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DETAIL OF POLISHED STEEL GRILLE, SHOWING HAND-WORK, IN THE LOUVRE, PARIS

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ELLICOTT & EMMART, ARCHITECTS It is to be regretted that the superimposed orders are so nearly of one height; by shortening the upper columns so as to stand on plynths, with a cenient balustrade between them, the main entrance would have looked more commanding, and especially so, had the upper balcony been railed with light iron-work. Frame houses, like the above, are to be encouraged, and it is to be hoped this form of construction will be generally adopted where stone and brick buildings are too costly. This design is dignified, modern and straightforward.

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An open book of Hohenzollern history in thirty-two chapters. Sixteen exedras like the
above on either side of a great wooded avenue are prevented from clashing with one another,
and avoid giving an appearance of monotony to the drive by being planted out" so that only
one can be seen at a time. The avenue is separated by wooded walks, flanked by lanes ; thus
only an occasional glimpse of this bold collection of statuary is to be seen from the main drive,
while those opposite cannot be seen from the exedra benches where one may sit and study the
features of the three dominating personalities of many epochs in Prussian history.

"THE SCIENCE OF CITIES"

By ALBERT KELSEY

THE INTRODUCTION

Being an extract from a paper read in McCoy Hall. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md, on
January 8, 1902, under the auspices of the Municipal Art Society and The Arundel Club.

N the attainment of municipal ideals, con whether such quarters be one of lofty buildings structively considered, patch-work must be or of modest two or three-story residences. By eliminated.

this, I mean a proper ratio between blocks of The geography of the city must be recast. buildings on the one hand, and the streets, courts

The city, as a whole, must be considered from and open spaces surrounding them on the other. every standpoint simultaneously; and lastly a If a sufficiency of open space is provided, beauty definite plan, providing for the distant future, is possible. here, already, we see the interdemust be prepared and adhered to.

pendence existing between circulation, hygiene Under existing conditions railways, conduits, and beauty. sewers and pipes force themselves through places Beauty represents the expression of a city. never intended for them. Lofty buildings are Cities, like individuals, have natural and artificial thrown up on lots intended only for low ones. Pri- expressions. The dominating chimneys of the vate-vault construction is allowed under public manufacturing town and the surmounting domes pavements. Streets are roofed and undermined, and minarets of the Oriental city are each natural rendering artificial light and forced ventilation expressions. The savage has much the same necessary, and year after year new patch-like faculties as the civilized man, but these faculties makeshifts add to the congestion and general are less developed. The savage is unkempt, discord.

shaggy and dirty. This is all wrong. Public and private vested The natural city is unkempt ; i.e., it is an interests need not be at variance with one haphazard agglomeration and usually dirty. But another, and notwithstanding many conflicting as cities develop, whether it be the crude manurivalries which will have to be conciliated, it is facturing town or the mysterious Oriental city, possible to institute a system of gradual renewal in this age of tolerance they soon produce one or whereby in time the tangled arteries of the most more cosmopolitan thoroughfares, providing easy hopelessly congested city may be entirely recast. circulation, good hygienic properties, and possibly Indeed, within less than half a century Paris has some degree of beauty. expanded and metamorphosed itself from a repel The savage city begins to wash itself. It may lant, unhealthy, unsafe, and unlovely agglomera- be but Pera street of Stamboul, but “a lick and a tion into an orderly, healthful and beautiful city. promise,” yet it illustrates the fact that all cities

Technically (for social requirements vary), have certain requirements in common when they city-making involves circulation, hygiene and groom themselves and enter into competition with beauty.

one another. I shall discuss the first two briefly, and, while This social adjustment may take away much considering the third, will revert occasionally to of their picturesque charm and some of their inthe others to show the inevitable interdepend- dividuality, but in return it brings compensating ence of all three.

conveniences and well-being. Circulation may be termed the anatomy of the A lamp-post, an avenue, a building, a park, city ; the transit facilities above, below and on are not detached units, but each is one of a system the surface of the ground, the life arteries or pipe of units, and each of these systems has its place in galleries for the distribution of the public utili the civic scheme. ties, including a sewerage system.

Our problem is to locate the true place of each Here we see the interdependence of circula- unit and of each system of units, and an attempt tion and hygiene.

in this direction will be made under different Hygiene represents the aspect and prospect of headings, covering many phases of urban life and the city, its general salubrity, the density of many new conditions. population, the lighting by night and day, a free

The first of this series of articles, published in the last ANNUAL, sweep of air, and lastly, a proper density of con

and comprising an instalment of a report to the University of struction, A fixed ratio should exist between Pennsylvania (which will involve years of mature study to comthe voids and solids of all quarters of the city,

plete), is here supplemented by an introduction which it is hoped may prove broad enough to cover the whole range of city-making.

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HE ever-increasing radius of the city circle been provided—one for sanitary purposes, and the should tend to build up outer girdles less other a storm sewer for cellar drainage and the and less densely constructed. And it is overflow of cisterns.

. indeed an indifferent community that neither The avenue is broad, the sidewalks are parked, broadens its thoroughfares, as they extend into shade trees are grown, and all lots elevated to a these new outskirts, nor provides a chain of open uniform grade. The houses are all on a line spots linked together by an engirdling park way, with forty-foot lawns, and without fences, and thus guarding against congestion, when still more the distance between the houses from one side distant belts may be included within the area of of the street to the other is 150 feet. Superior municipalization.

Avenue has the appearance of being the widest In residential districts—and it is of these that avenue in the city; this is caused by the trees this article treats-there is, fortunately, a ten- being on the lots and not on the sidewalks, and dency towards outer zones, in order to obtain the gas-posts on the lot line instead of the curb more air and sunshine. By merely receding all line-an original and a good arrangement, so buildings to a given line a broad, unobstructed long as the trees are all under one control. A space may be procured. The lots must have drive along Superior Avenue impresses one with ample frontages to give each home surrounding its beauty, and one need only draw on his light and air. As a result, these quarters take on imagination to see its future, with the full-grown an appearance of openness whether the arterial elms arching over the avenue. system has been broadened or not.

A number of recently projected suburban setAgain, private enterprise often outstrips gov- tlements in and about Philadelphia have been laid ernmental in the case of real-estate speculations. out with broad winding avenues whose courses Often a company will make the public improve are determined by the lay of the land, even in ments and widen the streets, establish wise rules some cases diverted in order to save a fine clump and regulations governing all buildings, prohibit- of old trees.

of old trees. In a city so monotonously griding the erection of stables on small lots, the stor- ironed by streets these departures in the arterial age of unsightly and unsafe articles, and, in fact, system are very welcome. covering the general maintenance of the suburb. The Carpenter Land & Improvement Asso

At Dayton, O., a portion of Superior Avenue ciation includes a tract of 103 acres. A complete has been thoroughly improved, and, aside from the restudy of the lines and grades was made. Handusual utilities, a duplicate sewerage system has some winding avenues have been laid out, and a

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