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the ship was to have been made. That they were going for the payment of a debt will not alter the property; there must be something more. Even if bills of lading are delivered, that circumstance will not be sufficient, unless accompanied with an understanding that he who holds the bill of lading is to bear the risk of the goods as to the voyage, and as to the market to which they are consigned; otherwise, though the security may avail pro tanto, it cannot be held to work any change in the property."

It will be noticed that the shipper of the goods in this case was the Spanish merchant, an enemy.

Finally, the case of The Ida is relied on. 1 Spinks' Prize Cases, 331. The statement of the case was as follows:

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"The claim of neutral merchants for 2650 bags of coffee, consigned to them on the credit of advances made by them was disallowed. The claim is that of lien, which cannot be upheld against captors. Further proof cannot be allowed when there has been an attempt to deceive the court by simulated papers." In considering the evidence in the case, Dr. Lushington said: Now, that simulated bill of lading was certainly framed for some purpose or other by desire of the master. It is a well-known rule of this court that where there are contradictory papers the burden of proof lies on the claimant to show that the contradiction is not inconsistent with the rights of a belligerent power; and, I must say, I have not heard any satisfactory explanation of how or why these papers were framed, except it was for the purpose of deceiving those who might have to determine whether it was an enemy's property or not." In discussing the law of the case, Dr. Lushington said: "It is contended by counsel that the property is in Behrens & Company by virtue of the endorsement of the bills of lading; and cases from common law have been cited in support of this. I believe that, in some circumstances, that would be the case. They would have a legal title to the property; but I have considerable doubt whether it is not the law of this court that the claimant must show that he has not only a legal, but an equitable title. If a mere legal title would justify the court in restoring property the consequences would be most alarming;


for nothing would be more easy than to cover enemies' property from one end of the kingdom to the other. I strongly object to the doctrine that if a legal title be shown this court is bound to restore; for I hold that an equitable title is also necessary to support a claim in this court."

Upon the whole, the learned judge was of the opinion that the property belonged to an enemy, subject to claimant's charges, and that it was not possible to doubt for a single moment that there was an intention in the case, by means of colorable bills of lading, to deceive and defraud Great Britain of its belligerent rights, by attempting to cover enemy's property as neutral.

The case of The Ida can therefore be cited as conceding that, if the claimants had vested in them the legal title to the goods by virtue of the indorsement of the bills of lading, and had also an equitable title, they would be entitled to a judgment of restoration. But the court was of opinion that there was no evidence whatever of any portion of the cargo belonging to a neutral. While it was true that the claimants exhibited a bill of lading indorsed to them, yet another bill of lading not indorsed was found on capture in possession of the master. Such a state of facts justly created a belief that the transaction was essentially fraudulent, as an attempt to cover enemy's property.

We shall now consider some of the cases cited on behalf of the claimants.

The Amy Warwick, 2 Sprague, 150; 2 Black, 635, is, in several respects, a leading case, and is decisive of the present one. It was there held that, where a neutral commission merchant purchased a cargo of coffee for enemy correspondents, partly with their funds and partly with his own, and shipped it under a bill of lading by which it was to be delivered to his order, having a legal title and a beneficial interest, a prize court should award him the amount of his advances, although the residue of the property will be condemned as enemy's.

After a full statement of the facts, the conclusion was thus stated by Judge Sprague :

"The claim of J. L. Phipps & Company was filed on the 4th of September last. It alleges that this coffee was purchased by them partly by funds of Dunlop, Moncure & Company, of Rich


mond, and partly by £2000 of their own money; that the legal title has always remained in them, and that no other person is the legal owner, except the equitable interest of said Dunlop, Moncure & Company.

"These facts seem plainly to lead to the conclusion that the claimants ought to be repaid the amount which they expended from their own funds in the purchase of the coffee, and that the residue of the proceeds should be condemned. This result I shall adopt, unless precluded from doing so by authority.

"The counsel for the captors contend that the claimants had only a lien, and that liens will not be protected or regarded in a prize court. This position is sustained by the authorities as to certain kinds of liens. The extent of this doctrine and the reasons on which it is founded are stated by the Supreme Court in The Frances, 8 Cranch, 418. It is there said that 'cases of liens created by the mere private contract of individuals, depending upon the different laws of different countries, are not allowed, because of the difficulties which would arise in deciding upon them, and the door which would be open to fraud.' Similar reasons are given by Lord Stowell in The Marianna, 6 C. Rob. 24, and in several other cases. These reasons are especially applicable to latent liens created under local laws. They do not reach the case now before the court. This coffee was purchased by the claimants at Rio, and shipped by them on board this brig under a bill of lading, by which the master was bound to deliver it to their order, and they ordered it to be delivered to J. L. Phipps & Company, that is, to themselves. They then retained the legal title, and the possession of the master was their possession. Being the legal owners of the property, they can hardly be said to have a lien upon it; a lien being in strictness an incumbrance upon the property of another. Their real character was that of trustees holding the legal title and possession, with a right of retention until their advances should be paid. The case of The San Jose Indians, 1 Wheat. 208, has been cited by the counsel for the claimants, and they contend that it sustains their whole claim, and requires all the coffee to be restored to them. That case is a stringent authority to the extent of the £2000 which the claimants invested or ad

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vanced in the purchase; but I do not think that it authorizes me to go further."

This case was taken to the Circuit Court and there affirmed. No appeal was taken to the Supreme Court from that part of the decree which allowed the claim of Phipps & Company. The decree of condemnation of the residue was affirmed. 2 Black, 635.

The bark Winifred was captured in May, 1861, off Cape Henry, and confiscation of vessel and cargo was demanded as being enemy's property. The cargo, consisting of 4200 bags of coffee, had been purchased by Phipps & Company in Rio, as agents for Crenshaw & Company, Richmond merchants. Phipps & Company advanced their own funds to the extent of three eighths of the cargo. The consignment formally was to shipper's order, but the bills of lading were sent forward indorsed to Crenshaw & Company. Subsequently, Phipps & Company made further advances of $20,622 on April 26, while the goods were in transit, and, after the outbreak of hostilities, taking a reassignment of the bills of lading. The District Court ordered a restoration of three eighths of the cargo to Phipps & Company, but refused to allow their claim for the further advances on the other five eighths of the cargo, citing The Marianna, 6 C. Rob. 24, and The Frances, 8 Cranch, 418. But on appeal the Circuit Court, while affirming the decree allowing the claim against the three eighths of the cargo, reversed that part of the decree which refused the claim for the further advances, allowed further proofs, and in December 1863, allowed the entire claim of Phipps & Company, with interest. The Winifred, Blatchford's Prize Cases, page 35, and note.

The Lynchburg was captured with her cargo in May, 1861, at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. Two thousand and forty-five bags of coffee, part of her cargo, had been purchased by Maxwell, Wright & Company, as agents for Wortham & Company, of Richmond. Maxwell, Wright & Company took bills of lading, consigning the cargo to their own order, and drew against. them on Brown, Shipley & Company, of London, for £6090, who accepted the drafts and subsequently paid them. The entire cargo was destined ultimately for enemies, Wortham &


Company, of Richmond, claimed 504 bags of this shipment, subject to the lien of Brown, Shipley & Company. The District Court restored to Brown, Shipley & Company 1541 bags, but condemned the 504 bags claimed by Wortham & Company as enemy's property. Judge Betts said:

"The claim to an absolute ownership of the 2045 bags was placed before the court in the oral argument and in the written points filed in the cause by the counsel for the claimants, upon the proposition of law that a bill of lading, transmitted to them by the shipper to cover advances, passed to them the title to the cargo purchased therewith. If this doctrine be correct as to mere commercial transactions, it does not prevail in prize courts in derogation of the rights of captors, when the interest of the claimant is only a debt, although supported by liens equitable and tacit, or legal and positive, even of the character of bottomry bonds, when not signified on the ship's papers at the time of capture. The Frances, 8 Cranch, 418; The Tobago, 5 C. Rob. 218; The Marianna, 6 C. Rob. 24."

On appeal the Circuit Court affirmed as to the allowance of the claim of Brown, Shipley & Company for the 1541 bags, but reversed the refusal of their further claim for 504 bags, allowed the claimants to give further proofs, and ultimately the 504 bags were restored by consent to the claimants. The Lynchburg, Blatchford's Prize Cases, 51, and note on p. 52.

The exigencies of trade have called a class of instruments into being which are substantially acknowledgments by public or private agents that they have received merchandise, and from whom or on whose account; and usage has made the possession of such documents equivalent to the possession of the property itself. Among them the most notable is the bill of lading, in respect to which, and replying to the question whether at law the property of goods at sea passes by the indorsement of a bill of lading, Buller, J., said, in his opinion in Lickbarrow v. Mason: "Every authority which can be adduced, from the earliest period of time down to the present hour, agree that at law the property does pass as absolutely and as effectually as if the goods had been actually delivered into the hands of the con


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