsylvania Carp. W. L. Wall.. Home; wait orders Mach. J. A. Ward. St. Louis Carp. Frank Weber. Home; wait orders Surg. W. M. Wheeler.. Marine Barracks. Norfolk Comdr. H. A. Wiley. Monterey Btsn. M. J. Wilkinson. Home; wait orders Ens. F. J. Wille. . Pennsylvania Carp. R. E. Wilkinson. .Home; wait orders Lt. Comdr. H. Williams. West Virginia Btsn. H. J. Williamson. .Indiana Gunner R. O. Williams..Treatment, Naval Hosp., Norfolk Maine ..Maine Sick leave .Georgia
Mate C. A. Wilson. Mate H. Wilson. Capt. W. E. Winant. Surg. B. L. Wright.
MARINE CORPS Capt. M. Babb.. Observer at battle
Lieut. Comdr. F. H. Sheppard (retired), at Pensacola, Florida, March 18.
Chief Carpenter Ebenzer Thompson (retired), at
Capt. W. Brackett..
Lieut. R. Bryant.
Capt. R. B. Creecy..Observer at
Lieut. A. E. Simon.
Lieut. H. H. Utley....Recruiting duty, Detroit
Capt. F. S. Wiltse..
Atlantic Fleet Lieut. H. T. Vulte.. .Philippines Capt. J. K.. Philippines Capt. R. R. Wallace, jr...Observer at battle practice, Atlantic Fleet Wait orders Philippines Owensboro, Ky.