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CHAPTER XXIII.

THE NAVAL ACADEMY AND SCHOOL: GENERAL ORGANIZATION.

The Naval Academy and Naval School (Marine Akademie und Schule) form really two establishments united under one government. The Academy is devoted to the higher education of officers who have shown marked ability, and who come as voluntary students for three years. The studies and special regulations of the Academy will be taken up later. The School, on the other hand, is attended by midshipmen or acting sub-lieutenants, and by cadets, and its courses are compulsory for all officers. The School is divided into two parts, the officers' divis. ion (Offizier-Catus), and the cadet's division (Cadetten-Cætus). To the officers' division belong acting sub-lieutenants (Unter- Lieutenants-zur-See ohne Patent) and midshipmen, who have finished their second practicecruise, and have passed the first naval officers' examination, and who are preparing for the officers' professional examination. This course lasts eleven months. The cadets division contains cadets who have finished their first cruise in the cadets' practice-ship, and who are preparing for the midshipmen's examination. The course extends over the six winter months.

The institution comprising the Academy and School is under the supervision of the commander-in-chief at Kiel, in matters of command and discipline; but in all that pertains to instruction and maintenance, it is directly under the Admiralty. The government of the institution stands in the same relation to the commander-in-chief as that of a naval garri. son. The military head of the establishment is a naval officer of high rank, known as the director of the Naval Academy and School.

The direction of all matters relating to instruction rests with the committee on studies (Studien-Commission). This committee is composed of five members, appointed by the emperor. It consists of a rear-admiral as president, three staff officers of high rank, one of them the director of the Academy and School, and one professor in the University of Kiel. The duties of the committee are not merely advisory. On the contrary, it has actual charge and direction of the whole course of instruction given at the institution ; and in matters which fall within its province, the director is required to carry out its decisions. It arranges the programme of studies, and takes cognizance of the work performed by instructors and students, being directed to keep in view the diligence of the former, as well as the progress of the latter. It nominates the candidates for appointment as instructors. Its members frequently attend the lectures and recitations, and the results of their observations are considered in meetings of the committee. Where reform is called for, changes in fundamental regulations are proposed to the Admiralty. The instructors have, however, the right to propose changes in the course, which are then considered by the committee; and in draw. ing up the course, and arranging the distribution of time, the committee acts upon a very rough scheme of instruction proposed by the instructors through the director. This may be modified if the committee sees fit.

The committee has extraordinary powers in regard to examinations, acting largely as a check upon the board of examiners. The papers set at the examinations of cadets and officers are submitted to its inspection, and may be altered or replaced according to its discretion. It delegates members to attend all oral examinations, including the quarterly examinations in the Academy and School. It examines all the marks given at examinations, and transmits the result of its inspection to the president of the examining board. It sets the papers for applicants for admission to the voluntary courses of the Naval Academy, inspects the marks given by the examiners, and delivers an opinion there. upon to the Admiralty, with recommendations as to the application. It decides at the close of each year what students of the Academy shall be allowed to continue their studies; and sends full reports to the Admi. ralty of the work done both in the Academy and School, giving a critical statement of the progress and performance of the students, and of the ability shown by the instructors, the methods of instruction pursued, and the particular results attained. To these reports, the director adds a statement of the progress of each student, specifying the subjects in which he has been particularly successful, and stating whether he has shown marked aptitude for any professional specialty.

The committee has supervision of the library and scientific collections, and it directs the expenditure of appropriations for these purposes, on recommendations from the director and the instructors.

Either the committee as a whole, or any member of it, is authorized to make suggestions or censures directly, either to the students of the School and the Academy, or to the instructors. Decisions and recom. mendations regarding the direction are sent to the Admiralty, but those concerning any part of the personnel are made to the director.

The director of the Naval Academy and School is the head of the personnel, military and civil, of the establishment, and has the powers, as to discipline, punishment, and granting leave of absence, of the colonel of a regiment. He has general guidance and supervision of the instruction, as well as of the interior service, and is responsible for the thoroughness of the work done by teachers and students. He arranges the details of the programme of studies, and the regulations for instructors, in accordance with the decision of the committee on studies. He has the power of suspending or detaching students guilty of gross breach of duty; and the return of offenders depends on their conduct during the period of suspension. With him is associated the direction officer, who has the disciplinary powers of the commander of a battalion, and upon whom devolve the supervision of the interior service, and the special charge of discipline. In deciding on military questions and matters of administration, the director acts through the direction officer.

Three naval officers are attached to the School, called inspection otticers, to assist the direction officer in the details of executive duty. To them is intrusted the direct supervision and inspection of the students quartered in barracks, and the particular enforcement of regulations. The system of discipline is vigorous, but not severe. The students are treated like men rather than boys, and are not repressed by unnecessary restraints. The liberal character of the German regulations forms a strong contrast to the repressive systems prevailing in France and Italy. The inspection officers are enjoined to establish between themselves and the students the relation of comrades, without at the same time sacrificing their authority; and they are to study the peculiarities of mind and character of those in their charge. At the close of each month a meeting of the inspection officers is held, at which they make a formal statement of their opinion of the character and aptitude of each student.

Each inspection officer has assigned to his particular charge one or more of the cadets' quarters, to which he gives special attention. All petitions from students in his inspection go first to him. He sees that the study-hours are properly occupied, and makes frequent inspections to insure order and cleanliness in his buildings. He has charge, either in his own inspection or as officer of the day, of the under-officers, watchmen, writers, waiters, and house and section-room service. No authority is given him to punish offenders. A breach of discipline requiring punishment is reported to the director. The inspection officers are on duty by turns, for twenty-four hours at a time, as officer of the day, with the usual duties of this position.

In addition to the three inspection officers, there is a fourth officer, who is detailed as a sort of adjutant or military secretary (Bureauchef), and who has charge of the office duties and the care of the library and scientific collections. The pecuniary administration is in charge of a committee (Kassen-Commission) consisting of the direction officer, the Bureauchef, and the paymaster.

Instructors are of three classes, as follows:

(1) Civil instructors, who are imperial officials, detailed for duty at the School or Academy.

(2) Officers of the military or civil branches of the Navy, ordered exclusively for instruction.

(3) Other officers, civil functionaries, and professional en of distinguished attainments, who are employed to give instruction in addition to such other occupations as they may already have. Instructors of the

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first two classes have a fixed number of lectures to give, and hours of instruction to fill, and for extra work they receive extra pay. Instructors of the third-class (Honorar-Lehrer) receive special fees, according to the character and amount of the instruction they give.

In the courses at the Naval School, learning by rote and mechanical methods of teaching are rigorously excluded, and the practical wants and necessities of the profession are kept constantly in view. The object of the instructors is always to give students the most thorough understanding of principles, and this end is accomplished by frequent reviews and recitations, setting special problems, and close criticism of students' work. A lesson lasts one hour and a half, and the number of pupils in a section is limited to 25.

Practical instruction is given in visits of inspection on shipboard, and in the dockyards. There is also a course in practical surveying, near the close of the session, for those students who received no instruction in this branch while on the midshipmen's practice-cruise. The students of both courses have instruction in fencing and gymnastics, and the eadets have also lessons in dancing.

Quarterly examinations, both written and oral, are held, and marks given at these examinations are entered in merit rolls. The marks for the four examinations are combined at the end of the course, and give the standing of the student. The merit rolls together with the three best and three worst exercises in each subject are sent to the committee on studies.

The discipline of the School, under the inspection officers, is carried out by students, selected for special duties and responsibilities. These are (1) the superintendent of service, for the whole body of students, 2 the class-superintendent, and (3) the superintendents of quarters. All of them are named by the director of the school, usually according to seniority. The duty of these cadet officers," as they may be called, is to enforce regulations, order, and discipline among the students under their charge. To this end, they are given adequate authority, and they are responsible for irregularities that they fail to report. Each of the students' quarters contains a study or living-room and two dormitories. In the former the students are occupied during the study hours, and discipline similar to that of a class-room is preserved by the superintendent of quarters.

The mess apartments are divided into three parts, devoted respectively to meals, to amusement, and to smoking. One of the inspection officers has charge of the mess in conjunction with a caterer chosen by the students. This officer has general supervision of accounts and expenditures, and receives all complaints and requests. He examines the students' wine account, and their accounts for extras with the steward, which are settled every month ; and the steward is forbidden to open ans credit beyond this. The officer of the day has oversight of the quantity of wine drunk at the table, and keeps it within proper limits. Beer only is allowed at breakfast, wine and beer at dinner. The use of spirits is forbidden.

The mess hall and the other rooms connected with it may be used for music or games during the hours of recreation; but no games of chance are allowed.

All the cadets in attendance at the School are quartered in the schoolbuildings, and as many midshipmen as the space allows. The rest of the midshipmen and the officers provide their own quarters, but they must dine at the officers' mess. Those quartered in the buildings have all their meals at their own mess.

The library and reading-room are at the disposal of the students. They are required to attend divine service on Sundays and high churchfestivals, the Protestants in the garrison church and the Catholics in their own church. They are marched to and from church in charge of an inspection officer.

Liberty to go outside the school limits is given during afternoon recreation on working days; and on holidays after service or inspection till 10 p. m. Permission at other times and for longer periods is given only to students whose conduct and diligence warrant it. Requests are forwarded at muster through the inspection officer to the director, and the liberty may extend to permission to attend the theater till 11 p. m., and social entertainments, where an invitation has been received, to a later hour. In all such cases the janitor notes and reports the hour of return.

The care of the students' clothing and quarters is in charge of the servants, who are enlisted men detailed for this duty.

For cadets the light punishments consist of extra drills, special dress for muster, suspension from duty, and the requirement of being in their rooms at a certain hour. The heavy punishments are confinement to the buildings, with required attendance at lectures, and performance of regular duties; continement in quarters, during which the student is not allowed to leave his building, except for meals, musters, lectures, &c.; and confinement in garrison, during which the student loses, for the time, his part in the instruction. The punishments for midshipmen consist of formal censure and confinement of the three classes meutioned for four weeks. For officers the only punishments are censures, and confinement to the offender's apartment for two weeks.

ROUTINE. 6 a. m.-Reveille. 6.30 a. m.-Study. 7.35 a. m.-Breakfast. 8 a. m. to 12.30 p. m.--Three forenoon recitations. 12.45 p. m.-Muster, linner, and recreation. 2.30 to 4 p. m.-Afternoon recitation. 4 p. m.-Recreation; instruction in gymnastics and dancing. 6 p. m. --Study; voluntary on Saturday. 8 p. m.-Supper and recreation. 10.10 p. m.-Lights out.

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