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HEBREW AND ENGLISH LEXICON

OF THE

OLD TESTAMENT

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A

HEBREW AND ENGLISH LEXICON

OF THE

OLD TESTAMENT

WITH AN APPENDIX CONTAINING THE BIBLICAL ARAMAIC

BASED ON THE LEXICON OF

WILLIAM GESENIUS

AS TRANSLATED BY

EDWARD ROBINSON

LATE PROFESSOR IN THE UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, NEW YORK

Edited with constant reference to the Thesaurus of Gesenius as completed by E. Rödiger, and

with authorized use of the latest German editions of Gesenius'

Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament

BY

FRANCIS BROWN, D.D.

DAVENPORT PROFESSOR OF HEBREW AND THE COGNATE LANGUAGES IN THE UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

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739 t R66

1898

Oxford

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

BY HORACE HART, M.A. PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

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HE need of a new Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament has been

so long felt that no elaborate explanation of the appearance of the present work seems called for. Wilhelm Gesenius, the father of modern Hebrew Lexicography, died in 1842. His Lexicon Manuale Hebraicum et Chaldaicum in V.T. Libros, representing a much riper stage of his lexicographical work than his earlier Hebrew dictionaries, was published in 1833, and the corresponding issue of his Hebräisches und Chaldüisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament, upon which the later German editions more or less directly depend, appeared in 1834. The Thesaurus philologicus Criticus Linguee Hebræa et Chaldææ Veteris Testamenti, begun by Gesenius some years earlier, and not completed at his death, was substantially finished by Roediger in 1853, although the concluding part, containing Indices, Additions and Corrections, was not published until 1858. The results of Gesenius' most advanced work were promptly put before English-speaking students. In 1824 appeared Gibbs' translation of the Neues Hebräischdeutsches Handwörterbuch, issued by Gesenius in 1815, and in 1836 Edward Robinson published his translation of the Latin work of 1833. This broad-minded, sound and faithful scholar added to the successive editions of the book in its English form the newest materials and conclusions in the field of Hebrew word-study, receiving large and valuable contributions in manuscript from Gesenius himself, and, after the latter's death, carefully incorporating into his translation the substance of the Thesaurus, as its fasciculi appeared.

But the last revision of Robinson's Gesenius was made in 1854, and Robinson died in 1863. The last English edition of Gesenius, prepared by Tregelles, and likewise including additions from the Thesaurus, dates as far back as 1859. In the meantime Shemitic studies have been pursued on all hands with energy and success. The language and text of the Old Testament have been subjected to a minute and searching inquiry before unknown. The languages cognate with Hebrew have claimed the attention of specialists in nearly all civilized countries. Wide fields of research have been opened, the very existence of which was a surprise, and have invited explorers. Arabic, ancient and modern, Ethiopic, with its allied dialects, Aramaic,

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