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will be remembered in the United tall hives of industry which distinguish Ameri1901 States as the year marking the birth can cities from all others. of commercial empire. With the advent of the As an electrical tower this would have been billion-dollar steel trust and other vast combina- easy; and even if an attempt had been made to tions effected upon the basis of community of symbolize the thundering cataract ten miles interest, organization for artistic ends has like- away, generating all the power used at the Expowise taken a step forward.

sition, a more meaning treatment was easily This was especially exemplified in the spec- attainable. We are possibly too sentimental, and tacle presented by the Pan-American Exposition. gladly admit that, as the climax to an organic Instead of an architectural display, illustrating spectacle, it does its work well, and is by all diverse and scattered ideas, a central theme was means the best single contribution to the Fair. adhered to and a unit was produced, in which the executive ability of Mr. John M. Carrère, Chair

"Like Trilby, the Pan-American poses for man of the Board of Architects, was ever visible, the 'altogether;' whether in every detail so sucif not always in full control.

cessfully as Du Maurier's immortal mixture of It showed a notable advance in art discipline,

Irish and French loveliness, let others tell."'and if no new reputations were made, some were

Carleton Sprague. enhanced. Moreover, it gave an opportunity to

UT before a larger audience than they had hitherto tinct achievement, though only of generalenjoyed.

ship and one in which the most notable progress

was shown in the work of the new recruits comExpositions are the time-keepers of prog- manded by an electrician and a decorator. The

They record the world's advancement; lack of real sentiment was not without excepthey stimulate the energy, enterprise and intel

tions; the sculpture now and again interpreted lect of the people and quicken human genius.- William McKinley.

the occasion, while a sprinkling of eagles, stars and American shields showed a feeble and as

sumed desire to “nationalize" che architecture. ON the other hand, with such a theme as the

strengthening of the ties between the people Electrical illumination has here wrought its of North America and those of South America in

greatest triumph, its most splendid effects, and the presence of the harnessing of Niagara, the has reached a development that has put it high project might have been more sympathetically among the spectacular arts." - The World's

Work. treated.

Mr. John Gaylen Howard's exquisitely studied tower dominates the composition completely, IN

N an address to the students of Cornell Uniwhen the back is turned upon the more monu- versity, President Schurman said, “In art, in mental triumphal bridge, and in scale, mass and literature, in scholarship, in science we are a long detail it is very correct; but how far short it falls way behind Europe.” At the Pan-American our as an interpretation of the occasion! It does not art is for the first time independently exhibited, recall the Spanish-American style adopted by the and many will agree that it is not without disBoard of Architects out of compliment to our tinction and promise. The architecture, however, Latin visitors, nor does it grasp the opportunity is lacking in expression, literary quality and to portray the aspiring commercial purpose of the scholarship, while scientifically, no triumph like Exposition, as it might have, by recalling those the Pont Alexander III at Paris or the two new


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art-palaces proclaims a new era in construction have possibilities, but, lo and behold! the Panand civic embellishment. A broad and intelli- American, as an investment, proved a rank failgently written article in the July number of the ure, and yet St. Louis is undaunted. Architectural Review says: “One seeks in vain Is it possible business men are being swayed for a focus for some one thing masterful and by civic pride and art ? Is it to be believed that dominant,” and again, referring to the color- the man of millions is going to stop making scheme, which shows more daring than knowl- money? edge of color-construction, says: “It is fore- No; this is too sudden. doomed to failure and can be only productive of It only means that he is going to try to get a a harlequinade.” While we do not esteem it a little enjoyment out of life, for he has discovered success, yet we feel that it was an improvement that “a thing of beauty is a joy forever.” over the glare at Chicago. We agree with the Having recovered from his surprise, he is writer fully when he analyzes the anti-climax about to amaze the world with the wholesale back of the electrical tower, and speaks of it as opportunities he is about to make for our arcbi"the most interesting part of the grounds,” but tects. He knows that in whatever he undertakes feel that it was a mistake to have carried an he can “dive deeper and come up dryer than any arcade across the approaches to the Midway and other person on the face of the earth," and he is the Stadium, where the heaviest traffic of the not going to waste any time in obtaining his new entire Exposition takes place.

desire. In all fairness, in comparing national attain- “Who is the best architect?" What is the ments, we must not forget that the thrifty people right way to begin?” and “Who is an authority of Glasgow have also produced an Exposition on the subject?" These are the questions being since that of Paris, and one amazing in its archi- asked all over the country. As yet the answer tectural absurdities. We may not yet rank with is uncertain. He has long been acquainted with the French, but we are their only competitors. the plan-factory man who understands a real

While the Pan-American” will not serve estate proposition, and can run up a twenty-story the double purpose of a temporary display, office building and equip it within the shortest planned to leave in its wake the permanent open

time and with the least loss of interest on the ing up and embellishment of a finished city, as investment; but he realizes that this is not the the last at Paris did, yet it had one quality in man to design his home or the building he may which it rivaled all its predecessors. The “Rain- present to his fellow townsmen as a monument to how City,” whatever its shortcomings, brought himself. He now wishes to be remembered as all art-workers into closer communication, and something more than a hustler, and hence art created an entente cordiale among them which strikes root. will be of invaluable advantage in all future undertakings.

It should never be forgotten that the art of a country is not only the measure of the value of

its well-being, but, above all, of its intelligence as The best way to raise any one is to join with

well.''-Ottoll agner. him in an effort whereby both you and he are raised by helping each other."- Theodore Roosevelt.

The Temporary Period Has Passed THE

HE haphazard, temporary and experimental The Awakening

period has passed. We are beginning to WE

E all know the man of regular habits, build permanently.

the methodical man (not the one who is We have begun to realize the value of expresalways drunk at nine o'clock in the evening, sion and character, and, notwithstanding the but the other one) the self-made man, born of amusement caused by seeing the new buildings poor but honest parents, who rises early and of some of our universities masquerading in the works late, who is modest and generous, and obsolete, ill-fitting, made-over garbs of the Midhas never had a vacation, and tells all about it in dle Ages, the birth and growth of American archi"helpful talks to young men." We all know tecture is being watched with great interest from him. He is the man in control. He is the man abroad. The distinguished English critic, Fredwho scorned art and music; and yet, he was the eric Harrison, on his return from a recent visit to man who produced the Buffalo Exhibition, and this country, wrote: “America is making viois going to produce a still greater spectacle at St. lent efforts to evolve a national architecture, but Louis. And why? Because “Old Scrooge" as yet it has produced little but miscellaneous has had an awakening.

imitations of European types and some wonder: The commercial value of beauty seemed to ful constructive devices."



Every architectural form was produced by biographical cyclopedias of the great men in construction, and has gradually become an art various activities of American life, beginning form."-Otto Wagner.

with the first settlement of the country. Out of

2,605 who are named as having gained distincCharacter

tion, only 283 were foreign-born. WE regret that we cannot quote Prof. L. W. After giving a very interesting table showing

Miller's forceful words on the subject of the countries these citizens came from, over half copying ; but his plea is, that to copy outward Anglo-Saxon (194 having been born in England, styles, to reproduce ornament that recalls either Ireland or Scotland), he concludes by referring to the ignorance, luxury, corruption or vice of the the New Hall of Fame on University Heights, past, is to trifle with history.

New York, and says : “To make this Hall of He is right; for the life of to-day is the his- Fame thoroughly national, it has been determined tory of to-morrow; and if our architects pro- that none but native-born Americans shall be duce affectations, posterity will put us down as eligible candidates for tablets. The rule seems unworthy of our opportunities, and in the mean- unnecessary, for History herself has already time centres of learning sailing under false colors enacted this law of limitation." And again : retard progress.

“If they measure the greatness of the foreignTo be sure, some of the loftiest ideals are born by the same standards that were used to finding voice in such structures as the Low judge the native-born, whom shall they find ? Library of Columbia University, which, though Beyond question, Hamilton and Ericsson are far from being either modern or indigenous, is each worthy of a tablet among the immortals," yet a finished design dignified by great restraint etc., etc. “A monument to the achievement of and exquisite simplicity. The influence of such America's foreign-born will, by the very meagrea building is uplifting, notwithstanding its lack ness of the inscribed tablets, be transformed into of local pertinence and character, and may well only another monument to the glory of the native be singled out as an example of our best work up American stock.” to the present time.

Such being the case, and now that we have

educated architects, and even a few thinking America is another name for opportunity. architects, is it not likewise reasonable to expect Our whole history appears like a last effort of

American traits to dominate our architecture ? Divine providence in behalf of the human race." -- Ralph Waldo Emerson.

No one deplores the evil influence of the École des Beaux Arts more than its own graduates,

who themselves are seldom guilty of the more Confidence

florid work which for a time must misinterpret BUT UT we refuse as strongly and as confidently

the character of many an institution. as ever to believe that there is not something better in store for us. And at the risk of being

We are at that dramatic moment in our taunted with being “always positive and some- national life wherein we tremble evenly between times right,” we maintain that, as soon as Amer- decay and evolution, and our architecture, with icans as a people begin to consider architecture as strange fidelity, reflects this equipoise."-Louis a reflection of themselves, they will spurn the

H. Sullivan. caricatures they now so heedlessly accept.

Criticism In the August Century George MacAdam

“ in America,” in which he shows that, “notwith- Coolidge, Jr., of Boston, Mr. Louis Sullivan, standing the varied and continuous stream of of Chicago, within the profession itself, and with immigration which has poured into the United such good critics as Messrs. Caffin, Schuyler, States in the last century and a half, native-born Baxter, Sturgis and others contributing regularly Americans continue to dominate in thought and to the best magazines, contemporary building is action.” He says: “The foreign observer, with coming in for its just share of criticism, and the one eye on the statistics of American immigration time is not distant when architecture may become and the other eye on the history of the Old World a subject for as keen discussion on the part of civilization, replies that America is a vast pot- laymen as the latest book or opera. Indeed, it is pourri of foreign elements-a nation, great, per- to be hoped that a writer will yet come who will haps, in a material sense, but yet without national lead popular opinion, making it his object to draw character, spirit or unity."

a sharp line of demarcation between deception To prove the shallowness of this point of and devotion as expressed in contemporaneous view, he made a census, using the most recent architecture.

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