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Theory. -General observations in regard to drills; description and use of projectiles, charges, and fuses; pointing with director.
Practice.—General exercise of combat; target firing in motion; school of the maga
zine, of the piece, division, and battery; boat guns and landing parties; target practice with revolvers; general review. Theory.- Pyrotechny, and the service construction, &c., of magazines ; deviations in the flight of projectiles; boat-gun carriages; general review.
Practical and theoretical instruction is given by divisions. One divis. ion of the six is always engaged in duties connected with the ship's routine, during which the guard receives instruction in the duties of sentinels from the sub-lieutenant of the division. The other five divisions have instruction for 54 hours daily, except on holidays, and on Thursday, which is occupied in cleaning ship. In the afternoon hour in sum. mer the divisions are exercised in rowing and swimming.
Each series of students at the beginning of the second period must make five hits with the following pieces: 3 with 6.25-inch rifle and 2 with 32-pounder smooth-bore. In the school of the platoon, each man must make five bull's-eyes with the rifle.
Prizes are given for excellence in firing.
The commandant makes weekly reports of the condition of the school to the Ministry. At the end of each period, lieutenants in command of divisions make reports of the progress of each man in their divisions, giving him separate marks on his practical and theoretical work and a final mark based on the separate marks; these marks, like those at the Naval School, are on a scale of 10. At the close of the course, lieutenants of divisions send in a final report, taking the arithmetical mean of the marks for the three periods. Men receiving a final mark between 8 and 10 are said to be approved for the first class (approvati per la 1classa); those wbose final mark is between 6 and 8 are approved for the second class. Men whose final mark is below 6 are considered not qualified for advancement, and are required to go over the course anew.
Successful pupils receive a certificate of fitness according to their class and are returned to their respective divisions, when they are imme. diately appointed seamen-gunners. About 300 a year are sent out in this way into the service; the 30 best men are retained at the school and put through the final course. In case of bad conduct, the graduates are returned in the same way to their divisions, but their advancement is withheld until they have received a good conduct certificate from a commanding officer.
II.-THE FINAL COURSE OF APPLICATION. Non-commissioned officers.—The following non-commissioned officers form the class in the final course.
I. The 30 gunnery pupils selected as the best at the close of the final course. II. All the seamen-gunners not employed in the different divisions.
III. The gunnery corporals sent up from the divisions who have not yet passed the final course in their grade; the number being fixed each Fear by the Ministry of Marine.
No one can be admitted to this course who has less than a year to complete of his term of enlistment, unless he has engaged to renew it; nor can any subordinate officers be admitted who have already passed through the course in their grade and have passed their examination for promotion. The course lasts three months and follows immediately the close of the ordinary course.
The seamen-gunners complete their practical instruction, and pursue a theoretical course to fit them for examination for the grade of gunnery corporal. The gunnery corporals are practiced in the use of guns and small-arms, in the school of command, and are fitted by their theoretical course for the examinations for promotion.
The captain assigns one or more instructors to duty with each class according to the necessities of the case, and two sword masters are added to the staff of the school during this period for instruction in fencing
At the close of the final course all those who apply are examined for promotion to the higher grades. The examination is conducted by the board of instruction, which is augmented for the purpose by the officers who have taken part in the instruction. Certificates of fitness are given to the successful candidates, and from them the captain selects instruct
ors for the next ordinary course. The rest are sent back to their divisions.
Commissioned officers.-Sub-lieutenants and midshipmen are sent in turn to pursue the final course at the gunnery school. The course of instruction is similar to the final course for non-commissioned officers in its principal details, notably in the firings. The course in naval ordnance is conducted by the lieutenant designated for the purpose (the recorder of the board of instruction), and it deals chiefly with the recent improvements in the science. The students attend the experiments taking place in the polygon on shore, and they take part in the practice. drills, and are specially exercised in the school of command. A course in fortification and military art is carried ou by a lieutenant or by an officer of engineers.
At the close of the course, detailed reports of the progress of each student are made by the instructors to the captain, and by the captain to the Minister of Marine. The general system is largely founded on that of the Excellent.
THE TORPEDO SCHOOL. The torpedo school, in its present form, is of very recent date. At first the study and working of torpedoes, as in England, were confined to the gunnery officers; but in 1874 a separate torpedo corps was established, with grades of petty officers corresponding to those of the gunnery corps, as follows:
Second chief torpedo officer.
Torpedo corporal. Seaman gunner, first class.
Torpedo seaman, first class. Seaman gunner, second class.
Torpedo seaman. second class. The number of petty officers in the torpedo corps is limited to 60 in the highest grade, 100 in the second, and 180 in each of the two lower grades. There is no grade in this corps corresponding to that of chief gunner, but the highest grade of torpedo officers may compete for pro. motion to the grade of chief gunner; the number selected from the two corps being in the same proportion as the number of individuals in the second grade. To obtain the promotion, however, torpedo officers must pass through the final course at the gunnery school, and obtain the certificate of fitness.
The torpedo school is established on board the screw corvette Caracciolo, and its object is to fit men for the various grades of the torpedo corps, and also to give officers such training as may be necessary. The organization is similar to that of the gunnery school ship. The officers are a captain, 4 lieutenants, 4 sub-lieutenants, 4 midshipmen, and the usual staff officers. A large number of skilled artificers is attached to the ship in addition to its ordinary complement of machinists, firemen, and seamen.
As in the gunnery school, there are two distinct courses—the ordinary course and the final course. The first prepares seamen for the lowest grade of torpedo seamen. During the course they are known as torpedo pupils (allieri torpedinieri). The final course is a shorter and higher course for junior officers and for the higher grades of the torpedo corps and also to give preparation for the examinations for promotion. The torpedo pupils are taken from the school for apprentices (mozzi), from enlisted men, and from men obtained by the maritime inscription. The regulations governing reports and certificates are similar to those in the gunnery school.
SCHOOL FOR ENGINEER MECHANICIANS (Scuola degli allievi macchinisti.)
This school was established in 1862 at Genoa. In technical matters and matters pertaining to instruction, it is under the control of the director of naval construction, while matters of discipline are regulated by the commander of the division of seamen of the first maritime department. The immediate head of the establishment is a director, selected by the Ministry of Marine either from the corps of executive officers, of constructing engineers, or of mechanicians. The duty of the director is to carry out the established programme, to maintain discipline, to assign the students to the workshops, and to call meetings of the examining boards and of professors.
Candidates for admission to the school must be Italian subjects, of not less than 14 nor more than 17 years of age; they must pass the usual medical examination, and a mental examination in reading, writing, composition, and arithmetic. They must also have served an apprenticeship to a founder, boiler-maker, metal-worker, or machinist, and must give evidence of their skill by work done at the naval arsenal in presence of the examining board.
The examination for admission is held annually, and begins on the 15th of September; it is held successively at Genoa, Naples, and Venice, before a board composed of an engineer otticer of high rank as president, a lieutenant, a chief mechanician, and two professors of the school. It is a test-examination, but it may become competitive when the number of those who pass the required standard is greater than the number of vacancies. Of candidates having the same mark, preference is given (1) to the orphan sons of persons in the military service; (2) to orphans generally; (3) to sons of persons in military life not orphans.
The school session opens on the 15th of October. The successful candidates must report within fifteen days from the time of notitication, otherwise they are considered to have forfeited their right to enter, unless they can show that it was impossible for them to join before. At their admission, students are required to engage that they will remain in the service until the age of' twenty-nine years; but their parents may withdraw them at any time before they have reached the age of 18 by indemnifying the government for all expenses incurred on their account.