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of line officers, a system of local examinations for admission, competitive in character, with requirements based on the programmes of the best schools in the country. These are followed by a three years' course of theoretical and practical training. The first two years are passed in a stationary ship, with all the disadvantages that such a school house entails―disadvantages in this case even greater than in that of the Britannia. The only compensating advantage is that of making pos sible an excessively rigorous discipline, an advantage of more than doubtful character. The course of theoretical instruction is the fullest and most advanced required course pursued by the cadets of any navy in the world except that of Germany, and the practical and professional branches receive an ample share of time and attention, although the course in these subjects is rightly considered as only preparatory to the work of the practice-ship. It is, nevertheless, extensive and thorough, including frequent exercise in the details of seamanship, gunnery, navigation, and the manipulation of engines. Following the two years' course comes the third and final year in a sea-going practice-ship, with review and completion of the course, in the theory and practice of subjects purely professional.

The other corps of the service are as well taught as the line in the particular duties of their several professions; for it may be taken as a cardinal maxim of professional education in France that a man cannot be expected to know how to do a thing by a process of inspiration or intuition, or even by "picking up," but that he must be taught to do it. Hence, they have a thorough course of instruction for the men who are to build their ships, to fight their ships, to govern the employment of the motive power of their ships, to conduct the details of internal administration on board their ships. The constructors have a four years' course: two years at the Polytechnic, the first school of mathematics in the world, and two years at their special school of application, with practice in the great ship-building and engine-building establishments. The engineers or mechanicians have a series of courses and examinations preceding each promotion, whose extent and character leave little to be desired for this branch of the profession. Finally, the administrative officers or commissaries are taught effectually the principles, the laws, and regulations which are to govern them in the future exercise of their duties.

It will be seen that the education given to officers in general is of a high and extensive character. This supplies the want of special subsequent training to some extent, but not wholly. There is a decided need at present of facilities for higher education in the branches which particular inclinations may lead individual line officers to take up. It is not unlikely that such a higher college, similar in purpose to the halfpay courses at Greenwich, may in time be established; though there is by no means the same necessity for it that exists in England.




The executive or line officers (See-Offiziere) of the German Navy are divided into three classes: The staff of the Admiralty, whose duties are connected with organization and administration; the naval staff, composed of officers occupied with some special branch of the profession; and the sea-going officers, whose duties are on shipboard and at naval stations.

The grades of officers, with the numbers in each grade, are as follows:

LINE (See-Corps).




Captains ....

Commanders or captains of corvettes...




Midshipmen (See-Cadetten).

Cadets (about)....


MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (Maschinen-Ingenieur-Corps).

Chief mechanical engineers.

Mechanical engineers....
Assistant mechanical engineers...


Assistant paymasters.



The officers of this corps are charged with the management of engines on board the large ships.



Assistant surgeons, first class
Assistant surgeons, second class...


Chief engineers.


Assistant engineers..........




I. Division of naval construction:

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