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down to the foot of Lake Ontario. The population of this would be exclusively English, with the exception of some fifty or sixty thousand French, scattered over it or settled near Detroit.
2. The State of Canada East, to include the districts of Quebec and Three Rivers, with the exception of some of the southern townships. The population of this would be almost exclusively French, with the exception of Quebec, where the Irish labouring classes are pretty numerous, but go with the French-the mercantile classes having no political influence, and indeed being quite apathetic.
3. The State of Central Canada, to consist of the Ottowa district, and of that portion of Upper Canada which lies between the Ottowa and the St. Lawrence, of the district of Montreal and of that of St. Francis, leaving to Canada East the bordering parishes of purely French character, and taking on the south the townships of British law and settlement.
21st. The American Association for the promotion of Science, opened their meeting at Cambridge, Mass., Professor Henry presiding. A paper on the Aurora Borealis was read by Prof. Secchi, of Georgetown College; one on the polar plant, or Rosin Wood, whose leaves stand with their edges north and south, by Prof. Gray; a communication by the president on the Altona Observatory; a lecture on the structure of coral animals, by Prof. Agassiz; a paper on the prime meridian, by Lieutenant Davis
. Many other interesting subjects were brought before the association, and it was agreed that the next meeting shall be held at New-Haven.
22d. The meeting of the Peace Congress was held in Paris this day. About 1,500 persons were present. The celebrated M. Victor Hugo in the chair. The flags of all nations adorned the hall. The stars and stripes of the United States occupied a conspicuous position, floating side by side with the tri-colour of France and the English unionjack. Mr. Cobden and his party were received with applause, and the American gentlemen were saluted with enthusiastic cheers. The names of parties who gave in their adhesion to the principles of the Congress were read, and then M. Victor Hugo's speech, amidst intense applause. It is described as an exquisite piece of composition and replete with the most benevolent sentiments.
Among the gentlemen present from England were Messrs. Cobden, Villiers, Hindley, Sturge, &c. Some of the French members were Victor Hugo, Horace Say, Joseph Garnier, Michel Chevalier, M. L. Archeveque, &c.
Among the American names were Elihu Burritt, Hon. C. Durkie, Rev. A. Mahon, President of Oberlin Institute, Rev.Dr. Allen, formerly President of Bowdoin College, Professor Walker, Rev. P. Berry, &c. From Belgium, M. Vischers.
Mr. Cobden proposed to restrain war by cutting off supplies-by appealing to the consciences of all men who have money to lend to withhold the sinews of war. Among the speakers was a coloured man of the name of Brown, who described himself as an escaped slave from the United States.
The French Minister of Public Works invited the members to visit the palace of Versailles, which was accepted by 1,000; and the great fountains played, hitherto exhibited only to crowned heads. They had also an interview with the President of France.
The Congress adjourned on the 25th. Victor Hugo, the president, delivered a farewell address, before quitting the chair, which was received with tremendous acclamations. It happened to be the anni-versary of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, of which the eloquent chairman was reminded only a short time before he spoke, and of which coincidence he availed himself in a masterly manner. A correspondent of the Times, speaking of the incident, says:
“He reminded his auditory that in the same city where streams of blood once flowed, and the tocsin of destruction was heard from the tower still standing near them, and where unheard of atrocities were committed in the name of religion, men were assembled on a mission of peace and love-men from distant countries, and members of various creeds. The Catholic and Protestant, the Quaker and the Presbyterian, grasped each other's hands in brotherly love, and the ministers of different forms of Christian worship led the way in that holy work. I never saw enthusiasm excited to such a pitch as at that moment. The acclamations died away only to be renewed again and again, and at length the Americans and English stood up and gave seven rounds of hurrahs."
26th. President Faustin Soulouque was crowned Emperor of Hayti. (See History.)
He is said to have sent $38,000 to England to purchase a crown. Heretofore he has been represented as a man of a blood-thirsty and cruel nature, who has put his enemies to death without mercy. He promises now to rule according to law. These are his words:
“Full of confidence in the Supreme Will, which on two solemn occasions has evinced for me its benign solicitude, I preserve the happy hope of being able worthily to respond to your expectations, by maintaining all the institutions which guaranty the rights of citizens; by causing order and peace to reign in the Empire; by assuring the triumph of the principles of liberty and equality; and by maintaining, at the price of all sacrifices, the independence of the country, and the integrity and indivisibility of its territory.
“ Haytiens! The Legislative body will at once be called on to engage in the revision of the constitutional compact, in order to put it in harmony with the new order of things; I will observe its prescriptions and cause them to be observed; I swear it before God and man.”.
VOL. 111.-SEPT., 1849. 6
Accounts were received from the Dominican Republic:
The National Congress has decreed to Santana the title of Liberator and General-in-chief of the Dominican forces, in return for his efficient services.
Buenaventura Baez, member of the Senate, has been elected President of the Republic by the electoral college, and proclaimed by Congress on the 18th August; he would no doubt accept.
Perfect tranquillity prevailed. Much impatience was felt for the installation of the new President, as great changes in the progress of affairs were expected under the new administration.
Nothing was positively known in relation to the question of the “French Protectorate," but, under all the circumstances, it was difficult to believe that France would interfere in the affairs of the country.
27th. A steamboat disaster happened off the Coast of Florida, west of Egmont Bay: A large steam vessel, the Mary Kingsman, chartered by the government to carry thither 110 mules and 20 horses, having on board about 33 persons, teamsters and hands, exploded one of her boilers, by which nineteen men were killed and eight wounded -the latter brought in, of whom two have died since. All the horses and mules were so badly scalded or injured that they were thrown overboard.
31st. Further interesting news from California up to this date were received by the Empire City steamer, which arrived at New York, and brought nearly half a million in specie.
The number of gold washers on the streams had increased. The Peruvians and Chilians had been pretty thoroughly driven out from the middle and north forks, and there seems to be a disposition to drive them altogether from the mining country. Some of the old miners are doing better than they did last yearand all have been successful, but there has been considerable suffering. It is hard work to mine, but it is said to give a good appetite and sound sleep. The miners average about an ounce a day.
The number of emigrants who arrived by sea at San Francisco in the month of August, were 3806 males, and 87 females-of these, 3385 were Americans. On the 30th August, there were 61,385 tons of shipping in the harbour.
The convention for framing a State constitution for California assembles at Monterey 31st August. The composition of the body, as far as known, is as follows:
DISTRICT OF SAN Francisco.—Regular.—Edward Gilbert, Myron Norton, Wm. M. Gwin, Joseph Hobson, William M. Stewart.
Supernumeraries.-W. D. M. Howard, Francis J. Lippitt, A. J. Ellis, Francisco Sanchez, Rodman M. Price.
DISTRICT OF San Jose.—Regular.-Joseph Aram, K. H. Dimmick, J. D. Hoppe, Antonio M. Pico, Elam Brown.
Supernumeraries.- Pedro Sansevain, Julian Hanks, A. M. Pico.
DISTRICT OF MONTEREY.-Regular.-H. Wager Halleck, Thomas 0. Larkin, Lewis S. Dent, Chas. T. Botts, Passificus Ord.
DISTRICT OF SONOMA.— Regular.- Joel P. Walker, Robert Semple, L. W. Boggs, M. G. Tallejo.
District of San Diego.— Regular.— Miguel de Pedrorena, Henry Hill.
Supernumeraries.-Cave S. Couts, John Forster, Wm. Richardson.
The convention was said to be composed of men of intelligence and integrity.
A letter from San Francisco says that Giving and King will go to the United States Senate, and that a constitution will be formed and a legislature elected by the 1st of November.
Gen. Smith had gone on an expedition to the mountains of the Sierra Nevada. Colonel Fremont was at Monterey.
Lieutenant Beale, bearer of despatches, had arrived at San Francisco and proceeded to Gen. Smith's head-quarters. The Hon. Thos. Butler King had been dangerously ill of bilious fever, but had so far recovered as to be considered out of danger. Gen. Riley had also been sick.
The following is the religious intelligence from San Francisco.
1. Roman Catholic-Service administered every Sabbath at their church on Vallejo street.
2. First Baptist, Rev. 0. C. Wheeler, pastor-Service every Sabbath at their new church on Washington street, near the corner of Stockton.
3. First Presbyterian, Rev. Albert Williams, pastor-Service every Sabbath at their large tent on Dupont street, near Pacific.
4. Protestant Episcopal, Rev. F. Mines, rector-Service every Sunday, for the present, at the house of J. H. Merrill, Esq.
5. Methodist.-We understand that this denomination has commenced the erection of a church at the head of Washington street.
6. Congregational.— The Rev. T. D. Hunt has consented to officiate occasionally for this church until the first of November next.
In connexion with the above, it is proper we should state that Sabbath schools are established in the Baptist, Presbyterian, and Episcopal churches, and there is also one attached to the chaplaincy.
31st. Further particulars from the far west. In addition to what we have already selected from the California letters, we insert the following:
“Upon the San Joaquin and its tributaries there are some twenty thousand men now at work, who will earn, by January next, some $20,000,000. According to this calculation, this country will yield not less than $10,000,000 annually-an income unprecedented in the annals of the world. A word to those about starting for this region. Stout, hard-working men are those who acquire the most gold. Boarding-tents are plenty all over the mineral country, and board varies from $3 to $5 per day. Parties, of from three to five, are the most successful. All large parties break up from a want of unity of feeling, after reaching here; in fact, they are unprofitable. Machinery is of no use, and does not sell for the freight it costs. The flourishing cities of Sacramento, Stockton, Benecia, and others, are the best evidence of the immense value of this wealth, in populating a land that only needs labourers to make it one of the finest grazing and agricultural countries in the world."
The Expedition to the Salt Lake.-By letters very recently received, says the Intelligencer, news is brought that the exploring party, under command of Captain Stansbury, of the Topographical Engineers, now en route for the great Salt Lake in Upper California, entered Fremont's
buth Pass in the Rocky Mountains on the 5th of August. The party were all in good health and fine spirits, having accomplished two-thirds of the journey towards their destined field of exploration. They pursue the ordinary Oregon route as far as Fort Hall, where they leave it, and, turning short to the south, enter the valley of the great Salt Lake and its tributaries.
Letters from Gen. Collier's party, bound for California, dated Santa Fe, August 16th, have been received. They expected to leave on the 18th, and to be at San Diego in forty days or less. They go by the Southern route, direct to the mouth of Salt river and the Gila. The writers speak of the pilgrimage across the plains as one of excessive toil. Life on the prairies is any thing but a trip of pleasure. One letter, published in the Cincinnati Gazette, says:
“ Thousands will now testify that the truth has been suppressed, and point with sorrowing hearts to the numerous graves along the line of their march as evidence that toil, privation, sickness, and death, go with the train of the poor, deceived, and starving emigrants. Even at this point, where comparatively but few have congregated, I witness the destitute and broken in spirit, far from home or friends, and without the means of going forward, or of returning. Many have found to their cost that it would have been far better to have staid at home, letting 'well enough alone. I have conversed with hundreds ' 'going to California,' but I am yet to see the first man who had any settled plan for the future, or any fixed idea of what he is to do, should he reach there. The heart-ache has been cast broadcast on the way, and there is yet to be much more of it in the future.”
He describes the country between the Arkansas and Santa Fe as utterly wretched, and dear at a gift. The picture of vice and profligacy given is truly deplorable. Crowds were assembled around the gaming-tables in every public house, and numerous groups were seen seated on the ground in every street, engaged in the same vice.