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The deep hatred of the Mussulman to Christians is hardly to be conceived-he despises yet envies them. I have already mentioned the Mussulman law, that the honour, the wives, the wealth, the faith of the Christian, are in his hands. A Christian's testimony is of no avail against a Turk; by this law (now, however, modified) a Christian was a beast who was to be allowed to live for the tribute he could pay. There are various accounts as to the cause of the Nestorian massacre-I mean the ostensible immediate cause. Fanaticism was at the bottom of it, but a refusal to pay a tribute was the spark that kindled the blaze. Then, the Tiyari were much divided among themselves, and it is supposed Koordish gold weakened the force of more than one Tiyari arm. To us, as members of the Reformed Church, those of the Chaldean Church must ever be brother and sister. We ought, and God grant in his mercy we may, to stand forward with the right hand of Christian fellowship.

Let not, then, the interest English Protestants took in these, their brothers, die away. Shall we read the reproach of the prophet? shall we read the line of the Scriptures?" Thy people are scattered upon the mountains, and no man gathereth them to him" (Nahum, iii. 15),—and not extend



the arm of our temporal might, and efface the shame—the bitterness of our fellows; shed over them that quiet which God has so abundantly granted us, and give them time to breathe, to live, to recover ?

Here is a Church into which though, through lapse of time, ignorance, and confusion, some errors may have crept, we find pure and untainted by most of the dogmas so plentifully found in all Oriental sects; we find an antient people and an antient faith, without contact, professing nearly as we profess. What proof can we show with greater pride than this, that, as far as human changes allow, we have returned to the Apostolic Christian faith of the early fathers ? Few Churches have extended their faith more actively than these Nestorians. From China to Cyprus ; among the wilds of Tartary; amongst the jungles of India, they restored and saved the southern Indian Church, which, on the death of MacGeorge, fell into great disorder (in the sixth or seventh century); and a better knowledge of the countries would probably trace co-religionists amongst the millions of Chinese and in the southern parts of Hindostan. Twenty-five metropolitan bishops, extended over a fourth of the world, once acknowledged the Chaldean patriarch



as the head of the Eastern Church : the Mussulmans, the Tartars, reigned, and they have become broken and dispersed.

Tamerlane out-did his own renown in cruelty and blood, and they became a few persecuted outcasts in the inaccessible mountains of Koordistan and the borders of the lake of Oroomiah. Those few who remained true

. to their faith on the plains, fell before the persecutors, not one whit more scrupulous of their own faith, and but few now remain in their father's faith. Great interest was excited by their sufferings in England. Fellow Christians, let not this

, subside ; it is a great, a good deed, to save, to help, to protect those we ought to love as brothers. Though now it may be hoped that they will be allowed to breathe in peace and cultivate the rugged mountains they inhabit ; still, much may be done, and it is to be feared that others exist dispersed amidst the Koords who are still in the depths of bondage and endure a slavery destructive of every good quality they possess.


* Mr. Layard will probably write an account of our joint journey from Mosul to Lake Van, through these heretofore unvisited districts ; and to him I leave the task he is so well competent to perform, of describing the condition of the unknown Christian districts we found hid away for ages among the mountains. The journey was one of great interest.




Several other huts stood about, occupied by servants, cook-house, &c. ; and then, on a parched, dusty stubble, we reached Mr. Layard's tent. My own stood by its side, and another or two near. At a distance of some two hundred yards S.E. of us stood the black tents of the Arabs ; for as the workmen had their wives, relations, and several others with them, this formed a large encampment, and, thanks to their regular gains and protection from exaction, they were in a flourishing condition. They were a portion of a tribe called the Jebour, one widely spread, and sometimes nomad, at others sedentary, and often labourers in the fields. The tribe may be found scattered in divisions down to Bagdad. This division had been in a wretched state of poverty; their wages for work on the Mound were by no means high, yet they are now wealthy as compared with others. How plainly this speaks as to the misrule and incompetence of the government, and the capabilities of the people, if allowed to develope themselves.

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Frequent Visitation of furious Gales-Their Effects on the Tents—
Excavations by Mr. Layard described-Reflections caused by the
Monuments-Arrival of Southern Pilgrims on their way to Mecca-
How other Pilgrims now reach their Destination-Further Excava-
tions by Mr. Layard-The Well of Thisbe-How the raised Monu-
ments verify and illustrate the Language of the Prophets-How far
Mussulmans are addicted to the drinking of Wine-Legend of
Mahomet respecting Wine-Two hostile Tribes-The Tai Tribe-
Its Antiquity-Pride of the old Sheik-Arab Muskets described-
Pay-day on the Mound-Another furious Gale-Start on an Excur-
sion to Nimroud-House of Mr. Layard there-Present State of the
Villages - Excavations at Tel Nimroud - Imposing and solemn
Effect of some of the excavated Figures-Prepare to depart for

WE were frequently visited during my stay by furious gales from the N.N.W., hot as fire, of great violence, and heralded by clouds of burning dust, which penetrated everywhere. Paper dried and curled; ink stagnated. Our dinner on these occasions was as much earth as anything, and the first puff generally swept away most of our Europeanbuilt tents, carrying their remains far to leeward, and leaving a confused wreck of prized property all about. Meanwhile, the wretched, shaky-looking tents of the Arabs stood unharmed. It was very



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