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tenants, and to have worked out a systematic plan which should have both consistency and coherence. It appears rather to have adopted from time to time such partial views as were presented to it by advocates of a particular theory, by officers who leaned one way or another, a process which has sometimes resulted in its going back upon its own tracks, and making experiments which had been already proved failures. This is partly due to the want of attention hitherto given to the subject, a want which is now in a fair way to be met. Every year more is to be heard in the way of discussion of naval education, and every year more comprehensive and reasonable views seem to gain ground. That the government is likely to stop at its present stage in reforining the education of officers is very improbable; and as the Naval College at Greenwich is now firmly established, it will hardly be many years before further, and perhaps more radical, changes take place in the English system.

CHAPTER V.

NAVAL CADETS AND THE BRITANNIA COURSE.

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The training school for naval cadets is at Dartmouth, a picturesque old town in South Devonshire, on the river Dart, about two miles from its mouth. Two old ships of the line, the Britannia and Hindostan, are moored head and stern in the stream, and on board of these two ships the cadets sleep, study, and live. They go ashore only for amusement, or in case of serious illness, the only parts of the establishment which are on land being the hospital, gymnasium, bowling-alley, park, and cricket-field. One-half of the cadets sleep in the Hindostan, and all hare meals and musters in the Britannia, the two ships being connected by a bridge. The Britannia has six studies and one large lecture-room under the poop. The main deck is the sleeping place for the two upper furnis, with baths in the bow, and the captain's cabin is aft on this deck. The middle deck is used for muster and inspection, and has the Wardroom and cabins in the after part. The lower deck aft is devoted to the cadet's mess. The orlop contains a model-room and officers' cabins, and is also the men's berth-deck.

In the Hindostan, which is a two-decker, there are, as in the Britannia, sir studies under the poop. On the main deck are officers' cabins and one study and place for muster. The lower deck is the berth-deck for the two lower forms.

All the inasts and spars are removed from the two ships, except the foremast and bowsprit of the Britannia, which are set up and fully rigged.

Attached to the Britannia as a tender is the Dapper, a screw gun-boat, with engines of 262 horse-power, bark-rigged, and used for exercises in seamanship. There are also two launches, schooner-rigged, a schoonerFacht of 50 tons, six launches, and thirty gigs and dingeys; the last for amusement.

The officers of the establishment consist of a captain, commander, two staff-commanders, and three lieutenants; a chaplain, and the requisite number of surgeons and paymasters; one chief naval instructor, eight natal instructors, two French masters, two drawing masters, and one Latin master; and warrant officers, comprising gunner and carpenter, and four boatswains. There are also three or four officers attached to

the Dapper.

1.-EXAMINATION FOR ADMISSION.

Cadets are nominated by the Admiralty. The number seems not to be prescribed by law, but averages about 43 at each half-yearly examination for admission. The examinations for admission are held, as a matter of convenience, at the Royal Naval College at Greenwich, on the third Wednesday in June and the last Wednesday in November; but

Hours.

the appointments date from the 15th July and January following. The limits of age are fixed at not less than 12 nor more than 13 years, at the date of appointment.

A medical examination of the usual kind is first held, at which it must appear that the candidate is free from any physical defect of body, impediment of speech, defect of sight or hearing, and predisposition to constitutional disease; and he must be generally active and well-devel. oped for his age. Candidates rejected at the medical examination are, upon approval by the Admiralty, finally excluded from the Navy.

The mental examination covers three days, and is conducted by the Admiralty examiners, under the Director of Studies. It includes the following subjects: 1. Writing English from dictation .... 2. Reading and oral parsing. 3. Arithmetic....

27 4. Elementary algebra ....

11 5. Elementary geometry.

1 6. Latin .....

2 7. French...

11 8. Scripture history...

11 Candidates are required to make 40 per cent. on each subject; and those who fail are allowed to come up a second time at the next examinationi, six months later. A third trial is never allowed, nor a second trial if the candidate is over thirteen at the date when he should, if successful, hare entered.

The character of the examination is simple, and the standard may fairly be called high for boys of this age. The third subject, arithmetic, includes proportion and vulgar and decimal fractions, and there are no puzzling or difficult questions, nor any involving long calculations. No. 4, algebra, includes simple equations with one unknown quantity; and the questions are chiefly simple examples in the four elementary processes, with one or two very easy equations. No. 5, geometry, includes definitions, axioms, postulates, and demonstrations of the first twelve propositions in the first book of Euclid's Elements. The paper in Latin, No. 6, consists of translation of a passage from Cæsar or Nepos, the explanation of some of the more common constructions, and a few simple sentences in Latin composition, and is a thorough test as far as it goes. In French, No. 7, the paper is also elementary, and omits translation into French, but includes grammar. The use of dictionaries is allowed in both these examinations.

As has already been stated, the examination for admission, until the year 1875, was competitive, the number of candidates designated being double the number of vacancies. The system was changed, owing to the severe effects of such a competition upon the nervous system of boys of that age, and the excessive cramming that it fostered.

It should be added that seven nominations are given annually in the colonies. In these cases, candidates pass their examination on board

the flagships abroad, and are then sent to England to join the Britannia, either in a returning man-of-war or in a mail steamer.

2.- COURSE OF STUDY. The length of the course is two years, or four terms of five months each. The terms are from about the 1st of February to the 15th of July, and from the end of August to the 20th of December. There are three vacations: six weeks at midsummer, five weeks at Christmas, and two at Easter.

There are four forins,—or classes, as they would be called in America,corresponding to the four terms; the first form being composed of cadets admitted last. The cadets are also divided into two watches, and each form is subdivided into two classes, half of each class being in one watch and half in the other. The eight naval instructors have charge of the eight classes in their allotted branches, and each instructs his own class during the whole time it remains in the ship, taking the two watches of the class alternately. The natural objections, in regard to unequal marking, &c., that present themselves to such an arrangement, are met by the fact that the real test of a cadet's work is the final examination, which is conducted and marked by the examiners sent down annually from the Royal Naval College for the purpose.

There are no recitations, in the American sense of the word, on board the Britannia, but the time passed with instructors is devoted to study, oral instruction, oral questioning, and practice, in an informal manner, according to the discretion of the instructor and the needs of his class. This time occupies twenty-eight lours a week-three hours every morning, and two and a half hours every afternoon, except Wednesday and Saturday. One hour on every day, except Saturday, is devoted to evening study. There is also a period of early morning study, for half an hour before breakfast, for the two upper forms.

The various branches of study are arranged in two groups for convenience of organization.* The first group comprises

Arithmetic.
Algebra.
Geometry.
Trigonometry, plane and spherical.
Navigation and nautical astronomy.
Dictation.

Essay writing.
The second comprises-

Instruments, chart drawing.
French.
Drawing.
Seamanship.
Latin.
Astronomy and physical geography.

Natural philosophy.
* The tabular programme of study is given in the Appendix, Note B.

Of the twenty-eight hours of instruction, fourteen are given to each group—that is, three mornings and two afternoons; the watches alternating in the different periods between the two groups of study.

The following tables will show the distribution of time for the twentyeight hours of mental work:

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NOTE.–For no very apparent reason the cadets engaged with the studies of Group I are said, in the official language of the school, to be the "watch in study"; while those engaged with Group II are said to be "out of study."

The instruction of the watch in study, or, in other words, all the instruction given in the first group of studies, is given by the eight naval instructors. The hour for evening study is also devoted to these subjects, under the direction of the naval instructors, each instructor directing his own pupils. The early morning” study is given on three days in the week to seamanship, on one day to drill, and on the other two it is occupied in the same way as the evening study. This gives the naval instructors an aggregate of thirty-four hours a week of work with their students, an amount of work for which men of the same attainments could not be obtained in America.

The principal naval instructor is charged with the supervision of all instruction given by naval instructors and masters. Except in the lectures in physics, he gives no direct personal instruction. It is a part of his duty to visit frequently all the class rooms, and he regulates their police and discipline, under the captain.

No studying is done except at the prescribed times, and cadets are even obliged to have permission to take and use their text-books out of

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