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land, in the place of the late lord Strafford, I miserable conquest remain then in his majesty ; should have yielded obedience, not for the equi- and didst thou suffer him to be destroyed, with page, and the strength, and the guards which he more barbarity than if he had been conquered brought with him, but for the commission which even by savages and canibals? Was it for king he should first have showed me from our common and parliament that we fought ; and has it fared sovereign that sent him; and, if he could have with them just as with the army which we fought done that from God Almighty, I would have obey | against, the one part being slain, and the other ed him tov in England ; but that he was so far fled? It appears therefore plainly, that Cromwell from being able to do, that, on the contrary, I was not a conqueror, but a thief and robber of read nothing but commands, and even public | the rights of the king and parliament, and an proclamations, from God Almighty, not to admit usurper upon those of the people. I do not here, him.
deny conquest to be sometimes (though it be “Your second argument is, that he had the very rarely) a true title; but I deny this to be a same right for his authority, that is the foundation true conquest. Sure I am, that the race of our of all others, even the right of conquest. Are princes came not in by such a one. One nation we then so unhappy as to be conquered by the may conquer another sometimes justly; and if person whom we hired at a daily rate, like a it be unjustly, yet still it is a true conquest, and labourer, to conquer others for us? Did we fur- they are to answer for the injustice only to God nish him with arms, only to draw and try upon Almighty (having nothing else in authority above our enemies (as we, it seems, falsely thought them) and not as particular rebels to their counthem) and keep them for ever sheathed in the try, which is, and ought always to be, their supe. • bowels of his friends ? Did we fight for libertyrior and their lord. If perhaps we find usurpaagainst our prince, that we might become slaves tion instead of conquest in the original titles of to our servant? This is such an impudent pre- some royal families abroad, (as no doubt there tence, as neither he nor any of his fatterers for have been many usurpers, before ours, though him had ever the face to mention. Though it none in so impudent and execrable a manner) can hardly be spoken or thought of without pas- all I can say for them is, that their title was very sion, yet I shall, if you please, argue it more weak, till, by length of time, and the death of all calmly than the case deserves.
juster pretenders, it became to be the true, be“The right, certainly, of conquest can only because it was the only one. exercised upon those against whom the war is de “Your third defence of his highness (as your clared, and the victory obtained. So that no highness pleases to call him) enters in most seawhole nation can be said to be conquered, but by sonably after his pretence of conquest; for then foreign force. In all civil wars, men are so far a man may say any thing. The government was from stating the quarrel against their country, broken ; who broke it? It was dissolved; who that they do it only against a person or party, dissolved it? It was extinguished; who was it, which they really believe, or at least pretend, to but Cromwell, who not only put out the light, but be pernicious to it; neither can there be any cast away even the very snuff of it? As if a man just cause for the destruction of a part of the should murder a whole family, and then possess body, but when it is done for the preservation and himself of the house, because it is better that he, safety of the whole. It is our country that raises than that only rats, should live there. Jesus men in the quarrel, our country that arms, our God! (said I, and at that word I perceived my country that pays, them, our country that autho- | pretended angel to give a start and trembled, but rizes the undertaking, and by that distinguishes I took no notice of it, and went on) this were a it from rapine and murder; lastly it is our coun- wicked pretension, even though the whole fatry that directs and commands the army, and is mily were destroyed; but the heirs (blessed be indeed their general. So that to say, in civil God !) are yet surviving, and likely to out-live wars, that the prevailing party conquers their all heirs of their dispossessors, besides their infa. country, is to say, the country conquers itself. my. Rode, caper, vitem, &c. There will And, if the general only of that party be the con- be yet wine enough left for the sacrifice of those queror, the army, by which he is made so, is wild beasts, that have made so much spoil in the no less conqnered than the army which is beaten, vineyard. But did Cromwell think, like Nero, and have as little reason to triumph in that vic to set the city on fire, only that he might have tory, by which they lose both their honour and the honour of being founder of a new and more liberty. So that, if Cromwell conquered any beautiful one? He could not have such a shadow party, it was only that against which he was of virtue in his wickedness; he meant only to rob sent ; and what that was must appear by his | more securely and more richly in midst of the commission. It was (says that) against a com combustion ; he little thought then that he should pany of evil counsellors, and disaffected persons, ever have been able to make himself master of who kept the king from a good intelligence and the palace, as well as plunder the goods of the conjunction with his people. It was not then commonwealth. He was glad to see the public against the people. It is so far from being so, vessel (the sovereign of the seas) in as desperate that even of that party which was beaten, the a condition as his own little canoe, and thought conquest did not belong to Cromwell, but to the | only, with some scattered planks of that great parliament which employed him in their service, shipwreck, to make a better fisherboat for himor rather indeed to the king and parliament, for self. But when he saw that, by the drowning of whose service (if there had been any faith in the master, (whom he himself treacherously men's vows and protestations) the wars were un knocked on the head, as he was swimming for dertaken. Merciful God! did the right of this his life) by the flight and dispersion of others, '
and cowardly patience of the remaining com- | force or policy, but of the divine justice and pro pany, all was abandoned to his pleasure ; with | destination; and, though we see a man, like that the old hulk, and new mis-shapen and dis- | wbicb we call Jack of the clock-house, striking, agreeing pieces of his own, he made up, with as it were, the hour of that fulness of time, yet much ado, that piratical vessel which we have our reason must needs be convinced, that the seen him coinmand, and which, how tight indeed hand is moved by some secret, and, to us who it was, may best be judged by its perpetual leak stand without, invisible direction. And the stream ing.
of the current is then so violent, that the strong“First then, (much more wicked than those fool est men in the world cannot draw up against it; ish daughters in the fable, who cut their old father and none are so weak, but they may sail down into pieces, in hope by charms and witchcraft to with it. These are the spring-tides of public make him young and lusty again) this man en- | affairs, which we see often happen, but seek ia deavoured to destroy the building, before he vain to discover any certain causes : could imagine in what manner, with what materials, by what workmen, or what architect, it
-Omnia fluminis was to be rebuilt. Secondly, if he had dreamt Ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo himself to be able to revive that body which he Cum pace delabentis Etruscum had killed, yet it had been but the insupportable
In mare, nunc lapides adesos, insolence of an ignorant mountebank; and third Stirpesque raptas, & pecus & domos, ly (which concerns us nearest), that very new Volventis unâ, non sine montiuin thing, which he made out of the ruins of the old, Clamore, vicinæque sylvæ ; is no more like the original, either for beanty, use,
Cùm fera diluvies quietos or duration, than an artificial plant, raised by 1 Irritat amnes.
Hor. 3 Carm. xxix. the fire of a chymist, is comparable to the true and natural one which he first burnt, that out of “And one man then,by maliciously opening all the ashes of it he might produce an imperfect si- the sluices that he can come at, can never be militude of his own making
the sole author of all this (though he may be as “Your last argument is such (when reduced to guilty as if really he were, by intending and syllogism, that the major proposition of it would imagining to be so); but it is God that breaks make strange work in the world, if it were receive up the food-gates of so general a deluge, ed for truth; to wit, that he who has the best and all the art then and industry of mankind parts in a nation, has the right of being king over is not sufficient to raise up dikes and ramparts it. We had enough to do here of old with the against it. In such a time it was as this, that contention between two branches of the same fa- not all the wisdom and power, of the Roman semily: what would become of us, when every man nate, nor the wit and eloquence of Cicero, nor in England should lay his claim to the govern- | the courage and virtue of Brutus, was able to ment? And truly, if Cromwell should have com- defend their country, or themselves, against menced his plea, when he seems to have begun the unexperienced rashness of a beardless boy, his ambition, there were few persons besides, that and the loose rage of a voluptuous madman. might not at the same time have put in theirs too. The valour and prudent counsels on the one But his deserts, 1 suppose, you will date from the side are made fruitless, and the errors and same term that I do his great demerits, that is, cowardice on the other harmless, by unexpectfrom the beginning of our late calamities (for, ed accidents. The one general saves his life, as for his private faults before, I can only wish, and gains the whole world, by a very dream; and that with as much charity to him as to the and the other loses both at once, by a little mispublic that he had continued in them till hisdeath, take of the shortness of his sight. And though rather than changed them for those of his latter this be not always so, for we see that, in the days); and therefore we must begin the consi translation of the great monarchies from one to deration of his greatness from the unlucky era another. it pleased God to make choice of the of our own misfortune ; which puts me in mind most eminent men in nature, as Cyrus, Alexof what was said less truly of Pompey the Great, ander, Scipio, and his contemporaries, for his Nostra miseriâ magnus es. But, because chief instruments and actors in so admirable the general ground of your augmentation con a work (the end of this being, not only to desists in this, that all men who are effecters of ex- | stroy or punish one nation, which may be done traordinary mutations in the world, must needs by the worst of mankind, but to exalt and have extraordinary forces of nature, by which bless another, which is only to be effected by they are enabled to turn about, as they please, great and virtuous persons); yet, when God so great a wheel; I shall speak first a few words only intends the temporary chastisement of a upon this universal proposition, which seems so people, he does not raise up his servant Cyrus reasonable, and is so popular, before I descend (as he himself is pleased to call him), or an to the particular examination of the eminences Alexanuler (who had as many virtues to do of that person which is in question.
good, as vices to do harm); but he makes “I have often observed(with all submission and the Massanellos, and the Johns of Leyden, the resignation of spirit to the inscrutable mysteries instruments of his vengeance, that the power of Eternal Providence) that when the fulness and of the Almighty might be more evident by the maturity of time is come, that produces the great weakness of the means which he chooses to deconfusions and changes in the world, it usually | monstrate it. He did not assemble the serpleases God to make it appear, by the manner pents and the monsters of Africa, to correct of them, that they are not the effects of human the pride of the Egyptians ; but called for his
arinies of locusts out of Æthiopia, and formed those who are born for the erection of new em. new ones of vermin out of the very dust; and piręs. because you see a whole country destroyed by “And, I confess, I find nothing of that kind, these, you will argue from thence they must no not any shadow (taking away the false needs have both the craft of foxes, and the courage light of some prosperity) in the man whoin of lions?
you extol for the first example of it. And “ It is easy to apply this general observation to certainly, all virtues being rightly divided into the particnlar case of our troubles in England : moral and intellectual, I know not how we can and that they seem only to be meant for a better judge of the former, than by men's actemporary chastisement of our sins, and not | tions; or of the latter than by their writings for a total abolishment of the old, and introduc- or speeches. As for these latter (which are tion of a new government, appears probable to least in merit, or rather which are only the me from these considerations, as far as we instruments of mischief, where the other are may be bold to make a judgment of the will wanting) I think you can hardly pick out the of God in future events. First, because he name of a man who ever was called great, has suffered nothing to settle or take root in besides him we are now speaking of, who never the place of that, which hath been so un- left the memory behind him of one wise or wisely and unjustly removed, that none of witty apophthegm even amongst his domestic these untempered mortars can hold out against servants or greatest flatterers. That little in the next blast of wind, nor any stone stick to print, which remains upon a sad record for a stone, till that which these foolish builders him, is such, as a satire against him would have refused, be made again the head of the not have made him say, for fear of transcorner. Por, when the indisposed and long-tor gressing too much the rules of probability. mented commonwealth has wearied and spent I know not what you can produce for the jusitself almost to nothing, with the chargeable, tification of his parts in this kind, but his various, and dangerous experiments of several having been able to deceive so many partimounte-banks, it is to be supposed, it will cular persons, and so many whole parties ; have the wit at last to send for a true physi which if you please to take notice of for the cian, especially when it sees (which is the se advantage of his intellectuals, I desire you cond consideration) most evidently (as it now! to allow me the liberty to do so too when I begins to do, and will do every day more and am to speak of his morals. The truth of more, and might have done perfectly long since) the thing is this, that if craft be wisdoin, and that no usurpation (under what name or pre- dissimulation wit, (assisted both and improved text soerer) can be kept up without open force, with hypocrisies and perjuries) I must not nor force without the continuance of those op. deny him to have been singular in both ; but pressions upon the people, which will at last so gross was the manner in which he made tire out their patience, though it be great even use of them, that, as wise men ought not to to stupidity. They cannot be so dull (when po- have believed him at first, so no man was fool verty and hunger begins to wet their under- enough to believe him at last : neither did any standing) as not to find out this no extraor- man seem to do it, but those who, thought dinary mystery, that it is madness in a na- they gained as much by that dissembling, as tion to pay three millions a year for the he did by his. His very actings of godliness maintaining of their servitude under tyrants, grew at last as ridiculous, as if a player by putwhen they might live free for nothing under ting on a gown, should think he represented their princes. This, I say, will not always lie excellently a woman, though his beard at the hid, even to the slowest capacities; and the same time were seen by all the spectators. If next truth they will discover afterwards is, you ask me, why they did not hiss, and exthat a whole people can never have the will, plode him off the stage; I can only answer, that without having at the same time the power, they durst not do so, because the actors and the to redeem themselves. Tuirdly, it does not door-keepers were too strong for the company. lok (me thinks) as if God had forsaken the I must confess that by these arts (how grossly family of that man, from whom he has raised | soever managed, as by hypocritical praying and ap five children, of as eminent virtue, and all silly preaching, by unmanly tears and whinother commendable qualities, as ever lived ings, by falsehoods, and perjuries even diaboli. perhaps (for so many together, and so young) | cal) he had at first the good-fortune (as men in any other family in the whole world. Es- | call it, that is, the ill-fortune) to attain his pecially, if we add hereto this consideration, ends; but it was because his ends were so that by protecting and preserving some of unreasonable, that no human reason could fore. them already through as grcat dangers as ever see them ; which made them, who had to do were past with safety, either by prince or with him, believe, that he was rather a wellprivate person, he has given them already meaning and deluded bigot, than a crafty and (as we may reasonably hope it to be meant) | malicious impostor ; that these arts were , a promise and earnest of his future favours. helped by an indefatigable industry, (as you And lastly (to return closely to the discourse term it) I am so far from doubting, that I infrom which I have a little digressed) because tended to object that diligence, as the worst of his I see nothing of those excellent parts of na-crimes. It makes me almost mad, when I hear ture, and mixture of merit with their vices, in a man commended for his diligence in wickedthe late disturbers of our peace and happiness. If I were his son, I should wish to wess, that uses to be found in the persons of God he bad been a more lazy person, and that
he might have found him sleeping at the hours , the empire; it was boldly done, to set the mea when other men are ordinarily waking, rather tropolis of the whole world on fire, and undaunt. than waking for those ends of his when other edly play upon his harp whilst he saw it burning; men were ordinarily asleep. How diligent the I could reckon up five hundred boldnesses of that wicked are, the Scripture often tells us, “ Their great person (for why should not he, too, be callfeet run to evil, and they make haste to sheded so?) who wanted, when he was to die, that innocent blood," Isai. lix. 7. “ He travels with courage which could hardly have failed any woman iniquity," Psal. vii. 14.“ He deviseth mischief in the like necessity. upon his bed," Psal. xxxiv. 4. “ They search | "It would look (I must confess) like envy,or too out iniquity, they accomplish a diligent search," much partiality, if I should say that personal Psal. Ixiv. 6. and in a multitude of other places. kind of courage had been deficient in the man we And would it not scem ridiculous, to praise a speak of ; I am confident it was not : and yet wolf for his watchfulness, and for his inde- | I may venture, I think, to affirm, that no man fatigable industry in ranging all night about the ever bore the honour of so many victories, at the country, whilst the sheep, and perhaps the rate of fewer wounds and dangers of his own body; shepherd, and perhaps the very dogs too are all and though his valour might perhaps have given asleep;
ajust pretension to one of the first charges in an
army, it could not certainly be a sufficient ground The chartreux wants the warning of a bell for a title to the command of three nations. To call him to the duties of his cell;
“What then shall we say? that he did all this by There needs no noise at all t’ awaken sin, witchcraft? He did so, indeed, in a great measure, Th’ adulterer and the thief his larum has by a sin that is called like it in the scriptures. within.
But, truly, and unpassionately reflecting upon
the advantages of his person, which might be " And, if the diligence of wicked persons be so thought to have produced those of his fortune, much to be blamed, as that it is only an em- \ I can espy no other but extraordinary diligence phasis and exaggeration of their wickedness, I and infinite dissimulation ; and believe he was see not how their courage can avoid the same exalted above his pation, partly by his own faults, censure. If the undertaking bold, and vast, but chiefly for ours. and unreasonable designs can deserve that ho- “We have brought him thus briefly(not through nourable name, I am sure, Faux and his fel- all his labyrinths) to the supreme usurped autholow gun-powder friends, will have cause to rity; and because you say it was great pity he pretend, though not an equal, yet at least the did not live to command more kingdoms, be next place of honour: neither can I doubt but pleased to let me represent to you, in a few words, if they too had succeeded, they would have how well I conceive he governed these. And we found their applauders and admirers. It was will divide the consideration into that of his fo. bold unquestionably for a man in defiance of reign and domestic actions. The first of his foall human and divine laws (and with so little reign, was a peace with our brethren of Holland probability of a long impunity) so publicly (who were the first of our neighbours that God and so outrageously to murder his master; chastised for having had so great a hand in the it was bold with so much insolence and affront encouraging and abetting our troubles at home): to expel and disperse all the chief partners who would not imagine at first glimpse that this of his guilt, and creators of his power; it was had been the most virtuous and laudable deed, bold to violate so openly and so scornfully that his whole life could have made any parade all acts and constitutions of a nation and af- of? but no man can look upon all the circumterwards even of his own making ; it was bold stances, without perceiving, that it was purely to assume the authority of calling, and bolder the sale and sacrificing of the greatest advanyet of breaking, so many parliaments: it was tages that this country could ever hope, and was bold to trample upon the patience of his own ready to reap, from a foreign war, to the private and provoke that of all neighbouring countries; | interests of his covetousness and ambition, and it was bold, I say, above all boldnesses, to usurp the security of his new and unsettled usurpation. this tyranny to himself : and impudent above | No sooner is that danger past, but this Beatus all impudences, to endeavour to transmit it to | Pacificus is kindling a fire in the northern world, his posterity. But all this boldness is so far and carrying a war two thousand miles off westfrom being a sign of manly courage, (which wards. Two millions a year (besides all the vails dares not transgress the rules of any other vir of his protectorship) is as little capable to suffice tue) that it is only a demonstration of brutish now either his avarice orbis prodigality, as madness or djabolical possession. In both which the two hundred pounds were, that he was last cases there used frequent examples to ap born to. He must have his prey of the whole pcar of such extraordinary force as may justly Indies both by sea and land, this great alligaseem more wonderful and astonishing than the tor. To satisfy our Anti-Solomon (who has actions of Cromwell ; neither is it stranger to made silver almost as rare as gold, and gold believe that a whole nation should rot be able as precious stones in his new Jerusalem) we to govern him and a mad army, than that five must go, ten thousand of his slaves, to fetch him or six men should not be strong enough to bind a riches from his fantastical Ophir. And, because distracted girl. There is no man ever succeeds his flatterers brag of him as the most fortunate in one wickedness, but it gives him the boldness | prince (the Faustus, as well as Sylla, of our nato attempt a greater. It was boldly done of Nero tion, whom God never forsook in any of his unto kill bis mother, and all the chief nobility of dertakings) I desire them to consider, how, since the English name was ever heard of, it never that the whole nation had given, and all private received so great and so infamous a blow as un. capitulations which himself had made, as the nader the imprudent conduct of this unlucky Faus- tion's general and servant, that can be found out tus; and herein let me admire the justice of (I believe) in all history, from any of the most God in this circumstance, that they who had barbarous generals of the most barbarous people. enslaved their country (thongh a great army, Which, because it has been most excellently and which I wish may be observed by ours with trem- most largely laid open by a whole book written bling) should be so shamefully defeated by the upon that subject, I shall only desire you here to hands of forty slaves. It was very ridiculous to see remember the thing in general, and to be pleased how prettily they endeavoured to hide this ignomi- to look upon that author, when you would recolny under the great name of the Conquest of Ja- lect all the particulars and circumstances of the maica; as if a defeated army should have the iniquity. The other design, of raising a present impudence to brag afterwards of the victory, be- sum of money, which he violently pursued, but cause, though they had fled out of the field of durst not put in execution, was by the calling in battle, yet they quartered that night in a village and establishinent of the Jews at London ; from of the enemy's. The war with Spain was a ne- which he was rebuked by the universal outcry of cessary consequence of this folly; and how the divines, and even of the citizens too, who took it much we have gotten by it let the custom-house ill, that a considerable number at least amongst and exchange inform you; and, if he please to themselves were not thought Jews enough by boast of the taking a part of the silver fleet, their own Herod. And for this design, they say, (which indeed nobody else but he, who was the he invented (oh Antichrist ! Tlompor and ó Torneos ! sole gainer, has cause to do) at least, let him to sell St. Paul's to them for a synagogue, if their give leave to the rest of the nation (which is the purses and devotions could have reach'd to the only loser) to complain of the loss of twelve hun. purchase. And this indeed, if he had done only dred of her ships.
to reward that nation, which had given the first “But because it may here perhaps be answered, noble example of crucifying their king, it might that his successes nearer home have extinguished have had some appearance of gratitude: but he the disgrace of so remote miscarriages, and that did it only for love of their mammon; and would Dunkirk ought more to be remembered for his have sold afterwards for as much more St. Peter's glory, than St. Domingo for his disadvantage; (even at his own Westminster) to the Turks for a I must confess, as to the honour of the English mosquito. Such was his extraordinary piety to God, courage, that they were not wanting upon that | that he desired he might be worshipped in all occasion (excepting only the fault of serving at manners, excepting only that heathenish way of least indirectly against their master) to the up the Common-prayer book. But what do I speak holding of the renown of their warlike ancestors. of his wicked inventions for getting money ; But for his particular share of it, who sate still when every penny, that for almost five years he at home, and exposed them so frankly abroad, I took every day from every man living in England, can only say, that, for less money than he in the Scotland, and Ireland, was as much robbery, as short time of bis reign exacted from his fellow- if it had been taken by a thief upon the highsubjects, some of our former princes (with the ways? Was it not so or can any man think daily hazard of their own persons) have added that Cromwell, with the assistance of his forces to the dominion of England, not only one town, and moss-troopers, had more right to the combut even a greater kingdom than itself. And mand of all men's purses, than he might have this being all considerable as concerning his en had to any one's whom he had met and been too terprizes abroad, let us examine in the next strong for upon a road? And yet, when this place, how much we owe him for his justice and came, in the case of Mr. Coney3, to be disputed by good government at home.
a legal trial, he (which was the highest act of ty"And, first, he found the commonwealth (as they radny that ever was seen in England) not only then called it) in a ready stock of about 800,000 discouraged and threatened, but violently impri. pounds; he left the commonwealth (as he had soned the counsel of the plaintiff; that is, he the impudent raillery still to call it) some two shut up the law itself a close prisoner, that no millions and an half in debt. He found our trade man might have relief from, or access to it. very much decayed indeed, in comparison of the And it ought to be remembered, that this was golden times of our late princes; he left it as done by those men, who a few years before had much again more decayed than he found it: so bitterly decried, and openly opposed, the king's and yet not only no prince in England, but no regular and formal way of proceeding in the trial tyrant in the world, ever sought out more base or of a little ship-money. infamous means to raise monies. I shall only! But, though we lost the benefit of our old instance in one that he put in practice, and ano- courts of justice, it cannot be denied that he set ther that he attempted, but was frighted from the up new ones; and such as they were, that as no execution (even he) by the infamy of it. That virtuous prince before would, so no ill one durst, which he put in practice was decimation ?; which erect. What, have we lived so many hundred was the most impudent breach of all public faith years under such a form of justice as has been
able regularly to punish all men that offended ? By decimation, is here meant, not the putting against it; and is it so deficient just now, that to death of every tenth man (which is the usual we inust seek out new ways how to proceed sense of this term), but the levying of the tenth penny on the estates of the Royalists. The word 3 Which the reader may see in lord Clare: is so used by sir John Denham. HURD.
don, H. R. vol. iii. fol. p. 596. HURD.