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whose blood marked the lintels and posts of the doors of the Israelites; and it is quite impossible, that another interpretation can be rightly assigned to it.
The bread which was broken, and the cup of blessing which was drunk, rendered it in like manner typical of the Eucharist in the Christian Church; which is St. Paul's argument in 1 Cor. x. 16. “ The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ ? The bread, which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ ?” As this lamb was called the body of the Passover, so Christ called the bread his body; and as it was sufficient to eat of the Paschal Lamb a part about the size of an olive, so in the Christian Sacrament a minute participation of the bread is sufficient for the commemorative purpose of the institution. According to Josephus, the Paschal Lamb was sacrificed between the ninth hour and the eleventh hours, and it was in this space of time that Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us. In the same way the sprinkling of the blood is compared to the sprinkling of Christ's blood; in fine, the more we inquire into the subject, the stronger will the points of resem
Several circumstances under the old dispensation, as we have observed, were not only emblematic, but
actually typical of those under the Gospel. “All these things,” says St. Paul, “ happened unto them for ensamples; and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come !." There is a pre-ordained analogy between them, which authorizes our denominating them typical. Thus, when the people chode with Moses? in the wilderness, because they were in a barren land without water, and Moses at the command of God struck the rock with his rod, and “the water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their beasts also 5,” St. Paul says; "they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them; and that Rock was Christ 4." This is definite and conclusive. Our Lord is repeatedly called a Rock in Scripture. “O Lord, my rock and my Redeemer,” says the Psalmist 5. “ Unto thee will I cry, O Lord my rock 6.” Again, “For thou art my rock and my fortress 7." “I will say to God my rock, why hast thou forgotten me 8 ?” “God only is my rock '." “God is the rock of my heart 10.”
“ The rock of my salvation ".” “ The rock of
“The rock of my refuge 12.” These are but a few of the examples that are to be found in Scripture, but they are sufficient to corroborate our
previous observations. The Israelites in the wilderness' represented the Christians ; they were in a barren land, and received life from the waters that gushed out of the rock, just as the Christians receive spiritual refreshment from Christ. Christ also upheld the Church, which was built upon a ROCK.
The manna, upon which the Israelites were fed, was typical of Christ, who is the bread of life. The Israelites were temporarily fed upon the one, the Christians spiritually upon the other. “Our fathers," says Jesus, “ did eat manna in the desert; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat. Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life; he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst !.” Here we have our Lord's authority for applying the manna in the desert to Himself?.
1 John vi. 31-35.
2 No definite ineaning of the word manna has ever been given. Many imagine it to signify, “What is it?" to which the words
they wist not what it was," seem to refer. The idea is strongly St. John, in his Epistle to the seven Churches of Asia, thus writes, “He that hath an ear, let him urged by Dr. Adam Clarke in loco, and it is exceedingly probable, as far as the Israelites were concerned. Yet, on the other hand, the word is Arabic, and manna is still copiously found in the same locality, distilling from the Sant and other trees, as Niebuhr and Burckhardt have shown ;-we may, therefore, suppose the Israelites to have heard the Arabian term from Moses, who certainly must have known it, when he was tending Jethro's flocks; but as it sounded to them in their own language, like man hu, what is it? we may easily imagine, that they made this exclamation. But it is very evident, although it "lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground,” that it contained sufficient temporal nourishment for the Israelites, just as the spiritual manna nourishes all those who believe. Dr. Cruden describes the manna as that delicious food wherewith God fed the children of Israel in the deserts of Arabia, during their continuance there for forty years, from their eighth encampment in the wilderness of Sin. “ It was," says he, "a little grain, white like hoar frost, round, and of the bigness of coriander seed. It fell every morning upon the dew, and when the dew was exhaled by the heat of
the manna appeared alone lying upon the rocks or the sand.” Ex. xvi. 15. Numb. xi. 7. It fell every day except on the Sabbath, and this only about the camp of the Israelites. Ex. xvi. 5. It fell in such great quantities during the whole forty years of their journey in the wilderness, that it was sufficient to feed the whole multitude of above a million of souls ; every one of whom gathered the quantity of an homer for his share every day, which is about three quarts of English
It maintained this vast multitude, and yet none of them found any inconvenience from the constant eating of it. Every sixth day there fell a double quantity of it; and though it putrified when it was kept any other day, yet on the Sabbath it suffered no such alteration. And the same manna that was melted by the heat of the sun, when it was left in the field, was of so hard a consistence, when it was brought into their tents,
hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches ; To him that overcometh, will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth, saving he that receiveth it ?.” The hidden manna mentioned by the Apostle, is a clear allusion to the passage which we have quoted above; and which declares Christ to have been the true bread, that came down from heaven to give life to the world. Jesus declares that “ he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever 2” Bread, as we have seen, was considered by our Saviour a thing of considerable or typical importance; with bread He performed a miracle, and fed five thousand in the desert. When He took bread He said, “This is my body.” St. Paul also, as before quoted, said, “ The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ 3?!?
The serpent of brass, that Moses set upon a pole for the Israelites to look upon, as a remedy for the bites of the fiery serpents, was a type of Christ. Our Saviour Himself declared the analogy. “ As Moses,” said He, “ lifted up the serpent in the wilderness,
that it was used to be beaten in mortars, and would even endure the fire, was baken in pans, made into paste, and so into cakes. Numb. xi. 8.
· Rev. ii. 17. 3 John vi. 58. 3 1 Cor. x. 16.