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The population of England, proper, excluding Wales, Scotland, &c., may be reckoned at something near,
16,195,058 Of Wales, Scotland, and other dependencies at home,
10,336,017 That of the United States at
Sq. miles The area of land in England proper, at
32,243,200 or 30.330 Wales, Scotland, &c.,
42,444,800 or 66,320
the United States,
938,000,000 or 1,450,000 «
new territories, including Texas,' 1,192,971,510 or 1,861,110 In the former there is not much room for great progress in these particulars, while in the latter there are boundless resources. The increase of inhabitants in the first is about 1 4-10 per cent, per annum, and in the last, that is the United States, 3 3-10 per cent.
The valuation of property, real and personal, in Great Britain, is very great, and here the comparison is against us, but then she has incurred an iminense debt amounting to 3,800 millions of dollars, which is a very great drawback upon her prosperity.
The valuation of property in the United States exceeds 8,298,000,000 dollars. The public debt of ihe general government and the several states, 285,911,554 dollars.
A country, like individuals, should be estimated in its property to be worth just what may remain after discharging all its liabilities. A large portion of the property of England is personal, and consists of the government scrip, in the form of consols, annuities, and bills of exchequer. Heavy burdens are therefore imposed upon the property and people, to enable government to provide for its inte. rest, sinecures, and unavoidable expenses for the support of its administration. “Her revenues for these objects amount to 270.000,000 of dollars, exclusive of poor rates, the church, local taxation, India," &c., annually.
In order, however, to form an estimate, so far as the cases can be made analogous, we will take the old thirteen states and Vermont, where rail roads have become more extended than in the new states. Here are, in area of land, 251,255,360 acres, or 403,124 square miles.
In England and dependencies, as before stated, 74,668,200 acres, or 116,700 square miles. The population in these fourteen states, by estimation, is
12,028,633 in England, &c.,
26,381,105 Thus is shown great disparity in capability of improvement, both in extent of territory and accumulation of population, for it must be remembered the increase here is more than twice as much as it is there.
The amount of railways in Great Britain, so far as we have authentic information, is about 4,400 miles in use to January, 1849.
3,000 miles in progress of construction.
6,200 miles chartered, but will not be built at present. Total, 13,600 miles, with capitals of $1,422,000,000. The amount already absorbed there exceeds 827,000,000 dollars for these works, and we find that in twenty-two months (from January 1, 1847, to October 30, 1818,) there has been paid by British shareholders no less than £75,000,000, or $333,300,000 to the railway companies, and nearly the whole of this has been expended.”' Large, very large sums go for preliminary expenses, excise, and customs for taxes, and yet mosi of the great roads now amalgamated paid from 6 to 8 per cent. dividends in June, 1848.
The railways in the portion of the United States referred to above, and now in operation, extend to 5831 miles, and there is no prospect of rapid extension at this time. The cost has amounted to $182,843,966, but a little more than half
Statistics.-Income, doc., of Great Britain.
the sum that has been expended in Great Britain within the last twenty-two months. This statement may not be perfectly accurate, on account of the constant progress in these works, but is derived from reliable sources, and is an approximation to the truth.
The magnitude and continual accumulation of business in our country to justify these enterprises, can hardly be grasped by the mind at once. As one instance of its importance, we will state that the value of the produce of the Mississippi valley annually set afloat upon its 16,674 miles of navigable waters, iis estimated at $262,825,620, and if the returns are only reckoned as of equal value, we have a grand aggregate of 526 millions of dollars, as the worth of the products and merchandise afloat on these inland waters, while our whole imports from and exports to foreign countries, do not exceed 306 millions of dollars. Chains of railroads are built, and in progress of building, to bring much of this produce 10 the Atlantic ports, thus saving time in transportation, and avoiding many risks. In view of these matters, then, who will say we are going " too fast and too far,” and although much money is required, it is not extinguished by these works, but like tools it may be used to accomplish the purpose, and then returned to be used for other departments of business.
INCOME, EXPENDITURE, AND EXPORTS OF GREAT BRITAIN.
LONDON, Nov. 9, 1849. The following comparative statement of the public income of Great Britain, for the three last years, is abridged from an official return: Customs and excise.
1848. Spirits, foreign,
£2,426,927 £2,499,810 £2,747,591 British,
5,949,151 5,235,489 5,455,475 Malt,
5,081,650 4,456,738 5,225,072 Hops,
1,892,242 1,704,319 1,732,295 Sugar and molasses,
4,050,418 4,504,650 4,741,272 Tea,
5,112,005 5,066,494 5,329,992 Coffee,
709,632 Tobacco and snuff,
4,319,088 4,263,702 4,350,733 Butter and cheese,
246,194 Carrants and raisins,
750,864 Soap, candles, and tallow, 1,055,724
974,642 1,090,853 Coals, (sea borne,)
4,183 Bricks, tiles, and slates, 638,422 681,329 455,846
* In the North British Review for August we find the following table:
Railroad traffic in Great Britain.
Total receipts Years. No. of passengers, passengers.
Receipts from goods 1843, 23,466,896 £3,110,257 Years. from goods. and passengers. 1814, 27,763,605 3,439,294 | 1813, £1,424,932 £4,535,189 1845, 33,791,253 3,976,341 1814,
1,635,380 5,074,674 1846, 48,796,983 4,725,216 1845, 2,233,373 6,208,719 1847, 51,352,163 5,149,002 1816,
2,846,353 7,565,569 1848, 57,965,070 5,720,382
7,362,884 8,512,886 1818,
! Total income,
£58,437,891 £59,230,415 £58,290,734
£2,817,777 £2,848,494 £2,836,788 Charges arising from the public debt,
28,077,987 28,141,532 28,563,517 CIVIL GOVERNMENT. Civil list, royal privy purse, sa
laries and tradesmen's bills, £371,800 Allowance to members of the
royal family and Prince Leopold, *
290,000 The lord 'lieutenant of Ire.
land's establishment, 26,209 Expenses of the houses of Par
liament, including printing, 102,407 Civil departments, including
superannuation allowances, 520,933 Other annuities, pensions, and allowances,
1,582,356 1,598,809 1,584,491 Judicial departm't
, and police and criminal prosecutions,
1,693,019 2,074,277 2,327,641 Diplomatic departm', salaries, disbursements and outfits,
350,818 346,915 325,852 Forces.-Army,
16,864,697 18,502,148 17,645,696
12,513 Public works,
1,015,273 988,990 858,327 Post office, expenses of collection and other charges,
1,128,442 1,186.215 1,392,344 Miscellaneous,
2,041,135 3,526,027 3,442,966
Now king of Belgium. He does not receive any thing; the balance of the annuity granted to him is, after paying the annuities, &c., due to the servants of the late Princess Charlotte, paid back to the exchequer. The sum so repaid last year was £36,000.
A more detailed account of the public expenditure, shows that the amount paid to charitable institutions for the last three years was £157,524, £237,646, and £297,189, respectively. Of the latter sum, the establishment for the administration of the poor laws cost
£202,975 There was spent in Ireland,
41,387 For Greenwich Hospital, &c., in England,
33,200 For vaccine establishment,
2,000 Polish exiles,
9,308 Toulonese and Corsican emigrants,
2,000 Protestant dissenting ministers, and poor French refugee clergy and laity, 6,319
£297,189 The increasing demands of education, science, and art, is leading to a gradual annual increase of the expenditure under this head, which, we trust, few
will be found to complain of. The total amount for the last three years was £341,216, £353,307, and £392,696, respectively. The latte amount was appropriated as follows: To the British Museum,
£57,230 Steam navigation to India,
50,000 Salaries to certain professors in Cambridge and Oxford,
2,006 University of London,
4,171 Public education, Great Britain,
86,000 Education in Ireland,
115,000 Irish academies, societies, and colleges,
22,951 Maynooth college,
26.360 Universities of Scotland,
9,896 Museum of Economic Geology, London,
10,798 Expense of the National Gallery, London,
1,099 Astronomical expenses,
6,304 Inspectors of anatomy, England,
£392,696 BRITISH EXPORTS. A lately published parliamentary document presents the following facts. The total declared value of British and Irish produce and manufactures exported from the United Kingdom to various countries, was, in 1847, £58,842,377, in 1848, £52,849,448. The British colonies took
£14,588,397 £12,654,183 The United States took
9,584,909 The Hanseatic Towns
2,858,179 China, Hong Kong,
2,067,302 Mexico, and Central and South America, (ex. Brazil)
3,761,743 Foreign West Indies,
1,010,138 All other countries,
£58,842,377 £52,849,448 A return has been published of the exports of British machinery and mill work VOL. III.—DEC., 1849.
for the year ending the 5th of January, 1849. From this it appears that the quantity taken by Russia was more than double that by any other country, the declared value in her instance being £212,712, while Spain, which comes next, figures for £98,142. Italy is the third on the list, boing for £83,561 ; then the Hanseatic towns for £58,128, France £35,197, Brazil £29,201, Holland £27,611, the East Indies £26,997, Turkey £26,124, Mexico £25,807, Java £21,285, and Egypt £20,143. All the other countries show amounts under £20,000. The general total is £817,656.
A similar return with regard to hardwares and cutlery shows the total amount exported to have been £1,860,150, of which the enormous proportion of £777.964 was taken by the United States. "Canada and the other North American colonies stand next, but only for £95,966. The general total to our colonies, including Australia for £79,103, is about £368,000. The Hanse Towns figure for £82,030, Brazil £73,473, Russia £61,664, France £51,583, the foreign West Indies £48,590, Holland £40,201, Italy £36,129, Peru £29,056, Chili £27,034, Mexico £23,476, Belgium £22,908, Spain £22,779, and Turkey £20,182.
THE COTTON TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN.
(Condensed by the Inquirer from tables in the London Times.) The imports of cotton for several periods within the last forty-four years. In 1806. Bales. In 1816.
Bales American, . 124,939 American, .
166,077 Brazil, 51,034 | Brazil,
123,450 East Indies, 7,787 East Indies,
30,670 West Indies, &c., 77,978 West Indies, &c.,