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a distance, Melasguird has an imposing appearance, with its long line of battlements of black basalt, with a touch of time rending its towers and high places. Passed a pretty bridge, now useless, as the stream has made another channel further on. The tent proved no protection ; the wind blew in hurricanes; so I took possession of the guest-room, of which servants, horses, &c., shared a part.




The Town of Melasguird-Some Account of an eccentric Dervish-
Kulitcher-People of the Village-Return of Illness-Suspicions of
Robbery The Thief detected and punished-Rencontre with the
Groom-Unveiled Eastern Women-Carelessness of Eastern Parents
as to the Cleanliness of their Children-Kindness of Women at a
Village-A wretched Altar-piece-Welcome Verdure Obstinacy of
the Guide-His Dismissal and Repentance-Boorish Koords-
Journey pursued under increasing Illness-Reach Hassan Kaleh-
Armen to Khan-At length reach Erzeroum-Kind Reception by the
Consul and his Wife-Care and Skill of Dr. Birge-My Recovery-
Third conjectured Site of Eden-Which was probably the Site?-
Domestic Economy of the Consul's House-Importance of Erzeroum
-Early History of Erzeroum- Present Inhabitants-Bazaars and
Khans-Houses-Climate of Erzeroum-Castle Clock-Dress of the
People The Pasha at Van, a Reminiscence-Superstitions of the
Christians at Erzeroum-Produce of Goats' Hair-What Articles are
made from it-Harvest-Backshish for first fruits-Preservation of
Meat-Gardens around Erzeroum-Introduction of Potatoes, and
by whom-Timour and Badazet.

ON the following morning I rode to see the town: it is entirely surrounded by a high double wall, strengthened with towers. Being built of black stone, it has a solid and more imposing appearance than a nearer view justifies; for it is ill built, principally with rubble, and the mortar bad. No attempt is now made to keep the fortifications in

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repair. The castle, situated in the S.E. portion, is in the same rough style. Armenian tomb-stones had not been spared in the construction, and many finely carved sarcophagi served as horse-troughs. The Montselim received me civilly, and sent on horsemen with me. The present town is built amidst the ruins of the old, of which it comprises about one-fifth only : the whole space is strewn with ruins, walls, and stones.

These ruins, though here and there presenting an appearance superior to the rest, merit no mention. The Armenian church is a large, low, ill-built place, gaudily ornamented with rags and tinsel. Forty minutes' ride brought us to the Sindschan Su, which dashes through a gully of rock, made flowery and pretty by its waters ; a bridge of one fine bold arch leads to the western side. Turning north we soon reached the Euphrates, or Morad Tchai, as it is here called ; it was here broad and deep, crossed by a bridge of fifteen arches of different shapes, the whole a solid work of white and black stone. Unfortunately, two arches are broken, so we had to seek a ford. One of the Koords rode his horse boldly in, and after a hard swim, landed again on the same side he started





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A donkey belonging to a Dervish who had joined company at Patnos, swam

the Dervish looked at him, and then saying quietly,

Well, he did not belong to me,” followed us down the stream.

This man was a native of Candahar, and travelled with me a long while : he was always quiet and good-tempered, ready to tell a story or to sing ; and whenever I opened my medicine chest never failed to attend, when he claimed a pill of opium. For years he had wandered about, and, as he said, lived with any man whose bread was clean and plenty. Following the course of the river for about an hour, I reached a spot where it seemed fordable, and with the help of the men of Ana Hwoaga, an Armenian village opposite, we crossed dry, baggage and all. My Koord guides looked at me with supreme contempt as I paid them, saying, “ A Bey pay dogs like those ; it is an honour to them ; they

; ought to pay him.” The Dervish made no attempt to recover his donkey, but quietly took the first he saw and continued his route. I have seen him change his donkeys twice in a day in the same way, when the one he had did not please him : he did not let the owner see him, for, as he said,



They are such rogues, the Koords, they might think I was as bad as themselves."

Ascended rolling prairies that ran north of the river, and in an hour reached the village of Kulitcher. The men were noble, robust-looking fellows, but refused any answer to our questions. This was also formerly an Armenian village. When we asked where the people were gone, they replied, “ They are gone ; that is enough for us.” The hadjee was very liberal of his abuse of them, but they only laughed at him.

Shortly after leaving the village, I became so unwell as to be unable to proceed. As there was nothing, I sent the party on except the tent and two servants, and lay down, hoping to get on later. The one servant sat with me; the other was a Mussulman groom. The dervish said I was foolish to remain alone, but

somehow it seemed it must be so.

I made them go on to Garserne, a large Armenian village about an hour's distance, and there I lay, thinking my hour had come. The servant with me was the same who had been beaten at Van, and a most sinister scoundrel he was. I must have slept or else been insensible, for it was late when I awoke, and the daylight had almost died away. My

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