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thorough drainage system connecting with the Mention should be made of a California procity drainage has been put in by the company. ject, which, while neither a municipal nor a subThe houses are not rented, but sell for $6,500 to urban problem, yet involves principles more or $25,000

less common to both. For years past, little by At Overbrook the same company has devel- little, much arid land has been brought under oped 171 acres extending along both sides of the irrigation and rendered habitable. In his first Pennsylvania Railroad, and provided water for message to Congress, President Roosevelt prohousehold use entirely independent of the city poses that the government shall construct and supply. An electric-light and steam-heating maintain large reservoirs, which, once estabplant (there is a similar one at Carpenter) offers lished, would bring many new and prosperous housekeepers' conveniences that go far to amelio agricultural communities into being. Irrigation rate the servant problem. Thus, by the intel- has already developed a new form of rural life ligent use of ample private capital, a whole less scattered, and offering more comforts and section of the city has been brought strictly up to conveniences than are usually obtainable in the a high standard.

ordinary farming district. It is therefore safe to At Glenside, Llanerch, Cynwid and St. predict great results from a governmental enterDavid's similar companies have assured the prise which would not have to yield direct absence of all undesirable surroundings by com returns on the investment. In anticipation of the prehensively treating large tracts of land.

outcome of this project a plan is being prepared In all of these cases the company exercises a which proposes to establish a series of centres general control over the character of all buildings, radiating from district school-houses. Water and retains several competent architects to pre- used for irrigation will also provide light and pare plans. Though each property owner is transportation, and a coinmunity of interests will privileged to employ whomever he choses, yet it be established to draw the population together is often found preferable to have designs prepared into colony life. Thus it will be seen that even in the usual way.

in agricultural districts collectiveism is the spirit At Baltiinore a new quarter of a modest char- of the age.

of the age. In fact, the Salvation Army has sucacter has been placed in one architect's charge. cessfully established colonies in Colorado and He has laid out the thoroughfare system with California, where the condition of the "submuch skill, introducing small parks, terraces and merged tenth" brought from city slums is architectural accessories that are calculated to add improved by pure environment. finish and beauty to the neighborhood. All the Midway between Chicago and Milwaukee, buildings will conform to a given type, and yet, fronting on Lake Michigan, a tract of land ten at the same time, be varied and interesting. miles square has been purchased for the site of

An original scheme that has stood the test of Zion City. Here a city is being laid out from time is exemplified in Vandeventer and Portland virgin soil, to which the Rev. John Alexander Places at St. Louis. Here, long narrow strips of Dowie is to lead his disciples. Before deciding land have been traversed by two streets, with a upon a plan Mr. Burton J. Ashley, a well known central park, perhaps 50 feet wide, between them, engineer, obtained answers to eighteen pertinent and thus an exclusive residential quarter has been questions from the proper officials in forty-seven created. The deeds of each property extend to cities whose population exceeds twelve thousand the middle of the park, which is maintained in inhabitants. These he averaged, obtaining an

At either end there is a formal entrance, interesting concensus of opinion, though to our and in this manner a sort of Parc Monceau effect mind it is not convincing. For we believe that might have been obtained had the improvements the ordinary chairman of a board of public been made with more skill. As it is, it is an improvements, a city engineer, a mayor, or a improvement on the “key-park” idea which commissioner of highways is not always a well prevails in London, and of which there is a soli trained man; yet, at the same time, we are glad tary example in the form of Gramercy Park, in to find that the majority answered the following New York City.

question: “Where should sewers, water mains, The Colorado Fuel and Iron Company is etc., be placed-in alleys or in streets ?" in favor about to carry out some semi-public improvements of the alley, and, likewise, it is gratifying to note in several towns with a view to influencing the an overwhelming vote in favor of municipal consocial life of its employees. The domestic and trol of all tree planting. The plan adopted is communal well-being of each centre is to be not monumental, though it possesses monumental watched over by the Company's Surgeon-General, features ; nor is it as free from monotony as it who will be at the head of a regular medical should be, considering the opportunity. But the corps scattered over a large area of the State. fullest use of the city alley is to be reached; and,



in that every property may be approached from of a new and very desirable economic situation. the rear by unsightly vehicles, and, moreover, in Mr. Lever's community is the best advertisement that all the underground services, including tele- he has for his wares; and in that he is known the phone and telegraph wires, will be in the rear world over as the leading exponent of what bas and out of sight, the outrageous tearing up of been happily and aptly phrased, “prosperity. streets and pavements, to which most communi- sharing,” he may he said to have made a valuable ties are accustomed, will be largely eliminated. contribution to social science and the science of

“It has been noted that in the city of New modern city-making. York, in one year, for every mile of street pave- The Parkview Land and Improvement Comment, there was dug one quarter mile of trench pany, a Missouri corporation, with a full-paid for one purpose or another, and that, in addition capital stock of $5,000,000 common; $500,000 preto this, there was an opening of some kind or ferred stock; bonded debt $3.500,000 first mortgage another made in such pavement during that year, bonds, and $1,000,000 second mortgage bonds, as frequently as every thirty-seven feet apart." total securities, therefore, being $10,000,000,

Such widespread examples as that determined owns in fee simple in the best residential quarter the founders of Zion City to attempt a much of St. Louis 1,388 acres, which the company needed reform.

proposes to make the handsomest similar residenThe improved and broadened end of Euclid tial quarter in the United States. They have Avenue, known as East Cleveland, is a model employed the best local and Eastern talent, and residential suburb. It extends beyond too, and

have the opportunity to develop the locality into is terraced down to Lake Erie. The late Mayor

a veritable American Park Monceau, less monuC. E. Bolton, who was largely responsible for its mental, but more modern and scientific, and, advancement, in a paper read at the last Conven- withal, quite as beantiful. This may be easily tion of the American League for Civic Improve- accomplished, providing the right start is made. ment, made the following statements:

And in that they have already engaged an archiAll water, sewer and gas-pipes are placed in

tect and an engineer who were authorized to the road lawns.” "The garbage furnace is in select an expert to work with them, it is safe to operation.” (East Cleveland adopted the Waring predict that the joint work of the three will method of sewage purification). “By a scien

result in a unique production. tific treatment of sewage and drainage, conta

We have seen that, aside from the gradual gious diseases have been practically prohibited.'

development of suburbs under the direction of The scheme for planting trees in East Cleve

public-spirited borough officers, or even aside land is this : “That one row of trees shall be

from the more or less gradual work of improveplanted midway between the sidewalk and the

ment companies, new communities spring up with curb, and that a second row of trees shall be planted inside the inner sidewalk line."

startling rapidity. It requires but the moving of "Every village should have a civic club

a factory, the construction of an irrigation dam, house, centrally located, in which should be pro

or a religious exodus to bring them into existvided suitable halls for municipal meetings, lec

ence. Likewise, the sudden contraction of great tures, concerts, a room for a library, and for distances, whereby hitherto remote points become various society and club meetings-in fact, proper easily accessible, renders it necessary for us to accommodations for everybody and everything study these problems in the light of modern disthat will give an uplift to a community." He covery. In doing so, unification becomes a bedhas thus recommended just what we have already rock principle. And the more perfect the organicalled attention to in connection with the Cali- zation the more perfect each individual homestead fornia projects.

should be. The redeeming of unimproved spots, and the Considering the most exhaustive and effective clearing of congested neighborboods, either by utilization of small individual properties, it may park extension or by intelligently conducted be said that more can be gotten from a given site improvement companies, is a great work, and one in a well-regulated suburban colony than from of the crying needs of all our cities.

the same site where adjoining owners are under Industrial and social betterment movements in no restrictions other than those imposed by the manufacturing towns like Dayton, O., or, better ordinary civic authorities; and, further, the yet, like the industrial commonwealth of Port smaller the garden the more evident becomes the Sunlight, England, where the Lever Brothers truth of the assertion. have provided homes, schools, churches, dining- The illustrations accompanying this article rooms, parks, open-air theatres and club houses are not intended to prove the advantages just for their 3,000 employees, indicate the presence noted, as in each case a given site has been


planned independently and without consideration of its neighbors.

In No. 3 and No. 4, however, it is evident that the land is well utilized by placing the house to one side rather than in the middle of the lot, and in both it is likewise desirable that the right-hand neighbor should not build equally close to the nearest party line. On the other hand, should they both, and every one else in the block, build at the right-hand end of their respective lots, as they might be compelled to do under the wise provisions of the deeds, each would enjoy for all time the greatest possible amount of isolation and each would have a larger and a more effective area to develop than if they built in the middle of their respective properties. True, the houses would be equidistant in either case, but in the latter the dividing fences and shrubs would greatly reduce the available surface, while to neither the right nor to the left of any house would there be room for a broad treatment of the grounds.

Briefly, it is usually poor policy to build a house in the centre of a small lot, since a compact, open area to one side is more desirable than a mere frame of moderate width. this rule is in general, the lay of the land, the view and the exposure may cause occasional exceptions.

Taking the plans up in order, in No. I we have a 35-foot corner lot, in which an attempt has been made to provide for a certain amount of out-ofdoor life and privacy. This has been accomplished by means of a side porch screened by shrubs planted on a low terrace. Both frontages are given up entirely to living quarters, while a service court, placed inconspicuously at the rear, avoids at every point any appearance of disorder or even the suggestion of an unsightly enclosure. Furthermore, many will agree that the internal arrangements are fully as spacious as those usually found in a house on a lot of these dimensions.

Moral: Do not be afraid to utilize
every inch of your property.

Privacy on a 75-foot lot between party walls, in No. 2, is obtained by building across the entire lot, and securing light from the front and back

True as


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only. A raised loggia and court form an out-of-door apartment on the very street where one is safe from the gaze of the passer-by ; and yet, where one may see without being seen. The service road at the rear gives access to trades

A walled garden and greenhouse terminate the view from the dining-room and terrace, and utilizes over half of the backyard in a formal and attractive manner.


Moral : Avoid dark, damp
side-yards and alleys.

A shallow lot need not be either devoid of privacy or pinched in appearance. In No. 3 and No.4 two methods are shown of disguising the real depth of the property.

In the first an architectural treatment has been adopted, while in the second the trick has been accomplished by means of planting. The result in both cases suggests extensive grounds well utilized. The former provides an arbor walk and flower garden as an integral part of the house, with a large sunny playground out of sight of the street ; while the latter makes an ornamental feature of the garden and hot-beds. A grove in the background terminates the view. The grounds are designed to blend with the houses, while a drying enclosure and service courts do not in any way conflict with the beauty of the pictures. Vistas through each house are attractively terminated at the further party line, in order that coming down stairs in one case, or looking from the hall through the drawing-room in the other, an extensive view of the property may be had at a glance.

Moral : Design house and garden

as a unit.

In No. 5 a costly home on an acre lot is laid out in a democratic fashion. It is assumed that there are no fences along the street on which the property faces, and for this reason the general appear


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