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prepare it in season. It is now submitted as supplementary to that reports, and I respectfully request that it may be so communicated to Congress. With much respect, your obedient servant,

2 J. BUTTERFIÉLD, Commissioner. Hon. Tuomas EWING,

Secretary of the Interior.

Boston, April 15, 1850. Sir: We herewith present to you a report on the “copper lands” of the · Lake Superior land district. When it is considered that this. district em.

braces an area of more than sixteen thousand square miles; that nearly the whole of that area is an unbroken wilderness; that we were required to explore considerable portions of it with sufficient minuteness to designate the character of each quarter section; and that, in the accomplishment of this object, our camp equipage and provisions, and even our canoes, were carried for long distances on the backs of men; and that the limited state of our supplies often compelled us to press on without regard to weather under these circumstances, we trust we shall be pardoned if it be found that we have fallen into minor errors, or hastily passed some points which were deserving of a more minute examination. In the delineation of the main features of the region, we trust that this report will be found correct.

With sincere thanks for the aid afforded us in the prosecution of these researches by several of the officers attached to the bureau over which you preside, we subscribe ourselves, Sir, with great respect, your most obedient servants, ..

J. W. FOSTER, .,
J. D. WHITNEY,

United States Geologists. To Hon. JUSTIN BUTTERFIELD,

Commissioner of the General Land Office. ,

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A 27544

REPORT

ON THE

GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY

OF A PORTION OF

THE LAKE SUPERIOR LAND DISTRICT,

IN

THE STATE OF MICHIGAN.

Rene ele follore the Mississippi the Missionary Mackenzi

. Houghton: The

INTRODUCTION. Historical sketch.-Raymbault and Jogues's voyage to Saut. Ste. Marie.

René Mesnard visits Lale Superior.-Alloüez follows.-Dablon and Marquette follow.-Grand Council.--- Marquette proceeds to Green Bay-Discovers the Mississippi.His death. - Alloüez's death. Early map of this region.- Effect of the Missionary labors on the Indians.

Travels of Hennepin; Charlevoix ; Henry; Mackenzie.-Expedition of General Cass; of Schoolcraft; of Maj. Long.Dr. Houghton ; his labors and death.- The treaties by which this district was ceded. The several acts of the government in reference thereto. The act authorizing the survey.--Its organization.

The first steps towards the exploration of the country bordering on the great chain of North American lakes were taken by the Jesuits of Canada, more than two centuries ago, under the auspices of Count Frontenac, then governor general of that region.

On the 7th of September, 1641, Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, two missionaries of the order of Jesus-an order whose memorials are to be found in every quarter of the habitable earth-accompanied by several Hurons, left the bay of Pentanguishene in a bark canoe for Saut Ste. Marie. At the head of this bay they had established a mission. It formed, at that time, the western terminus of the travelled route between Montreal and Lake Huron, by way of the Ottawa river and Lake Simcoe, and for years afterwards, while the power of France in the Northwest re- . . mained in the ascendant, constituted an important link in a chain of posts extending for more than two thousand miles.

The route of Raymbault and Jogues lay through the Georgian bay, and thence among the countless islands that stud the channel of the St. Mary's

river. After a voyage of seventeen days they arrived at the falls (Saut,) where they found an Indian village with a population of two thousand souls. The abundance of white fish, and the facilities for capturing them in the foaming rapids, have made this the chosen resort of the Chippewas for centuries. The chiefs received them kindly and invited them to dwell in their midst. “We will embrace you as brothers,” they said, 6 and profit by your words." · They here learned of the existence of a lake still beyond, called by the Indians Kitchi-gummi, (Big lake,) surpassing in magnitude either Huron or Michigan, then called Illinois, beyond whose western limits was a country destitute of trees, but covered with grassy plains, through which roamed herds of buffalo and deer.

Here dwelt the Sioux or Nadouessi, a race at once warlike and indomitable. At that day a feud existed between the two tribes, which has been perpetuated to the present time.

Late in the season Raymbault returned to Pentanguishene with the intention of revisiting the Saut in the succeeding spring, and establishing there a permanent mission; but consumption, brought on by repeated ex. posures and privations, was fast hurrying him to the grave. The following year he returned with Jogues to Quebec, where he died October 22, 1642. Father Jogues started to return, but in ascending the St. Lawrence was captured by the Mohawks, a predatory band infesting the shores and tributaries of Lake Erie. After having been subjected to the most ignominious treatment, himself scourged, and his Huron attendants committed to the flames, he was ultimately ransomed by the Dutch in the vicinity of Albany. He revisited France, but soon returned to the scene of his labors with a spirit unabated and a zeal unquenched.

René Mesnard followed in the track of Raymbault. On the 28th of August, 1660, he left Quebec, taking with him a scanty stock of neces. saries; “ for I trust,” said he, '" in that Providence which feeds the little birds of the air, and clothes the wild flowers of the desert." He was past the meridian of life, but possessed all the zeal of youth. He went forth with the presentiment that he was performing his last journey, for, in writing back to a friend, he remarked: “In three or four months you may add my name to the memento of deaths.” Having arrived at the Saut, he proceeded to coast along the southern shore in a canoe, and on the 15th of October reached the head of Keweenaw bay, which he named St. Theresa--the day of his arrival being the anniversary day of that patron saint. Here he remained until the following spring, when he left, accompanied by a single Indian, for Chaquamegon bay, near the head of the lake. They took the route through Portage lake; and while the voyageur was conveying the canoe across the portage, the good Father, wandered into the woods, and no trace of him was afterwards obtained. This happened August 20, 1661. The world applauds the heroism of Columbus who launched out upon a trackless ocean in search of a new world. The humble missionary who, committing himself to the guidance of savage attendants, voyaged for days with a boundless waste of waters on one side, and on the other an unbroken wilderness, showed a degree of courage and enthusiasm which has rarely been rivalled, and which ought to rescue his name from oblivion.

Claude Alloüez followed in his footsteps. On the 8th of August, 1666, the embarked at Three Rivers, accompanied by four hundred Indians,

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