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Candidates are grouped together, according to the result, in five classes. Those whose final mark is a minus quantity are designated as not passed. Those whose mark is zero, and who have obtained the required mark in the separate subjects in which a standard is exacted, are satisfactory. Above this limit candidates are classed as good, or very good, according to the degree of excellence. Candidates whose final mark is zero or above, but who have failed in one or more of the separate subjects in which there is a passing standard, are classed as having passed with conditions (bedingt bestanden). The last may be recommended for re-examination.
At the conclusion of each examination, the board makes up its report with a general merit-roll and recommendations in the cases of candidates who have failed. It also issues certificates to those who pass. The recommendations of the board decide, finally, the disposal of all doubtful cases.
The examination for admission is held annually at Kiel, in the month of April. Four weeks before the date fixed for the entrance examination, the papers sent in by applicants for admission are sent to the president of the examining board. Candidates are first subjected to a medical examination by a naval surgeon, in presence of the president and recorder of the board. The results of this examination are forwarded to the Admiralty, but they have no bearing upon the mental examination,
The requirements for admission in the mental examination are as follows:
A. First Class: COEFFICIENT, 3.
Thr examination is based on the course of study in the lower second class of a GymLasium or Realschule of the first class, and includes the authors usually read at schools in this and the preceding classes, together with written translation from Latin into German and the grammatical analysis of passages.
(11 hours). Preparation of an essay on a simple subject, without errors in spelling or grammar, and showing a certain facility in expression.
III.-MATHEMATICS * (24 hours). 1. The whole of arithmetic, and algebra through logarithms and exponential equa
2. Elementary plane geometry. I Trigonometry, plane and spherical, including the discussion of trigonometrical fanctions, the deduction and application of formulas, and the determination of the areas of right-line figures and segments of circles. 4. Elements of stereometry.
B.-SECOND CLASS : COEFFICIENT, 2.
Elements of physics and mechanics. "In all the programmes of examination, given under the head of German schools, started subjects are those in which a mark of 5 is required in order to pass.
V.-GEOGRAPHY, PHYSICAL AND POLITICAL.
History in general, and the history of Germany in particular, with special reference to the growth of its territory and the development of its constitution, and to the principal events of the most important wars since the middle of the 18th century.
Tolerable fluency is required in reading and translating easy passages into German, and vice versa, with some readiness in grammatical analysis.
The candidate must produce a freehand drawing of his own, duly attested, or in default of this, is required to draw from models or objects set by the examiner.
If the candidate has the certificate of fitness for the upper second class of a gymnasium, or realschule of the first class, or if he has passed satisfactorily the first-class course in the Cadetten-Haus at Berlin, he is exempt from the examinations in Latin, German, and history. In obtaining the final mark in such cases, the subjects in which examination is waived receive a mark of 5, satisfactory; but candidates are always at liberty to obtain a higher mark by passing the examinations, if they desire.
If the candidate has been graduated with a diploma (AbiturientenZeugniss) from a gymnasium, a realschule, or other similar institution of learning, he is entirely exempt from the entrance examination, provided the diploma classes him as good * in mathematics. In the absence of this qualification he must pass an examination in mathematics before the board. The board decides according to the result of the examination, and sends to the Admiralty an abstract of the proceedings in relation thereto, in which it is stated finally whether a re-examination may be granted. The Minister makes his decision in regard to the appointments on the basis of this report.
This term has a definite official significance in the German school system,
Cadets who have received appointments are arranged provisionally according to the result of the examination, those who come in with graduates' diplomas being ranked first according to age. All the cadets are embarked in April, on board the cadets' training-ship, and receive there their first training as seamen and officers. The training-ship makes a cruise during the summer, and returns to port about the end of September. Those cadets who, during the cruise, appear unfit for the naval service, from want of capacity or otherwise, are to be reported as soon as possible to the Admiralty by the commanding officer, after consultation with the other officers. On the basis of this report, the minister finally orders their discharge from the service.' The time passed on board the training-ship, however, does not in these cases count as service-time towards the performance of obligatory military service, required by the German laws of all citizens.
The object of the six months' practice-cruise, with which the German cadets begin their professional education, is to discover their physical aptitude for the service, and to give them the needful elementary training in the practical duties of their profession. Hence there is no theoretical instruction, as such, on board the school-ship.
The course may be divided into five branches, which are pursued as follows:
1. Seamanship. This includes the first instruction in the standing and running rigging and sails, and practice in setting up and taking down rigging, sending up and down upper masts and yards, setting, reefing, furling, and taking in sail, and working ship under sail.
2. Gunnery, including the guns and carriages on board the ship, their equipments, and ammunition. In exercises, the cadets are shifted to different guns, and to different numbers, so as to give every variety of practice. At quarters they have their regular stations. Firing-practice is so arranged that each cadet has two firings with the 8.c. m. gun, and two with the 12-c. m. or 15.c. m.; one of which is with the fixed target, and the other with the floating target at sea.
3. Yarigation.—The cadets have some instruction of a practical and elementary character in the use of reflecting instruments and charts, and they are taught the use of the compass, log, and lead.
4. Official duties (Dienst-Kenntniss).-Manual and use of small-arms; landing parties; infantry drill on shore. 5. Rigging, steering, and sailing boats. In addition to this programme, the cadets, when opportunty offers, in going into or out of harbors, or passing remarkable objects, receive informal instruction orally from the officers, partly with the object of training their powers of observation. The small number of the cadets, generally not more than 40, makes it possible for the officers of the train. ing ship to give constant attention to their wants and frequent personal instruction. One officer, called the “cadets' officer," is specially detailed to superintend the military and nautical training of the caulets, to keep the liberty-lists and punishment-lists, and to examine the journals kept by the cadets. The cadets are arranged in four watches. Each of them serves in turn as cadet of the watch, and during his tour receives instruction in the duties of the position from the officer of the watch. The other cadets perform the regular duties of seamen of the watch. In exercising with sails, they perform duty aloft, to a moderate extent at first, and with the assistance of the petty officers and seamen of the ship. The latter are gradually separated from them, as they become more proficient. At quarters, they are formed in gun's crews, as soon as they have learnt the drill sufficiently.
The daily routine should be carefully examined, as it represents one of the most systematic and thoroughly-digested courses of practical instruction of its kind in existence, and one thoroughly adapted to the age, training, and requirements of the cadets.
The practice-ship used for the cadets is the Niobe, a sailing-frigate. She is armed with 14 guns, 4 of 15 c. m., 6 of 12 c. m., and 4 of 8 c. m. All are Krupp breech-loading rifles, except two of the last, which are howitzers. The embarkation on board the school-ship takes place about the middle of April. The first four weeks are spent in the harbor of Kiel, learning the elements of the profession, and the routine of duty on shipboard. The morning is generally occupied with infantry drill on shore, the afternoon with instruction upon the sails and rigging, with boat-sailing, or with target-practice with small-arms on shore. At the end of this time an examination is held on board the ship by the commander-in-chief of the station at Kiel.
For the following week the cadets have practice in working the ship in and before the harbor; and as soon as they have acquired some familiarity with this exercise the real cruise begins. This lasts till late in September, at which time the training-ship returns to Kiel. The cruise extends to various points in the Baltic and the North Sea, including perhaps the Channel, where the ship may put in to the important English ports, such as Portsmouth and Devonport. In July, 1878, the Niobe was at Dartmouth at the closing of the semi-annual session of the Britannia.
During the cruise the routine at sea or in port is followed, as the case may be. The former includes exercises with sails on four mornings in the week, daily instruction in seamanship, navigation, and official duties, and practice in reefing, furling, loosing sail, &c.; instruction three times
* Appendix, Note M.
a week in the use of the lead, compass, &c.; sailmaking, knotting, and splicing, twice a week; exercise with small-arms and great guns. In port, the routine includes exercises with sails five days in the week; with great guns, three days; boat sailing and steering daily, and smallarms occasionally.
The captain of the training-ship makes weekly reports to the Admiralty of the progress and conduct of caulets. The usual punishments are reprimand, extra watch duty, confinement, and deprivation of leave; but in cases of persistent misconduct the cadet may be removed immediately from the service on the application of the captain and officers of the training ship.
The cadets sleep in a room built for them on the gun-deck. Here they have their lockers, and the room serves also for study and mess room. Seamen are detailed to act as servants, take care of clothing, &c., the allowance being one man to four cadets. Seamen are also detailed as assistant stewards and waiters. The cadets’ mess is in charge of the cadets' officer and the paymaster, who are responsible to the captain.
A certificate of service from the captain and officers of the cadets' practice-ship is given to the cadets at the beginning of September. The certificates, together with a provisional rank-list based on the degree of application shown by each cadet, are forwarded by September 15 to the Admiralty, which thereupon orders qualified cadets to attend the cadets' course of the Naval School at the beginning of October. Before this assignment, the captain of the training-ship requires them to take the oath of service.