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THE ARCHITECTURAL ANNUAL
main a standard reference work for many years to tect, he offered Mr. Cass Gilbert an opportunity come. The interest thus aroused was followed by to popularize himself, which the latter was not the Institute considering plans for the beautifica- slow to seize. He showed that structural diffition of the national Capitol, resulting in the ap- culties, often requiring the services of an engipointment by Congress of a commission consisting neer to solve, do not lessen the architect's power of Daniel H. Burnham, of Chicago; Chas. F. and responsibility, but rather increases his comMcKim, of New York, and Frederick Law Olm- mand by requiring more executive ability and stead, Jr., of Boston, to visit the most beautiful greater broadmindedness, concluding by asserting cities of Europe with a view to studying what that the engineer would always be the servant of has been done abroad, which might suggest a the architect. Mr. Clarence Blackall, of Boston; line of action to be adopted in the improvement Mr. John Calvin Stevens, of Portland, Me.; Mr. of Washington.
Julius Harder, of New York, and Mr. Sylvester The League is an annual referendum of en- Baxter, of Boston, each added much to the sucthusiasts, and scrupulously avoids any tendency cess of the reunion, and contributed many new towards more complete federation.
and stimulating ideas, which have been incorWhile having declared itself as opposed to porated in the official report. allying itself with the Institute, it is the intention to establish a community of interests rather than to waste its energies and prestige by opposing
le can adiance ourselie's neither br ostenta
tion nor by imitation.''- Brooks Adams. any of the well-considered policies of the older body.
A Seal “ Any art worth the name must be evolved by THE emblem of the Washington Club is much the demands of contemporary society.” — Brooks
the best design of its kind yet adopted. Adams.
Its local significance, portrayed by the dome of
the Capitol and an American note suggested by The Philadelphia Convention
the spread-eagle and shield, are by no means the
best qualities it possesses. In the first place it THE HE third annual convention of the Archi
composes well, although no better than Mr. tectural League of America was entertained
Wilson Eyre's figure on the T-Square Club seal ; by the T-Square Club from May 23d to 25th and secondly, it has a vigorous architectural inclusive. Business sessions were conducted
character which is eminently appropriate. The nearly continuously, taking place in the gallery suggestion of a United States shield is given a of the Art Club, at the University of Pennsyl- clever Ionic touch, while the eagle's wings have vania (where a luncheon was served in the School
been conventionally treated ; likewise, an artistic of Architecture by the Seniors in cap and gown),
band frames the whole, and yet without confuson the steamer to New Castle, Del., and at the
ing the well-defined top and bottom of the design. farewell banquet in Horticultural Hall ; consid
We regret we do not know the designer's ered by many the most important session of all.
name, but are inclined to think it originated from As usual, the enthusiasm was sustained to the
the same hand that drew the clever cartouches last, and every one returned home stimulated to
surmounting a number of recently-erected posthigher endeavor and more steadfastly devoted to
office buildings, many being illustrated as decoraarchitecture as an art.
tive headings in this volume. Mr. Claude Fayette Bragdon, of Rochester, was the first to arouse the convention. His able paper, "Mysticism and Architecture," illustrated “ The soul of art is character."— Prof. Huber
Terkomer. by rapid sketches on the blackboard, was constantly interrupted by applause. It was supplemented by an equally brilliant essay entitled,
Mural Paintings - The Relation of Color to Form in Architectural MR. Abbey has added to his series of mural
paintings in the Boston Public Library; exing of reports from different clubs provoked warm cept for these and a few notable decorations in pridiscussion and a valuable interchange of ideas. vate houses and hotels little has been done during Mr. Chas. F. Caffin's address, “Intellectual Hon- the past year in the United States. But abroad, esesty in Architectural Design," was right from the pecially in France, many able painters have been shoulder, and not altogether appreciated, fair and kept busy decorating interiors. In fact, high art just as many of his criticisms were. In praising is now and again used as an advertising medium ; the engineer to the disparagement of the archi- and so great a man as Alphonse de Neuville,
recently championed the cause of artistic street bear upon a series of subjects more or less sociosigns and symbols. For years, in the Gare St. logical, devoted exclusively to civic conditions and Lazare, many small oil-paintings, neatly framed, municipal embellishment. In these and along have been displayed, illustrating the beauties of other lines the President has taken up the lead the country through which the railway passes; but established by his predecessor, Mr. Adin B. Lacey, it has remained for the Paris, Lyons & Mediter- so that the Club has more than once made itself ranean Railway to make the mural decorations felt in public affairs. Its recently issued catalogue, in its new station “one of the sights of Paris.” edited by Mr. Maurice Feustman, again leads in
Travelers do not usually associate railway novelty and resourcefulness, and once more instations with ideas of art and luxury, yet one cludes some trenchant editorials worth reading. finds them in both the new railway stations of The Club is also holding a series of private exbithe French metropolis. In the Gare de Lyons bitions of individual illustrators' work, which there are two palatial salles de buffet, the walls and thus far have proved interesting and stimulating. ceilings of which have been decorated, and some Having entertained the third annual convention twenty-seven well-known French artists, includ- of the Architectural League of America the presing such names as Flameng, Maignan, Genex, ent administration will go down in club history Rosset, Granger, Billotte, Allègre, Burnand, as one of the most eventful in its long and useful Montenard, Olive, Carl Rosa, Latouche and St. career. Pierre. The range of subject selected is varied, including landscapes and conventionalized paint
“The style of steel and glass and clay products, ing symbolizing Paris, Monte Carlo, Nice, etc.,
originating in France and England, developed
principally in France and Germany, adopted in allegories representing characteristic phases of
throughout the civilized world, and just beginning life in each place.
to assume characteristic decorative expressionPerhaps some day our own people may be the only true style of the century.”—R. J. appealed to in an equally dignified and vivid
Coolidge, Jr. manner; if so, may it prove a profitable experi
Club Catalogues ment.
HE architectural press has been unanimous “There, in the very heart of the roar and con
in trying to frown down the now frequent fusion of crowded Paris, Puris de Chavannes' practice of publishing a catalogue in conjunction symbolic figures dwell in peace and calm, offer- with annual exhibitions. While there may be ing dreams of the past and future, more lasting
reasons for their unanimity other than the invaand greater than the deeds of a day.”—Chas. Mulford Robinson.
sion of the advertising field, there is no denying that these publications, amateurish as many
are, have been a great force in stimulating local The T-Square Club
endeavor. And, further, the rivalry which has THE HE T-Square Club has done itself great credit been thus engendered is most clearly evident in
under the presidency of Mr. George B. Page. the friendly interchange of publications and the The syllabus of the year is the third and best of eagerness with which they are studied. the three in which a series of related programs While it is not our purpose to discuss the have constituted the year's work in monthly right and wrong of soliciting advertisements, we competition. In the first an attempt was made to should like to say a word upon the subject of cultivate more logical thought by relating the purely money-making catalogues, where a lowproblems to one another, and a domestic estab- standard book is produced and where the spirit lishment was designed taking up house, garden, of rivalry and progressiveness is altogether out stable and accessories one by one, terminating in of proportion to the amount of space devoted to a general review which involved a bird's-eye per- advertising. Certainly, when one of the most spective of the entire property. It was the first prosperous and largest architectural societies of scholarship competition, and was won by Mr. the United States sends out its circulars, requestLloyd Titus. The next year a wider range of ing architects to submit drawings to their Catasubjects was determined upon, and a series of logue Committee for consideration and possible entrances, including an entrance to a country publication, requiring that the freight shall be church, to a landed estate, to a manufacturing paid by the exhibitor ; and when such a society establishment, to the Nicaragua Canal, to a ceme- makes a practice of selling the cuts to the extery, to a public park and to a boulevard were hibitor after they have been used (when it is the chosen, and the designs submitted showed grati- custom of other societies to give them to him), fying results. Mr. Wetherill P. Tront proved the we are inclined to think that the virtue of the winner. The six problems for the present season architectural club has been lost, and that the
THE ARCHITECTURAL ANNUAL
architectural press is right in condemning the first architectural exhibition of any size ever held practice. It must be remembered, however, that in the Dominion, and, owing to its enterprise, the catalogue came into existence as a souvenir was the first on this Continent to show a comand remains the financial agent making exhibi- plete set of drawings for the buildings of the tions possible.
Pan-American Exhi ition. Thus the usefulness of the exhibition must Alert to the requirements of the day, and be considered, as the abolition of the one means wishing to be among the leaders in matters of the abolition of the other. So long as the money municipal art, it wasinstrumental in bringing about derived from advertising is devoted exclusively a couple of largely attended lectures on the subject. to exhibition purposes, to the improvement of the It has adopted a scheme of education which is calexhibition and catalogue, to the importation of culated to interest the students and draughtsmen drawings from foreign countries, to the securing of Toronto, and in other ways is rivaling the of lecturers to help educate those interested in Ontario Association, whose handsome quarters the advancement of architecture, it remains a in the same city indicate the existence of still legitimate occupation for the architect, which further organized architectural endeavor. none will deny. But when a society becomes It is gratifying to find the work of the League arrogant and unmindful of its obligations, we spreading beyond the borders of the States, and are inclined to believe that the practice is not to to be able to look forward to a hearty greeting at the advancement of the profession.
the next convention which is to be held over the The first catalogue issued by the Detroit border under the auspices of this small but valiant Architectural Club was a work of art, from the club. printers' standpoint, and one of the most fully illustrated that has yet appeared.
*Thus may be established a propaganda in the Last year the Washington Club issued the most interests of a warmer comradeship, a purer praisumptuous volume we have yet seen; and for two
tice and a nobler art."-Henry Van Brunt. years the influential Chicago Club has brought out a volume without advertisements! This has
The Past Year in England been done by soliciting aid from “ whose names as such are printed in the volume, WE quote from the facile pen of Mr. Raffles and in that many architects are among the con
, tributors it is evident that its usefulness is recog
“The last year of the nineteenth century has nized. Furthermore, it should be stated that dur- not been in anywise remarkable so far as British ing the past two years the Chicago catalogue has architecture is concerned. A number of imporexpressed a more consistent and tenacious adher- tant building projects have been initiated, it is ence to the underlying principles governing local true, but they did not appear likely to lead to endeavor than any of its rivals. In short, it may any striking development in architectural art. be said that an interest attaches to these volumes The designs submitted for the frontages of the that the regular periodicals can never usurp so
eastern portion of the Strand, as it is to be, when long as they continue to represent the individual the new thoroughfare to Holborn is opened out, efforts and unselfish aspirations of the serious, by no means realized the expectations that were hard-working, aspiring younger element of the formed when the names of the architects invited profession.
to send in designs were made known. The con
ditions were scarcely favorable, perhaps, and the "Our designers have hardly studied the rich time allowed for their preparation was somewhat resources of our plant life long and patiently short. But, anyhow, none of the invited archienough to evolve national types of ornament.".
tects rose to the height of a great occasion, and Emil Lorch.
the opportunity for a fine architectural develop
ment was lost." The Toronto Club
We would add that the designs we have seen TORONTO has a club of active, ambitious for this much-needed improvement are even more
young men, who first made themselves known disappointing than the proposed architectural in the States by sending a delegate to the Cleve- treatment of the Victoria Memorial commented land Convention, resulting in the formation of upon elsewhere. We will not, however, dispute the “ Architectural League of America." They the following, though our own domestic architeccall it the "Architectural Eighteen Club," and ture is second to none in compactness, and often it is due to the fact that it was a charter member rivals that of England in its home-like charm : of the League that the League assumed its inter- "England now stands easily first amongst all national title. During the past year it held the nations in regard to her domestic architecture, and
THE ARCHITECTURAL ANNUAL
for this result the nineteenth century is largely As City Architect he made himself felt and added responsible. From the time when Norman Shaw a dignity to his office not often equaled. Likeand Eden Nesfield first began to charm us with wise, Mr. Cass Gilbert has a way of asserting their original treatment of old work, so skilfully himself before a committee that is as enlightenadapted to modern requirements, down to the ing to them as it is benefiting to the cause of present we have advanced the domestic architect higher standards in architectural practice. ure of this country to a point beyond which it The fear of offending is unreasonable if an seems difficult to imagine further progress in the architect is simply standing up for his rights; and direction of convenience, if not of art."
the more direct he is in securing them the more
he will be respected. To refuse to do work he is Many of our readers will be glad to learn that not to be paid for, and to ask for extra compenwhere Little Dorrit used to wander in the vicinity sation when outside work is thrust upon him, may of the Marshalsea Prison, London, a public play- occasionally lead to a disagreement; if so, let him ground has recently been opened and named after console himself by remembering, that "you canDicken's heroine. This being but one of many not make an omelet without breaking eggs." tangible results contributing to social betterment and the larger needs of the community.
“ American architecture has shown such marvelous improvement and so much of progress dur
ing the last decade, that attentize interest in the * Paris, Berlin, Rome, l'ienna, and many
present and hopefulness with regard to the future, smaller cities, have adopted regulations for the
most natural.” - Prof. H. Langford external appearance of their building's as natu
A Forward Policy
WE congratulate the Institute upon having
induced Secretary Gage to adopt the followWE
E wish to enter a vigorous protest against ing noteworthy and important rules to facilitate
the obliging architect-against the man who the working of the Treasury Act under which is ever ready to give gratuitous professional ad- government competitions will be held in the vice and sometimes prepares expensive drawings future : for nothing in order to interest possible clients. (1) That the jury of award should be chosen We wish to condemn the man who gives his time first of all ; should have the programme of the to the adjustment of legal difficulties without projected building submitted to it, so as to bebeing paid for it; who works early and late come thoroughly familiar with its details, and be selecting and arranging furniture and decora- able to make suggestions of value, and should tions for clients who pay him only a five per have a voice in the selection of the list of comcent, commission on the cost of the bare struc- petitors. ture, and we wish to rebuke the timid architect (2) That the jury should be paid something who is foolish enough to pay the specialist, for the time it actually spends in its work, besides heating, lighting, sanitary or structural expert, its traveling and other necessary expenses, which whatever he may be-who may have to be con- it already receives. sulted, from his own commission.
(3) That the jury visit the site of the proIt demoralizes the profession and is belittling to jected building in every instance, so as to be the the architect.
better able to judge of the peculiar adaptation of Why should an architect give an opinion, on the plans to the surroundings. which often hinges a vast expenditure, for nothing, when a lawyer or a doctor receives a large fee for “It is full time for us to say with Michelangelo, no more important advice? Surely, the architect's 'We go our way alone. It is for this purpose I experience and training are as costly and as labori- take it that American art was called into existous for him to obtain as that of other profes
ence, and we must let no criticism deter us, and sional men, and since the service rendered is as
no past fetter us."'— William Ordway Partridge. great, it should be as fully paid for. It is not so many years since Mr. Daniel H.
Pure Design Burnham had occasion to give the then Secretary WE
E are glad the term pure design, meaning of the Treasury a very plain talking to on these unaffected, straightforward, and simple subjects, and to his bold stand we owe much of design, has been used so much of late in the disthe increasing prestige of the profession.
cussion of shams, artifices and the florid slang of In Mr. Edmund M. Wheelwright, Boston has architecture generally, since the counterfeit and a champion of professional rights to be proud of. he real thing cannot be brought face to face too
It is wrong
THE ARCHITECTURAL ANNUAL
often. Moreover, the term suggests a seeking to appreciate the wonder of the Marconi signal after knowledge and a desire for something bet system and the new sight of the X-ray machine. ter than what we have been accustomed to, that is We are slow to observe the significance of these most encouraging. It suggests a consciousness progressive changes. And when Mr. Marconi gradually dawning in the architectural mind that announces that his wireless system requires a there is an inspiring present demanding visible receiving station two or three hundred feet high, expression, and a gradual awakening to the fact the architect sees only a monstrous scaffold by that while “the study of the work of the past the sea, and does not think of how his Venetian goes far in all arts and sciences to suggest, to confréres decorated the flag-standards in St. stimulate and to encourage the present,” yet Mark's Square; nor does it occur to him that such study is elementary and superfluous in com- these receiving stations must become conspicuous parison with reliable contemporaneous observa- beacons and, in time, perhaps, the great wayside tion. While art growth represents evolution monuments of the world. But it is not necessary rather than revolution, the now frequent use of to look into the future. If our architects could the phrase pure design indicates that the styles only see the present clearly they would be doing of the past are being regarded as mere stepping better work. stones, which should never be confounded with Aside from the esthetic and sentimental bed-rock principles.
viewpoint they are slow to grasp the practical The living architecture of the twentieth century requirements of an everyday problem. has comfort and the amelioration of the condition Ignoring those who wilfully misrepresent hisof the people as its strongest characteristics. tory and blindly subordinate the function of a The impulse of fraternity is the romance of mod- structure to produce a capricious effect, there are ern life. Therefore, design with distinction and many honest designers who, through a lack of taste, bearing these truths in mind, and the result ability to observe and assimilate correctly, fail will be neither archeological nor spurious adapta- utterly in meeting actual requirements. tions.
Every problem is a new one.
The designer who begins by making a list of "Ile must hope that the living wigor of
all its requirements, arranging them in order and humanity will break through the excessive monotony of modern arrangements, and assert
classifying them in a systematic manner, from itself in new forms."— Vladame Belloc.
time to time noting the slightest deviation from
any similar problem he has ever attempted to Reliable Observation
solve, and who gives his undivided attention to
the data thus obtained, without muddling his S there a national sentiment seeking a visible
brain with foreign ideas, will soon train himself expression in the United States? Or have we failed to assimilate our foreign population so that architecture when he learns he can rely upon
to see clearly, and will gain a new confidence in as a people we have no ideals? These questions study and observation. must suggest themselves to every artist's mind,
An imaginative person will not only meet all even if they remain unanswered in his work.
the requirements, but he will evolve an expression Possibly, the theme is too big for the average
to interpret them. artist to grasp; or perhaps he does not try to.
What was at first difficult puzzling and without However this may be, it is strange there is no
art possibilities, has only to be analyzed and rearchitect whose work recalls early American his- duced to perfect orderliness for the true artist to tory--the sturdy, pure and simple life of our
find in it a counterbalancing note of beauty. It forefathers-as Howard Pyle's does in illustra
is always there, if but seldom found. tion. To be sure, we have a lot of producers of new old Colonial which sometimes pleases without
If it is not presumptious, we should like to giving intellectual delight, but being neither true offer a query for the consideration of American to the past nor to the present, it is hardly worthy
architects. Is not artistic forin just as much a of consideration.
peculiarity of race as is language?
Are American architects more likely to express In our best modern attempts our work is
themselves truly and freely in styles borrowed usually tainted by some foreign affectation, as we
from France and Germany and Italy than their are often afraid to let a straightforward piece of authors would be if they wrote their books in construction speak for itself; and in covering French, German and Italian? An American it with meaningless decoration we suppress its
style may come, but it will not come because
America is a great industrial country with a t'ast native eloquence and invest it with mockery.
population. It will come when there is a body of Marvelous discoveries and new triumphs have
the population possessed with the creative artistic become such ordinary archievements that we fail spiril."'-- The Spectator.