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therefore by no means could be omitted here) the When upon Earth no kingdom could have shown vast multitude of spectators made up, as it uses | A happi monarch to us, than our own : to do, no small part of the spectacle itself. But And yet his subjects by him were yet, I know not how, the whole was so managed, L (Which is a truth will hardly be that, methought, it sumewhat represented the life Receiv'd by any vulgar ear, of him for whom it was made; much noise, much A secret known to few) made happier ev'n than tumult, much expense,much magnificence, much
he. vainglory ; briefly, a great show, and yet, after all this, but an ill sight. At last (for it seemed long to Thou dost a chaos, and confusion, now, me, and like his short reign too, very tedious) the
ton very teslions the A Babel, and a Bedlam, grow, whole scene passed by; and I retired back to my And like a frantic person, thou dost tear [wear, chamber, weary, and I think more melancholy | The ornaments and clothes which thou should'st than any of the mourners; where I began to reflect And cut thy limbs ; and, if we on the whole life ofthis prodigious man and some (Just as thy barbarous Britons did) times I was filled with horrour and detestation of Thy body with hypocrisy his actions, and sometimes I inclined a little to Painted all o'er, thou think'st thy naked shame is reverence and admiration of his courage, conduct,
hid. and success; till, by these different motions and agitations of mind, rocked as it were asleep, I fell |
| The nations, which envied thee erewhile, at last into this vision; or if you please to call it but
Now laugh, (too little 'tis to smile) n dream. I shall not take it ill, because the father | They laugh, and would have pitied thee, alas! of poets tells us, even dreams, too, are from God.
| But that thy faults all pity do surpass.. But sure it was no dream ; for I was suddenly
Art thou the country, which didst hate transported afar off (whether in the body, or out
And mock the French inconstancy? of the body, like St. Paul, I know not) and found |
And hare we, bave we seen of late myself on the top of that famous hill in the island | Less change of habits there, than governments in Mona, which has the prospect of three great, and
thee? not-long-since most happy, kingdoms. As soon Unhappy Isle ! no ship of thine at sea, as ever I looked on them, the “not-long-since" Was ever tost and torn like thee. struck upon my memory, and called forth the Thy naked hulk loose on the waves does beat, sad representation of all the sins, and all the mi- | The rocks and banks around her ruin threat; series, that had overwhelmed them these twenty | What did thy foolish pilots ail, years. And I wept bitterly for two or three hours; To lay the compass quite aside? and, when my present stock of moisture was all Without a law or rule to sail, wasted, I fell a sighing for an hour more; and, And rather take the winds, than heavens, to be as soon as I recovered from my passion the use of
their guide! speech and reason, I broke forth as I remember (looking upon England) into this complaint: Yet, mighty God! yet, yet, we humbly crave,
This floating isle from shipwreck save; Ah, happy Isle, how art thou chang’d and curs'd,
And though, to wash that blood which does it Since I was born and knew thee first!
stain, WhenPeace, which had forsook the world around, I
und, | It well deserve to sink into the main ; (Frighted with noise, and the shrill trumpet's
Yet, for the royal martyr's prayer sound)
(The royal martyr prays, we know) Thee for a private place of rest, And a secure retirement, chose
This guilty, perishing vessel spare ; Wherein to build her halcyon nest;
Hear but his soul above, and not his blood below! No wind durst stir abroad, the air to discompose :
I think I should have gone on, but that I was in. When all the riches of the globe beside
terrupted bya strange and terrible apparition ; for Flow'd in to thee with every tide;
there appeared to me (arising out of the earth, as When all, that Nature did thy soil deny,
I conceived) the figure of a man, taller than
a giant; or indeed than the shadow of any giant in The growth was of thy fruitful industry; When all the proud and dreadful sea,
the evening. His body was naked; but that
nakedness adorned, or rather deformed, all over, And all bis tributary streams,
with several figures, after the manner of the anA constant tribute paid to thee; When all the liquid world was one extended
cient Britons, painted upon it: and I perceived
that most of them were the representation of Thames :
the late battles in our civil wars, and (if I be not When Plenty in each village did appear,
much mistaken) it was the battle of 'Naseby that And Bounty was its steward there,
was drawn upon his breast. His eyes were like When Gold walk'd free about in open view, burning brass; and there were tbree crowds of Ere it one conquering party's prisoner grew;
the same metal, (as I guessed) and that looked When the Religion of our state
as red-hot too, upon his head. He held in his Had face and substance with her voice,
right-hand a sword that was yet bloody, and neEre she by her foolish loves of late,
vertheless the motto of it was, Pax quæriLike Echo (once a nymph) luru'd only into tur bello; and in bis left hand a thickbook, noise :
upon the back of which was written in letters of
gold, Acts, Ordinances, Protestations, CoveWhén men to men, respect and friendship bore, i nants, Engagements, Declarations, Romua. And God with reverence did adore,
Though this sudden, unusual, and dreadful ob- | tempt, and the happiness to succeed in, so imkect might have quelled a greater courage than | probable a design, as the destruction of one of mine ; yet so it pleased God (for there is nothing the most ancient and most solidly-founded mobolder than a man in a vision) that I was not at narchies upon the Earth ? that he should have all daunted, but asked himn resolutely and the power or boldness to put his prince and briefly on What art thou?" And he said, “I master to an open and infamous death; to haamn called the north-west principality, his high- | nish that numerous and strongly-allied family: ness, the protector of the commonwealth of to do all this under the name and 'wages of a England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the domi- | parliament; to trample upon them too as he nions belonging thereto; for I am that angel, | pleased, and to spurn them out of doors when he to whom the Almighty has committed the go-| grew weary of them; to raise up a new and unvernment of those three kingdoms; which thou heard-of monster out of their ashes; to stifle seest from this place." And I answered and that in the very infancy, and set himself above said, “ If it be so, sir, it seems to me that for all things that ever were called sovereign in Engalmost these twenty years past, your highness land ; to oppress all his enemies by arms, and has been absent from your charge: for not only | all his friends afterwards by artifice; to serve if any angel, but if any wise and honest man, had all parties patiently for a while, and to command since that time been our governor, we should them victoriously at last; to over-run each not have wandered thus long in these laborious corner of the three nations, and overcome with and endless labyrintlıs of confusion, but either equal facility both the riches of the south and not have entered at all into them, or at least the poverty of the north; to be feared and have returned back ere we had absolutely lost courted by all foreign princes, and adopted a our way; but, instead of your highness, we have brother to the gods of the Earth; to call tohad since such a protector, as was his prede gether parliaments with a word of his pen, and cessor Richard the third to the king his nephew; / scatter them again with the breath of his mouth: for he presently slew the commonwealth, which to be humbly and daily petitioned that he would he pretended to protect, and set up himself in please to be hired, at the rate of two millions a the place of it: a little less guilty indeed in one year, to be the master of those who had hired respect, because the other slew an innocent, and him before to be their servant; to have the esthis man did but murder a murderer. Such a pro- | tates and lives of three kingdoms as much at his tector we have had, as we would have been glad disposal, as was the little inheritance of his fato have changed for an enemy, and rather ther, and to be as noble and liberal in the spendhave received a constant Turk, than this every | ing of them; and lastly (for there is no end of month's apostate; such a protector, as man is all the particulars of his glory) to bequeath all to his flocks which he shears, and sells, ordevours this with one word to his posterity ; to die with himself, and I would fain know what the wolf, which peace at home, and triumph abroad ; to be bu. he protects him from, could do more, Such a ried among kings, and with more than regal soprotector and as I was proceeding, methoughis lemnity; and to leave a name behind him, not his highness began to put on a displeased and to be extinguished, but with the whole world; threatening countenance, as men use to do when which, as it is now too little for his praises, so their dearest friends happen to be traduced in might have been too for his conquests, if the their company ; wbich gave me the first rise of short line of his human life could have been jealousy against him, for I did not believe that stretched out to the extent of his immortal deCromwell among all his foreign correspondences signs?” had ever held any with angels. However I was by this speech, I began to understand pernot hardened enoagh yet to venture a quarrel with fectly well what kind of angel his pretended him then: and therefore (as if I had spoken to highness was; and having fortified myself prithe protector himself in Whitehall) I desired him | vately with a short mental prayer, and with the " that his highness would please to pardon me, sign of the cross (not out of any superstition to if I had unwittingly spoken any thing to the dis the sign, but as a recognition of my baptism in paragement of a person, whose relations to his Christ), I grew a little bolder, and replied in this highness I had not the honour to know."
manner : “ I should not venture to oppose what At which he told me that he had no other you are pleased to say in commendation of the concernment for his late highness, than as he took late great, and (I confess) extraordinary person, him to be the greatest man that ever was of the but that I reinember Christ forbids us to give English nation, if not (said he) of the whole world; assent to any other doctrine but what himself which gives me a just title to the defence of his has taught us, even though it should be dereputation, since I now account myself, as it | livered by an angel; and if such you be, sir, it were, a naturalised English angel, by having may be you have spoken all this rather to try had so long the management of the affairs of that than to tempt my frailty : for sure I am, that country. And pray, countryman, (said he, very we must renounce or forget all the laws of the kindly and very flatteringly) for I would not | New and Old Testament, and those which are the have you fall into the general error of the world, | foundation of both, even the laws of moral and that detests and decries so extraordinary a natural honesty, if we approve of the actions of virtue, What can be more extraordinary than that a person of mean birth, no fortune, no emi-) 1 Mr. Hume has inserted this character of nent qualities of body, which have sometimes, Cromwell, but altered, as he says, in some paror of mind, which have often, raised men to the ticulars from the original, in his History of Great bighest dignities, should have the courage to at Britain, HURD.
that man whom I suppose you commend by that he shonld have broke into a violent passion irony.
in behalf of bis favourite : but he on the contrary “There would be no end to instance in the par- very calmly, and with the dove-like innocency ticulars of all his wickedness; but, to sum up a of a serpent that was not yet warmed enough to part of it briefly, What can be more extraordina sting, thus replied to me; rily wicked, than for a person, such as yourself, “ It is not so much out of my affection to that qualify him rightly, to endeavour not only to person whom we discourse of, (whose greatness is exalt himself above, but to trample upon, all his too solid to be shaken by the breath of an oratory) equals and betters? to pretend freedom for all as for your own sake (honest countryman) men, and under the help of that pretence to make whom I conceive to err, rather by mistake than all men his servants? to take arms against taxes as out of malice, that I shall endeavour to reform scarce two hundred thousand pounds a year,and to | your uncharitable and unjust opinion. And, in raise them himself to above two millions ? to quar the first place, I must needs put you in mind of rel for the loss of three or four ears, and to strike a sentence of the most ancient of the heathen dioff three or four hundred heads ? to fight against vines, that you men are acquainted withal, an imaginary suspicion of I know not what? two thousand guards to be fetched for the king, I know O'x'oslav xala pérolow Éx' ávdgácu eixelaaslas. not from whence,and to keep up for himself no less than forty thousand ? to pretend the defence of 'Tis wicked with insulting feet to tread parliaments, and violently to dissolve all, even of Upon the monuments of the dead. his own calling, and almost choosing to undertake the reformation of religion, and to rob it even And the intention of the reproof there, is no less to the very skin, and then to expose it naked to the proper for this subject; for it is spoken to a perrage of all sects and heresies ? to set up counsels son who was proud and insolent against those of rapine, and courts of murder ? to fight against dead men, to whom he had been humble and the king under a commission for him; to take obedient whilst they lived." him forcibly out of the hands of those for whom “Your highness may please (said I) to add he had conquered him ; to draw him into his | the verse that follows, as no less proper for this net, with protestations and vows of fidelity, and subject : when he had caught him in it, to butcher him, with as little shame, as conscience or humanity, Whom God's just doom and their own sins have in the open face of the whole world ? to receive
Sent a commission for the king and parliament, to Already to their punishment. murder (as I said) the one, and destroy no less impudently the other to fight against monar “But I take this to be the rule in the case, that, chy when he declared for it, and declare against when we fix any infamy upon deceased persons, it it when he contrived for it in his own person to should not be done out of hatred to the dead, but abase perfidiously and supplant ingratefully his out of love and charity to the living: that the own generala first, and afterwards most of those curses, which only remain in men's thoughts, officers, who, with the loss of their honour, and and dare not come forth against tyrants (because hazard of their souls, had lifted him up to the top they are tyrants) whilst they are so, may at of his unreasonable ambitions? to break his faith least be for ever settled and engraven upon their with all enemies and with all friends equally; and memories, to deter all others from the like wick. to make no less frequent use of the most solemn edness; which else, in the time of their foolish perjuries, than the looser sort of people do of prosperity, the flattery of their own hearts, and customary oaths ? to usurp three kingdoms with of other men's tongues, would not suffer them to out any shadow of the least pretensions, and to | perceive. Ambition is so subtile a tempter, and govern them as unjustly as he got them ? to set the corruption of human nature so susceptible of himself up as an idol (which we know, as St. the temptation, that a man can hardly resist it, Paul says, in itself is nothing), and make the be he never so much forewarned of the evil consevery streets of London like the valley of Hinnon, quences; much less if he find not only the conby burning the bowels of men as a sacrifice to his currence of the present, but the approbation too Molochship? to seek to entail this usurpation of following ages, which have the liberty to judge upon his posterity, and with it an endless war more freely. The mischief of tyranny is too great upon the nation ? and lastly, by the severest even in the shortest time that it can continue; it judgment of Almighty God, to die hardened, and is endless and insupportable, if the example be mad, and unrepentant, with the curses of the to reign too; and if a Lambert must be invited to present age, and the detestation of all to suc follow the steps of a Cromwell, as well by the
voice of honour, as by the sight of power and Though I had much more to say, (for the life riches. Though it may seem to some fantastiof man is so short, that it allows not time enough cally, yet was it wisely, done of the Syracusans, to speak against a tyrant) yet, because I had to implead with the forms of their ordinary jusa mind to hear how my strange adversary would tice, to condemn and destroy, even the statues behave himself upon this subject, and to give of all their tyrants: if it were possible to cut them even the devil (as they say) his right and fair | out of all history, and to extinguish their very play in a disputation, I stopped here, and ex names, I am of opinion that it ought to be done; pected (not without the frailty of a little fear) | but, since they have left behind them too deep
wounds to be ever closed up without a scar, at • Sir Thumas Fairfax.
least let us set such a mark upon their memory,
That men of the same wicked inclinations may be How has it snatch'd our flocks and herds away! no less affrighted with their lasting ignominy, And made even of our sons a prey! than enticed by their momentary glories. And, What croaking sects and vermin has it sent, that your highness may perceive, that I speak The restless nation to torment! Rot all this out of any private animosity against What greedy troops, what armed power the person of the late protector, I assure you, Of flies and locusts, to devour upon my faith, that I bear no more hatred to his The land, which every where they fill ! name, than I do to that of Marius or Sylla, who Nor fly they, Lord ! away; no, they devour never did me, or any friend of mine, the least
it still. injury ;” and with that, transported by a holy fury, I fell into this sudden rapture:
Come the eleventh plague, rather than thiş
should be ; Curst be the man (what do I wish? as though Come sink us rather in the sea. The wretch already were not so;
Come rather pestilence, and reap us down; But curst on let him be) who thinks it brave Come God's sword rather than our own. And great, his countrey' to enslave;
Let rather Roman come again, Who seeks to overpoise alone
Or Saxon, Norman, or the Dane: The balance of a nation;
In all the bonds we ever bore, Against the whole but naked state,
We griev'd, we sigh’d, we wept; we never Who in his own light scale makes up with arms
blush'd before, the weight:
If by our sins the divine justice be Who of his nation loves to be the first,
Call'd to this last extremity, Though at the rate of being worst;
Let some denouncing Jonas first be sent, Who would be rather a great monster, than
To try, if England can repent. A well-proportion'd man.
Methinks, at least, some prodigy, The son of Earth with hundred hand
Some dreadful comet from on high, Upon his three-pil'd inountain stands,
Should terribly forewarn the Earth, Till thunder strikes him from the sky;
As of good princes death, so of a tyrant's birth." The son of Earth again in his Earth's womb does lie.
Here, the spirit of verse beginning a little to
fail, I stopt: and his highness, smiling, said, What bloud, confusion, niin, to obtain
“I was glad to see you engaged in the enclosure A short and miserable reign!
of metre; for, if you had staid in the open plain In what oblique and humble creeping wise of declaiming against the word tyrant, I must Does the mischievous serpent rise!
have had patience for half a dozen hours, till But even his forked tongue strikes dead:
you had tired yourself as well as me. But pray, When he has rear'd up his wicked head, countryman, to avoid this sciomacy, or imagiHe murders with his mortal frown;
nary combat with words, let me know, sir, what A basilisk he grows, if once he get a crown." you mean by the name of tyrant, for I remember
that, among your ancient authors, not only all But no guards can oppose assaulting fears, kings, but even Jupiter himself (your juvans Or undermining tears,
pater) is so termed; and perhaps, as it was used No more than doors or close-drawn curtains formerly in a good sense, so we shall find it, keep
upon better consideration, to be still a good thing The swarming dreams out, when we sleep. for the benefit and peace of mankind; at least, it That bloody conscience, too, of his
will appear whether your interpretation of it may (For, oh, a rebel red-coat 'ris)
be justly appiied to the person, who is now the Does here his early Hell begin,
subject of our discourse." He sees his slaves without, his tyrant feels | “ I call him (said I) a tyrant, who either inwithin.
trudes bimself forcibly into the goverrment of
his fellow-citizens without any legal authority Let, gracious God! let never more thine hand over them ; or who, having a just title to the goLift up this rod against our land!
vernment of a people, abuses it to the destruction A tyrant is a rod, and serpent too,
or tormenting of them. So that all tyrants are And brings worse plagues than Egypt knew. at the same tiine usurpers, either of the whole, What rivers stain'd with blood have been! or at least of a part, of that power which they What storm anal bail-shot have we seen! | assuine to themselves; and no less are they to be
What sores deform'd the ulcerous state! accounted rebels, since no man can usurp auWhat darkness, to be felt, has buried us of thority over others, but by rebelling against them late!
who had it before, or at least against those laws
which were his superiors: and in all these senses * Countrey.) This word,' in the sense of patria, no history can afford us a more evident example oi as including in it the idea of a civil constituiion, of tyranny, or more out of all possibility of excuse is always spelt by Mr. Cowley, I observe, with or palliation, than that of the person whom you an e before y,_countrey ;- in the sense of rus, are pleased to defend ; whether we consider his without an en--country, and this distinction, for reiterated rebellions against all his superiors, or the sake of perspicuity, may be worth preserving. his usurpation of the supreme power to himself, Horn.
or his tyranny in the exercise of it: and, if law, vob, NIL
ful princes have been esteemed tyrants, by not serves, no doubt, to have the command of her containing themselves within the bounds of those (even as his highness had) by the desire of the Jaws which have been left them, as the sphere of seamen and passengers themselves. And do but their authority, by their fure-fathers, what shall consider, lastly,(for I omit a multitude of weighty we say of that man, who, having by right no things, that might be spoken upon this noble arpower at all in this nation, could not content him- gument) do but consider seriously and imparti. self with that which had satisfied the most ambi- ally with yourself, what admirable parts of wit tious of our princes ? nay, not with those rastly and prudence, what indefatigable diligence and extended limits of sovereignty, which he (dis- invincible courage, must of necessity have condaining all which had been prescribed and obser. curred in the person of that man, who, from so ved before) was pleased (out of great modesty) contemptible beginnings (as I observed before) to set to himself; not abstaining from rebellion and through so many thousand difficulties, was and usurpation even against his own laws, as well able not only to make himself the greatest and as those of the nation?”
| most absolute monarch of this nation, but to add “ Hold, friend, (said his highness, pulling me to it the entire conquest of Ireland and Scotland by my arm) for I see your zeal is transporting (which the whole force of the world, joined with you again ; whether the protector were a tyrant the Roman virtue, could never attain to); and in the exorbitant exercise of his power, we shall to crown all this with illustrious and hero.cal see anon; it is requisite to examine, first, undertakings and successes upon all our foreign whether he were so in the usurpation of it. And enemies: do but (I say again) consider this, and I say, that not only he, but no man else, ever you will confess, that his prodigious merits were was, or can be so; and that for these reasons. a better title to imperial dignity, than the blood First, because all power belongs only to God, who of an hundred royal progenitors; and will rather is the source and fountain of it, as kings are of lament that he lived not to overcome more nations all honours in their dominions. Princes are but than envy him the conquest and dominion of his viceroys in the little provinces of this world; these." and to some he gives their places for a few years, | “Whoever you are,” said I, (my indignation to some for their lives, and to others (upon ends making me somewhat bolder) “ your discourse, or deserts best known to himself, or merely for methinks, becomes as little the person of a tutelar his undisputable good pleasure) he bestows, as angel, as Cromwell's actions did that of a protecit were, leases upon them, and their posterity, tor. It is upon these principles, that all the great for such a date of time as is prefixed in that pa- crimes of the world have been committed, and tent of their destiny, which is not legible to you most particularly those which I have had the mismen below. Neither is it more unlawful for fortune to see in my own time, and in my own Oliver to succeed Charles in the kingdom of Eng. country. If these be to be allowed, we must land, when God so disposes of it, than it had break up human society, retire into the woods, been for him to have succeeded the lord Strafford and equally there stand upon our guards against in the lieutenancy of Ireland, if he had been ap- our brethren mankind, and our rebels the wild pointed to it by the king then reigning. Men beasts. For, if there can be no usurpation upon are in both the cases obliged to obey him whom the rights of a whole nation, there can be none they see actually invested with the authority, by most certainly upon those of a private person; that sovereign from whom he ought to derive it, | and, if the robbers of countries be God's vicegewithout disputing or examining the causes, either rents, there is no doubt but the thieves and banof the removal of the one, or the preferment of ditos, and murderers, are his under-officers. It the other. Secondly, because all power is at- is true which you say, that God is the source and tained, either by the election and consent of the fountain of all power; and it is no less true, that people (and that takes away your objection of he is the creator of serpents, as well as angels; forcible intrusion); or else by a conquest of them nor does his goodness fail of its ends, even in the (and that gives such a legal authority as you malice of his own creatures. What power he mention to be wanting in the usurpation of a suffers the Devil to exercise in this world, is too tyrant); so that either this title is right, and then apparent by our daily experience; and by nothere are no usurpers, or else it is a wrong one, thing more than the late monstrous iniquities and then there are none else but usurpers, if which you dispute for, and patronize in England: you examine the original pretences of the princes but would you infer from thence, that the power of the world. Thirdly, (which, quitting the dis of the Devil is a just and lawful one; and that all pute in general, is a particular justification of his men onght, as well as most men do, obey him? highness) the government of England was totally God is the fountain of all powers; but some flow broken and dissolved, and extinguished by the from the right hand (as it were) of his goodness, confusions of a civil war; so that his highness and others from the left hand of his justice; and could not be accused to have possessed himself the world, like an island between these two rivers, violently of the ancient building of the common. is sometimes refreshed and nourished by the one wealth, but to have prudently and peaceably and sometimes over-run and ruined by the other ; built up a new one out of the ruins and ashes of and to continue a little farther the allegory) the former; and he, who after a deplorable ship. / we are never overwhelmed with the latter, till, wreck, can with extraordinary industry gather either by our malice or negligence, we have together the dispersed and broken planks and stopped and dammed up the former. pieces of it, and with no less wonderful art and « But to come a little closer to your argument felicity so rejoin them, as to make a new vessel | or rather the image of an argument, your similimore tight and beautiful than the old one, de tude. If Cromwell had come to command in Ire