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with one in whom the impulse to make predominates, cannot help realizing his inferiority to the latter in manual capacity, cannot help acquiring some respect for his work. And the teacher, vividly realizing the position of present forms of manual labor in the development of the race, and clearly perceiving the character of its scientific basis, will surely improve every opportunity to bring these thoughts home to students of both classes, so that both may see and feel that the manual laborer also has his place in that development, that his labor also can be illuminated by the insight of the mind.

This, it is evident, is the great need of workers of all classes. Whoever works simply for his wage, no matter what his work may be or the amount of compensation he receives for it, is a drudge. Whoever, on the other hand, realizes the relation of his work to the life of the world, to its historical life, to its scientific life, infuses his daily toil with the dignity of the mind. To do the work of a machine, with no thought but of the product and of the wage to be received for it, is to degrade one's self to the level of a machine. To do one's work, no matter how mechanical, with a full consciousness of its relation to the life of the past and the present is to live a worthy life. The motorman on the street-car, who knows only enough to stop his car and start it, who never thinks of the relation between

1 In his able and suggestive inaugural address President Woodrow Vilsor. said: “We ought distinctly to set forth, in our philosophy of this matter, the difference between a man's preparation for the specific and definite task he is to perform in the world and that general enlargement of spirit and release of powers which he shall need if his task is not to belittle him.” To prevent the work we have to do in the world from dwarfing us, to compel it to become a means of growth and development, is one of the most important purposes of education.

the electric car and the countless machines that link it with the time when men knew no better way than to travel afoot and carry their burdens on their shoulders, who never gives a thought to the strange and wonderful force which he is constantly guiding and which obeys him so implicitly and so unhesitatingly, lives a life, so far as his work is concerned, not much above that of the dog who has only sufficient intelligence to fetch and carry at his master's bidding. The motorman, on the other hand, with the realization that he is, so to speak, the living embodiment of countless thoughts about transportation, that nature is obediently putting at his disposal one of her marvellous forces, that she stands thus ready to do work which the world has scarcely dreamed of when she receives the right word of command, is doing work which is of value in and of itself, not simply because it gives him a living. To appreciate the significance of work, to realize what it represents in the life of the race, is to rob it of its legendary curse. And to help in this direction is one of the functions of manual training."

Manual Training Adapts the School to the Many. — It directly follows from this that manual-training courses adapt the school to those whose dominant interest it is to do as well as to those whose dominant interest it is to know. When the history of education in the nineteenth

1 It is indeed true that in this country, at least, a motorman who puts that kind of intelligence into his work is almost certain of promotion. President Vreeland, for example, of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New York was, in early manhood, a brakeman on the Long Island Railroad. But quite independently of that, the argument of the text is that any legitimate work may be done in such a spirit as to make it a thing worth doing for its own sake.

century comes to be written in the light of the ideals of the twentieth, it will surely seem remarkable that in a large number of the States of the Union compulsory-education laws were enacted laws to compel those to go to school who would stay away if they could, while at the same time the training which was thus forced upon them was primarily adapted to those who went to school by preference. The aristocratic ideals of the Old World, which in so many particulars continue to dominate the New, have shaped our courses of study in the interests of the few who desire a thorough education, of the small minority in whom the intellectual interest is predominant. No wonder that compulsory-education laws have been necessary; that as soon as the law permitted, the great majority of our boys and girls have left an institution whose work was not primarily adapted to them. If our public school is indeed for the people, to qualify them to make the most of themselves and life, it will cease to ignore the fact that the overwhelming majority in this and in every other country earn their livelihood by some form of manual labor. It will give them such a training as will equip them most completely for earning a living, as well as dignify their labor and make it respectable in their own eyes and that of the world, and with all the more earnestness since, in being adapted to the manual laborer, it is none the less adapted to the man who has mainly an intellectual interest.

QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT. 1. How has the child acquired the attainments which he possesses when he begins his school life?

2. Of what does the child's play consist?

3. “Shall the school be wiser than nature?” Explain.

4. Show that the same argument may be made for manual training as for object teaching.

5. In what way would manual training tend to cultivate a respect for manual work?

6. What is the creed of democracy?

7. In what way does a false notion as to labor prevent the realization of the ideals of democracy?

8. “Whoever works simply for his wages is a drudge.” Explain.

9. What is the meaning of the sentence quoted from President Wilson's inaugural address ?

10. What is the illustration of the motorman intended to show ?

11. “Manual-training courses adapt the school to those whose dominant interest it is to do.” Explain.

12. What is implied by the aristocratic ideas of the Old World ?


1. In what sense and to what extent should we “ follow nature"? 2. What is meant by “basal concepts”?

3. What is the relation of a farmer or a watchmaker to the historical and scientific life of the world?

4. “To do one's work, no matter how mechanical, with a full consciousness of its relation to the life of the past and present is to live a worthy life.” What is the relation between this statement and the conclusion reached as to the end of education ?

5. In what ways may the necessity for compulsory-education laws be diminished ?




THE preceding chapter sought to show that, for a variety of reasons, courses in manual training ought to form a part of the work in every grade of the elementary school. Of the child's constructive impulse, then, the same conclusions hold as of his curiosity. The only question we have to consider is the adaptation of manual training to the various stages of his development.

The Art Impulse. — No argument is needed to show the importance of taking the child's art impulse into account. For the learning of memory gems, which is universally required of children, some justification is found in the fact that children have the capacity to appreciate the beautiful in literature. What the school needs to do is to recognize the art impulse of the child in its entirety, to treat it as a thing which demands to be brought into a many-sided relation with life. Whenever a child does a thing less beautifully than he might have done it, the difference between what he has done and what he ought to have done should be impressed upon him. Tactfully and considerately, his dirty hands and soiled shoes, his disorderly desk and dog-eared books, should be made to offend his æsthetic sense so that in its promptings the teacher may find at once an ally in the maintenance of

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