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CHAPTER XXIV.

NAVAL SCHOOL.–CADETS' DIVISION.

MIDSHIPMEN'S EXAMINATION.

The direct object of the course for the cadets division of the Naval School is the preparation of the cadets for the midshipmen's examination; and it furnishes the first theoretical instruction received by junior officers. It embraces the following subjects:

I.--NAVIGATION,

Outlines of astronomy; stars of the first magnitude and their distances; ocean and

wind currents; arrangement and use of the log-line and glass ; calculation of course and distance, and all allowances to be made for currents; construction and use of charts; ability to plot a ship's position from course and distance, from latitude and longitude, and from bearings and measurement of angles; conversion of time; calcnlation of latitude from meridian altitude of sun, moon, stars, and planets; ready use of the sextant and octant, and finding the index-error; construction and use of the artificial horizon; barometer, thermometer, chronometer, and the different compasses ; correction of observed altitudes for semi-diameter, parallax, dip, and refraction; arrangement and use of Bremicker's nautical almanac; setting up of the binnacle and azimuth compasses, and obtaining the deviation.

II.-SEAMANSHIP.

Nonenclature of the various parts of a ship not included under ship-building; masts and rigging, their arrangement, application, and uses ; loosing and furling, making and taking in sail; action of wind on sails and ship; action of the rudder; simple maneuvers under ordinary circumstances, with words of command; the national flags of maritime States, the system of signals in the Imperial Navy, and the International Code, including semaphore signals; the daily boat-service; salutes and words of command.

III.-GUNNERY.

Classification and nomenclature of guns and small arms; materials and principles of construction of guns and carriages; composition and elements of gunpowder, and general notice of the manufacture of those kinds in use in the German Navy; ignitiou, inflammation, and combustiou; examination and testing of powder; indications and treatinent of spoilt or damaged powder; preservation of powder and ammnnition in magazines, on shore and on shipboard; classification and nomenclature of ammunition, fuses, and primers; elementary principles of firing.

IV.- LAND TACTICS.

Different kinds of troops; formations and evolutions of a company of infantry, with pecial reference to skirmishing; effect of the ground upon methods of fighting; principles for the guidance of a ship's company landed for fighting (except the use of boat-guns and field-pieces).

V.-MATHEMATICS. Thorongh knowledge of lower mathematics, and facility in calculation, leaving out the higher equations and series ; plane and spherical trigonometry and stereometry

VI. - NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

Fundamental principles of chemistry, with particular reference to the processes entering into gunnery and nautical science.

VII.-OFFICIAL DUTIES (Dienst-Kenntniss). Preparation of official reports pertaining to midshipmen's duties; regulations govern

ing the duties of midshipmen on shipboard; naval discipline on shore and at sea; organization of the Army and Navy.

VIM.-SURVEYING, OR TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING.

IX.--ENGLISH AND FRENCH.

Fluent reading and tolerably ready translation of English and French into German and rice rersa ; readiness in oral and written expression.

At the close of the course for cadets a faculty-meeting of the director and instructors of the Naval School decides what students may be permitted to attend the midshipmen's examination. Their report, together with the director's report on conduct, is transmitted to the Admiralty for approval. Those cadets who receive permission from the Admiralty are thereupon examined for promotion to the grade of midshipman.

The midshipmen's examination covers the whole course of instruction pursued by the cadets and is conducted by the permanent board of examiners. The subjects are arranged according to the following schedule:

FIRST CLASS: COEFFICIENT, 3.

1.-NAVIGATION: * 3 hours. Six papers or problems are set in the examination, of which two are descriptive and four are practical problems.

11.-SEAMANSHIP:* 3 hours. Three papers are given: one on general knowledge of the ship, one on maneuvers, and the third on service on board ship.

III.-GUNNERY: 24 hours.

IV.--MATHEMATICS: 2 hours.

Three papers are given: in algebra, stereometry, and spherical trigonometry.

SECOND Class : COEFFICIENT, 2.

V.-LAND TACTICS.

Two papers, of half an hour each, on infantry tactics and fighting on shore.

VI.-OFFICIAL DUTIES.

Three papers, of half an hour each, on (1) naval and military organization, (2) general regulations (including official correspondence), and (3) laws of discipline.

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Drawings made by the students during the term are marked as a part of the examination.

* Mark of 5 (55 per cent.) required.

IX-ENGLISH AND FRENCI.

The oral examination in navigation lays special stress on the use of the sextant, octant, charts, compasses, nautical almanac, &c.; in languages it is chiefly devoted to reading aloud and conversation. Cadets who fail at the midshipmen's examination may be allowed, upon recommendation of the board, to go over a second time the course for the year, beginning with the cruise in the practice-ship and ending with the course at the school. In order to do this they must join the class of newlyentered cadets, and they lose a year's seniority. In cases of idleness, want of ability, or bad conduct, the board will not recommend the retention of a cadet who fails, and in the absence of such a recommendation the cadet is invariably discharged. A third trial is never granted by the board, and therefore a second failure causes immediate dismissal. In such a case only the time of service which has elapsed since taking the oath counts toward the performance of obligatory military service.

Cadets who have passed the midshipmen's examination receive certificates of proficiency from the Naval School. Those who show extraordinary proficiency are proposed for the special approbation of the Emperor. At the same time with the proceedings of the board, a tabular statement of the results of the examination and a list of the cadets graded according to conduct are sent to the Admiralty. The order of standing as midshipmen is made out on the basis of these documents, combined with the certificates and provisional arrangements of the training ship, and cadets can be proposed for promotion as acting or supertunerary midshipmen in the order of their seniority, as fixed by this process.

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CHAPTER XXV.

MIDSHIPMEN'S PRACTICE-CRUISE.

Cadets who have received the certificate of proficency at the midshipmen's examination are sent immediately to Wilhelmshafen for training on board the gunnery ship. The course, which is mainly practical, lasts one month. At its close they are ordered to the squadron of evolutions, in the ships of which they make the summer cruise. The squadron is composed usually of three or more large iron-clads, and cruises for sereral months in the Baltic and North Sea. Returning from this cruise about September, the midshipmen are embarked at Kiel in the midshipmen's school-ship for a two years' cruise. Here they receive not only a thorough practical training for service as sub-lieutenants, but also an extended course of theoretical instruction to prepare them for the first officers' examination (Erste See-Offiziers-Prüfung).

As the midshipmen's practice-cruise lasts two years, and as there is a class ready to go ont every year, two ships are set apart specially for this service. They are screw-steamers of modern type, fully rigged, so that they are available for sailing or steaming. They are supplied with a full battery of breech-loading rifles, and with all the appliances and equipments necessary for a training-ship. Among these is a complete library of professional works and works of history, poetry, and fiction in French, German, and English. The professional list embraces the latest works in all branches, including several American books. There is a full supply of instruments connected with steam-engineering, navigation, hydrography, and land surveying, for the midshipmen are landed from time to time for practice on shore. The ship is also supplied with a torpedo outfit. The cruise generally extends to China. The practiceship for the cruise of last year was the Leipzig, a screw-corvette of 12 guns and engines of 700 horse-power.

The routine of study (Stunden-Plan) is made out by the captain of the school-ship and approved before the beginning of the cruise by the Admiralty. Slight changes may be made for weather or other emergencies, but more extensive changes on the cruise must be sanctioned by the Ministry. Semi-annual examinations are held on the work of each semester, and annual examinations at the end of the year. The captain is present at oral examinations. The same marking system prevails as at the Naval School. The captain transmits marks and reports to the Admiralty, and gives the necessary warnings to cadets who fail to reach the standard. The captain attends the class instruction from time to time, and forms an opinion of the value of the instruction given. He appoints the cadets' officer, who has charge of the mess funds, clothing and outfit, and allowances, and of all private interests of the midshipmen. In foreign ports midshipmen are organized in parties to visit places of in

terest. They are encouraged to go to balls and social entertainments, and are given every possible opportunity of conversing in foreign languages. The punishments are similar to those of the cadets.

For duty on board, the midshipmen are permanently divided in four watches, under the four division officers. These watches are rearranged every quarter. One midshipman acts as sergeant of the division, and the duty is taken in turn. Journals are kept by the midshipmen, and inspected daily by the division officer. In the journals they are required to make sketches of such objects and places as may be designated.

When the ship is under steam the midshipmen do watch duty in turn in the engine-room, where they receive instruction from the machinist in charge. At the end of this watch they have to make a report to the officer of the deck of the number of revolutions made, the position of the manometer and vacuum-gauge, the quantity of coal consumed, and the temperature and saturation of the boiler.

When the ship is under sail the midshipmen are stationed in turn as midshipmen of the tops. In port, each acts in turn as signal officer. They act by turns as gun-captains at great-gun exercise, and they are sent in charge of boats.

According to the daily routine midshipmen turn out at 6.30 a. m. From 8 to 9 they have instruction, or superintend the cleaning of the guns, after which they have instruction and exercises till dinner. In the afternoon, from 2 to 4, they again have instruction, and after the evening muster, at 4.30, they take part in the general exercises, either as topmen or at their regular stations. The evening is generally devoted to study, but on two evenings in the week they have fencing and gymnastie instruction.

The arrangements for living, mess, &c., are similar to those in the cadets' school-ship. A room is assigned to the midshipmen on the gundeck, in which they eat, sleep, and study. The senior cadet in each division performs in turn, for a week at a time, the duties of officer of the day (du-jour-Dienst), as far as the mess and study periods are concerned, and is responsible for quiet and order in the steerage.

The mess is managed by a board, composed of the cadets' officer, pay. master, and two midshipmen, elected by their companions for a term of three months. The steward is engaged by contract at the beginning of the cruise, and two seamen are detailed as waiters.

Midshipmen sleep in hammocks. The personal service of the midshipmen is performed by seamen who volunteer for the duty, and who receive special compensation and exemption from all ship's duty for certain hours in the morning. One servant is allowed to two midshipmen.

Midshipmen are forbidden to contract debts; and if a midshipman is Bagligent and thriftless in pecuniary matters, the captain, as an extreme measure, may turn over his pay and his private allowance (Zulage) to the officer of his division, as a trust, to be administered according to the oficer's discretion. An amusement fund is formed by the paymaster out of sums reserved

S. Ex. 51-12

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