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world?); whereas it is in commenelation of those that time, with his friend Metrodorus: after who live and die so obscurely, that the world whose death, making in one of his letters a kind takes no notice of them. This Horace calls conmemoration of the happiness which they two deceiving the world; and in another place uses had enjoyed together, he adds at last, that he the same phrase",
thought it no disparagement to those great fe
licities of their life, that, in the midst of the - Secretum iter & fallentis semita vitæ. | most talked-of and talking country in the world, The secret tracts of the deceiving life.
they had lived so long, not only without fame,
but almost without being heard of. And yet, It is very elegant in Latin, but our English within a very few years afterward, there were word will hardly bear up to that sense; and no two names of men more known, or more getherefore Mr. Broom translates it very well nerally celebrated. If we engage into a large
acquaintance and various fair.iliarities, we set Or from a life led, as it were, by stealth. open our gates to the invaders of most of our
time: we expose our life to a quotidian ague of Yet we say in our language, a thing deceives our frigid impertinences, which would make a wise sight, when it passes before us unperceived ; inan tremble to think of. Now, as for being and we may say well encugh, out of the same known much by sight, and pointed at, I cannot authors,
comprehend the honour that lies in that; what
soever it be, evcry mountebank has it more Sometimes with sleep, sometimes with wine, than the best doctor, and the hangman more we strive
than the lord chief justice of a city. Every The cares of life and troubles to deceire. creature has it, both of nature and art, if it be
any ways extraordinary. It was as often said. But that is not to deceive the world, but fo de “This is that Bucephalus,” or, “ This is that ceive ourselves, as Quintilian says), vitam Incitatus," when they were led prancing through fallere, to draw on still, and amuse, and de the streets, as, “This is that Alexander," or, ceive, our life, till it be advanced insensibly to “This is that Domitian ;” and truly, for the the fatal period, and fall into that pit which latter, I take Incitatus to have been a much more nature hath prepared for it. The meaning of all honourable beast than his master, and more this is no more than that most vulgar saying, deserving the consulship, than he the empire. Bene qui latuit, bene vixit, He has lived I love and coinmend a true good-faine, bewell, who has lain weil hidden; which, if it be cause it is the shadow of virtue: not that it a truth, the world (I will swear) is sufficiently doth any good to the body which it accompanies, deceived: for my part, I think it is, and that but it is an efficacious shadow, and, like that of the pleasantest condition of life is, in incognito. St. Peter, cures the diseases of others. The best What a brare privilege is it, to be free from all kind of glory, no doubt, is that which is reflected contentions, from all envying or being envyed, from honesty, such as was the glory of Cato and from receiving and from paying all kind of ce- Aristides; but it was harmful to them both, and remonies! It is, in my mind, a very delightful is seldom beneficial to any man, whilst he lives; pastime, for tivo good and agreeable friends to wbat it is to him after his death, I cannot say, travel up and down together, in places where because I love not philosophy merely notionaland they are by nobody known, nor know any body. conjectural, and no man who has made the experiIt was the case of Æneas and his Achates, when ment has been so kind as to come back to inform they walked invisibly about the fields and us. l'pon the whole matter, I account a person streets of Carthage. Venus herself,
who has a moderate mind and fortune, and lives
in the conversation of two or three agrerable A rail of thicken'd air around them cast, friends, with little commerce in ihe world besides, That none might know, or see them, as they who is esteemed ucll enough by his few mighpass'd'.
bours that know him, and is truly irreproachable
by any body; and so, after a healthful quiet life, The common story of Demosthenes' confession, before the great incouveniencies of old-ase, goes that he had taken great pleasure in hearing of a more silently out of it than he came in (for I would tauker-woman say, as he passed, “ This is that not have him so much as cry in the exit): this Demosthenes," is wonderfully ridiculous from innocent deceiver of the world, ds Horace calls so solid an orator. I myself hare often met hion, this muta persona, I take to have been with that temptation to vanity (if it were any); more happy in his part, than the greatest actors but am so far from finding it any pleasure, that that fill the stage will show and noise, nav, it only makes me run faster from the place, even than Augustus himself, who asked, with till I get, as it were, out of sight-shot Demo- bis last breath, whether he had nut played his critus relates, and in such a manner as if he tarce very well. gloried in the good-lorture and commodity of it, that, when he came to Athens, nobody there did so much as take notice of hini; and Epicurus lived there very well, that is, lay bid Seneca, ex THYESTE, ACIII, Cuoli, many years in his gardens, so famous since
Stet quicumque vulet potens, &c. lor. 1 Ep. xviii. 103. 8 Sat. vii. 114. Upon the slippery tops of human state, ' Declain, de Apib,
" Virg. Æn. i. 415. / The gilde i pinnacles of late,
Let others proudly stand, and, for a while I very nigh to those of a philosopher. There is The giddy danger to beguile,
no other sort of life that affords so many branch. With jiv, and with disdain, look down on all, es of praise to 3 panegyrist: The utility of
Till their heads turn, and down they fall. it to a man's self; the usefulness, or rather Me, O) ye gods, on earth, or else so near
necessity, of it to all the rest of mankind; the That I no fall to earth may fear,
innocence, the pleasure, the antiquity, the And, Oye gods, at a good distance seat
dignity. From the long ruins of thc great.
The utility (I mean plainly the lucre of it) Here, wrapt in th' arms of Quiet let me lie; is not so great, now in our nation, as arises Quiet, companion of Obscurity!
from merchandise and the trading of the city, Here let my life with as much silence slide, from whence many of the best estates and chief As time, that measu' e; it, does glide,
| honours of the kingdom are derived: we have Nor let the breath of infamy, or fame,
no men now fetched from the plough to be made From town to town echo about my name.
lords, as they were in Rome to be made conNor let my homely death embroider'd be
suls and dictators; the reason of which I conWith scutcheon or with elezy.
ceive to be from an evil custom, now grown as An old plebeian let me die,
s'rong among us as if it were a law, which is, Alas! all then are such as well as I.
that no men put their children to be bred-up To him, alas, to him, I fear,
apprentices in agriculture, as in other trades, The face of death will terrible appear,
but such who are so poor, that when they come Who, in his life flattering his senseless pride, to be men, they have not wherewithal to set up By being known to all the world beside,
in it, and so can only farm some small parcel of Does not himself, when he is dying, know,
ground, the rent of which devours all but the Nor what he is, nor whither he's to go.
bare subsistence of the tenant: whilst they who are proprietors of the land are either too proud,
or, for want of that kind of education, too igIV.
norant, to improve their estates, though the
means of doing it be as easy and certain in this, OF AGRICULTURE.
as in any other track of commerce. If there
were always two or three thousand yonths, for THE first wish of Virgil (as you will find anon
seven or eight years, bound to this profession, by his verses) was to be a good philosopher;
that they might learn the whole art of it, and the second, a good husbandman: and God
afierwards be enabled to be masters in it, by a (whom he seemed to understand better than
moderate stock; I cannot doubt but that we most of the most learned heathens) dealt with
should see as many aldermen's estates made in bim, just as he did with Solomon; because he
the country, as now we do out of all kind of prayed for wisdom in the first place, he added
merchandizing in the city. There are as many all things else, which were subordinately to be
ways to be rich, and, which is better, there is desired. He made him one of the best philo
no possibility to be poor, without such neglisophers, and best husbandmen; and, to adorn
gence as can neither have excuse nor pity : for and communicate both those faculties, the best a little ground will without question feed a little poet: he made him, besides all this, a rich man,
family, and the superfluities of life (which are and a man who desired to be no richer
now in some cases by custom made almost ne
cessary) must be supplied out of the superO fortunatus nimium, & bona qui sua novit!
abundance of art and industry, or contemned by
as great a degree of philosophy. To be a husbandman, is but a retreat from the
As for the necessity of this art, it is evident city; to be a philosopher, from the world ; or
enough, since this can live without all others, rather, a retreat from the world, as it is man's,
and no one other without this. This is like into the world, as it is God's.
speech, without which the society of men canBut, since nature denies to most men the
not be preserved: the others like figures and capacity or appetite, and fortune allows but to | tropes of speech, which serve only to adorn it. a very few the opportunities or possibility, of Many nations have lived, and some do still, applying themselves wholly to philosophy, the without any art but this : not so elegantly, I best mixture of human affairs that we can make,
confess, but still they live; and almost all the are the employments of a country life. It is, other arts, which are here practised, are beas Columella a calls it, Res sine dubitatione | holden to this for most of their materials. proxima, & quasi consanguinca sapientiæ, the
The innocence of this life is the next thing nearest neighbour, or rather next in kindred, to for which I commend it; and if husbandmen philosophy. Varro says, the principles of it are preserve not that, they are much to blame, for the same which Ennius made to be the principles no men are so free from the temptations of ini. of all nature, Earth, Water, Air, and the Sun. It quity. They live by what they can get by inlosophy, than any one profession, art, or science, they can catch by craft from men. They live in the world besides: and therefore Cicero says), upon an estate given them by their mother; and the pleasures of a husbandman, mihi ad sa others, upon an estate cheated from their bre. pientis vitam proxime videntur accedere, come thren. They live, like sheep and kine, by the
allowances of nature : and others, like wolves ? Lib. I. c. in 3 De Sencet. and foxes, by the acquisitions of rapine. And
I hope, I may affirm (witnout any ofience to the they were made, and to wbich they must rea great) that sheep and kine are very useíul, and turn, and pay at last for their sustenance. that wolves and foxes are pernicious creatures. Behold ihe original and priinitive nobility of They are, without dispute, of all men the most all those great persons, who are too proud now, quiet, and least apt to be inflamed to the dis not only to till the ground, but almost to tread turbance of the commonwealth; their manner upon it. We may talk what we please of lilies, of life inclines them, and interest biuds them, to and lions rampant, and spread eagles, in fields love peace; in our late mad and miserable d'or or d'argent; but, if heraldry were guided civil wars, all other trades, eren to the meanest, by reason, a plough in a field arable would be set forth whole troops, and raised up some great | the most noble and ancient arms. commanders, who became famous and unighty All these considerations inake me fall into the for the mischiefs they had done: but I do not wonder and complaint of Columella, how it remember the name of any one husbandman, should come to pass that all arts or sciences who had so considerable a share in the twenty (for the dispute, which is an art, and which a years ruin of his country, as to deserve the science, does not belong to the curiosity of us curses of nis countrymen.
husbandmen) metaphysic, physic, morality, And if great delights be joined with so much mathematics, logic, rhetoric, &c. which are innocence, I think it is ill done of men, not to all, I grant, good and useful faculties, (except take them here, where they are so tame, and only metaphysic, which I do not know whether ready at hand, rather than hunt for them in it be any thing or no) but even vaulting, fenccourts and cities, where they are so wild, and the ing, dancing, attiring, cookery, carving, and chase so troublesome and dangerous.
such-like vanities, should all have public schools We are here among the vast and noble scenes and masters; and yet that we should never sce of nature; we are there among the pitiful shifts or hear of any man, who took upon him the of policy ; we walk here in the light and open profession of teaching this so pleasant, so virtuways of the divine bounty ; we grope there in ous, so profitable, so honourable, so necessary the dark and confused labyrinths of human ma art. Jice : our senses are here feasted with the clear | A man would think, when he is in serious huand genuine taste of their objects; which are all mour, that it were but a vain, irrational, and sophisticated there, and for the most part over- ridiculous thing for a great company of men whelmed with their contraries. Here pleasure and women to run up and down in a roon tolooks, metbinks, like a beautiful, constant, and get her, in a hundred several postures and tigures, modest wife; it is there an impudent, fickle, to no purpose, and with no design; and thereand painted harlot. Here is harmless and fore dancing was invented first, and only pra • cheap plenty; there guilty and expenceful lux-tised anciently, in the ceremonies of the heaury.
then religion, which consisted all in mommery I shall only instance in one delight more, the and madness: the latter being the chief glory most natural and best-natured of all others, a of the worship, and accounted divine inspiration : perpetual companion of the husbandman; and this, I say, a serere man would think ; though that is, the satisfaction of looking round about I dare not determine so far against so custoinhim, and seeing nothing but the effects and im ary a part, now, of good-breeding. And yet, provements of his own art and diligence; to be! who is there arnong our gentry, that does not always gathering of some fruits of it, and at the entertain a dancing-master for his children, as same time to behold others ripening, and others soon as they are able to walk? But, did ever budding: to see all his fields and gardens co any father provide a tutor for his son, to invered with the beauteous creatures of his own' struct him betimes in the nature and inproveindustry; and to see, like God, that all his ments of that land which he intended to leave works are good :
him? That is at least a superfluity, and this a
defect, in our manner of education: and there-Hinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades; fore I could wish (but cannot in these times much ipsi
hope to see it) that one college in each inirerAgricolæ tacitum pertentant gaudia pectus 4. sity were erected, and appropriated to this
study, as well as there are to medicine and the On his heart-strings a secret joy does strike. civil law: there would be no need of making a
body of scholars and fellois, with certain enThe autiquity of his art is certainly not to be dowments, as in other colleges; it would sufcontestrd by any other. The three first men in ' fice, if, after the manner of halls in Cxford, the world, were a gardener, a plouzhman, and there were only four professors constituted (for a grazier; and if any man olijeet that the second it would be too much work for only one master, of these was a murtherer, I desire he would con- l or principal, as they call him there) to teach sider, that as soon as he was so, he quited our l these four parts of it: First, Aration, and all profission, ami turned builder. It is for this things relating to it. Secondly, Pasturage. reason, I suppose, that Ecclesiasticus 5 forbids Thirdly, Gardens, Orchards, Vineyards, and us to hate husbandry; “because,” says he, Woods. Fourthly, all parts of Rural Oeco"the Most High has created it." We are all womy; which would contain the government born to this art, and taught by nature to nou- 1 of Bees, Swine, Poultry, Decoy's, Ponds, &c. rish our bodies by the same earth out of which and all that which Varro calls villatic:us pas.
tiones, together with the sports of the field Virg. An. i. 504, &, 5 Chap. vii. 15. (which ought to be looked upon not only as
pleasures, but as parts of house-keeping), and extant (if Homer, as some think, preceded him, the domestical conservation and uses of all that but I rather believe they were contemporaries) ; is brought in by industry abroad. The business and he is the first writer too of the art of husof these professors should not be, as is com bandry: “ he has contributed (says Columella) monly practised in other arts, only to read not a little to our profession;" I suppose, he pompous and superficial lectures, out of Virgil's means not a little honour, for the matter of his Georgics, Pliny, Varro, or Columella; but to instructions is not very important; his great aninstruct their pupils in the whole method and | tiquity is visible through the gravity and simplicourse of this study, wbich might be run through city of his stile. The most acute of all his sayperhaps with diligence in a year or two; and the ings concerns our purpose very much, and is continual suceession of scholars, upon a moderate couched in the reverend obscurity of an oracle taxation for their diet, lodging, and learning, IIM é cv nulou wavlès, The half is more than the would be a sufficient constant revenue for main- | whole. The occasion of the speech is this; hiş tenance of the house and the professors, who brother Perseus bad, by corrupting some great should be men not chosen for the ostentation of men, (Bacinéaz popayeg, great bribe-eaters he critical literature, but for solid and experimental calls them) gotten from him the half of his knowledge of the things they teach; such men, estate. It is no matter (says he); they have so industrious and public-spirited, as I conceive not done me so much prejudice as they imagine : Mr. Hartlib 6 to be, if the gentleman be yet alive: but it is needless to speak further of my 1 . Nýtt, id icaciy, X. 7. . thoughts of this design, unless the present disposition of the age allowed more probability of l'nhappy tbey, to whom God has not reveal'd, bringing it into execution. What I have further By a strong light which must their sense conto say of the country life, shall be borrowed from trole, the poets, who were always the most faithful That half a great estate's more than the whole: and affectionate friends to it: Poetry was born Unhappy, from whom still conceal'd does lie among the shepherds.
Of roots and herbs the wholesome luxury.
Nescio quâ natale solum dulcedine Musas
This I conceive to have been honest Hesiod's Ducit & immemores non finit esse sui ?. . meaning. From Homer we must not expect
much concerning our affairs. He was blind, and The Muses still love their own native place; could neither work in the country, nor enjoy the 'T has secret charms, which nothing can deface. pleasures of it; his helpless poverty was likeliest
to be sustained in the richest places; he was to The truth is, no other place is proper for their delight the Grecians with fine tales of the wars, work; one might as well undertake to dance in | and adventures of their ancestors ; his subject a crowd, as to make good verses in the midst of removed him from all commerce wiih us, and noise and tumult,
yet, methinks, be made a shift to show his good
will a little. For, though he could do us no hoAs well might corn, as verse, in cities grow; nour in the person of his hero Ulysses (much less In vain the thankless glebe we plough and sow: of Achilles), because his whole time was conAgainst th’ unnatural soil in vain we strive ; sumed in wars and voyages ; yet he makes his 'Tis not a ground, in which these plants will father Laertes a gardener all that while,and seekthrive.
ing his consolation for the absence of his son in
the pleasure of planting and even dunging his It will bear nothing but the nettles or thorns own grounds. Ye see he did not contemn us of satire, which grow most naturally in the worst peasants ; nay, so far was he from that insolence, earth; and therefore almost all poets, except that he always styles Eumæus, who kept the those wbo were not able to eat bread without the hogs, with wonderful respect, ú¢óp bov, the bounty of great men, that is, withont what they divine swineherd: he could have done no more could get by flattering of them, have not only for Menelaus or Agamemnon. And Theocritus withdrawn themselves from the vices and vani- (a very ancient poet, but he was one of our own ties of the grand world,
trite, for he wrote nothing but pastorals) gave
the same epithet to an husbandman,
-αμείβελο δίoς αγρώτης 9,
into the innocent happiness of a retired life; but the divine husbandman replied to Hercules, who have commended and adorned nothing so much was but dios himself. These were civil Greeks, by their ever-living poems. Hesiod was the first and who understood the dignity of our calling ; or second poet in the world that remains yet Among the Romans we have, in the first place,
our truly-divine Virgil, who, though by the fa6 A gentleman, of whom it may be enough to
vour of Mæcenas and Augustus he might have say, that he had the honour to live in the friend
| been one of the chief men of Rome, yet chose ship of Mede and Milton. The former of these
| rather to employ much of his time in the exgreat men addressed some letters to him, and
ercise, and much of his immortal wit in the praise the latter, his “ Tractate on Education.” Hurd.
| and instructions, of a rustic life ; who, though he ? Ovid. 1 Ep. ex Pont, iii. 35. ! Otid: Fast. i. 300.
9 Idyll. sxv. ver. 31.
had written before whole books of pastorals and | Latin verses (though of another kind), and have georgics, could not abstain in his great and im- the confidence to translate them. I can only say, perial poem from describing Evander, one of his that I love the matter, and that ought to cover best princes, as living just after the homely man many faults; and that I run not to contend with ner of an ordinary countryman. He seats him those before me, but follow to applaud them. in a throne of maple, and lays bim but upon a bear's-skin; the kine and oxen ate lowing in bis court-yard ; the birds under the eves of his window call him up in the morning; and when he
A Translation out of Vircil. goes abroad, only two dogs go along with him for his guard : at last, when he brings Æneas into
Georg. Lib. II. 458. his royal cottage, he makes him say this memorable compliment, greater than ever yet was Ou happy (if his happiness he knows) spoken at the Escurial, the Louvre, or our White- | The country swain, on whom kind Heaven bestows. ball:
At home all riches, that wise nature needs;
Whom the just earth with easy plenty feeds. Hæc (inquit) limina victor
'Tis true, no morning tide of clients comes, Alcides subiit, hæc illum regia cepit :
And fills the painted channels of his rooms, Aude, hospes, contemnere opes : & te quoque Adoring the rich figures, as they pass, dignum
In tapestry wrought, or cut in living brass ; Finge Deo rebúsque veni non asper egenis ! Nor is his wool superfluously dy'd
With the dear poison of Assyrian pride: This humble roof, this rustic court (said he) Nor do Arabian perfumes vainly spoil Receiv'd Alcides, crown'd with victory :
The native use and sweetness of his oil, Scorn not, great guest, the steps where he has trod; | Instead of these, his calm and harmless life, But contemn wealth, and imitate a god.
Free from th' alarms of fear, and storms of strife,
Does with substantial blessedness abound, The next man, whom we are much obliged to, And the soft wings of Peace cover him round: both for his doctrine and example, is the next | Throughartless grots the murmuring waters glide; best poet in the world to Virgil, bis dear friend. / Thick trees both against heat and cold provide, Horace; who, when Augustus had desired Mæ- | From whence the birds salute him ; and his ground cenas to persuade him to come and live domesti- | With lowing herds and bleating sheep does sound; cally and at the same table with him, and to be | Avd all the rivers and the forests nigh, secretary of state of the whole world under him, | Both food and game, and exercise, supply. or rather jointly with him, for he says, ut nos Here a well-harden'd, active youth we see, in epistolis scribendis adjuvet, could not be | Taught the great art of cheerful poverty. tempted to forsake his Sabin, or Tiburtin manor, Here, in tbis place alone, there still do shine for so rich and so glorious a trouble. There was Some streaks of love, both human and divine; nerer, I think, such an example as this in the From hence Astræa took her night, and here world, that he should have so much moderation | Still her last footsteps upon Earth appear. and courage as to refuse an offer of such great 'Tis true, the first desire, which does control ness, and the emperor so much generosity and all the inferior wheels that move my soul, goodnature as not to be at all offended with his | Is, that the Muse me her high-priest would make, refusal, but to retain still the same kindness, and / Into her holiest scenes of mystery take, express it often to him in most friendly and fa- | And open there, to my mind's purged eye, miliar letters, part of which are still extant. If I | Those wonders, which to sense the gods deny: should produce all the passages of this excellent | How in the Moon such change of shapes is found, author upon the several subjects which I treat of The Moon, the changing world's eternal bound; in this book, I must be obliged to translate half What shakes the solid Earth, what strong disease his works; of which I may say more truly than | Dares trouble the firm centre's ancient ease; in my opinion he did of Homer,
What makes the sea retreat, and what advance
“ (Varieties too regular for chance);" Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, | What drives the chariot on of winter's light, quid non,
And stops the lazy waggon of the night. Planiùs Si meliùs Chrysippo & Crantore dicit ? | But, if my dull and frozen blood deny
To send forth spirits, that rajse a soul so high, I shall content myself upon this particular In the next place, let woods and rivers be theme with three only, one out of his Odes, the | My quiet, though inglorious, destiny. other out of his Satires, the third out of his Epis In life's cool vale let my low scene be laid; tles; and shall forbear to collect the suffrages of Cover me, gods, with Tempe's thickest shade. all other poets, which may be found scattered | Happy the man, I grant, thrice happy, he, up and down through all their writings, and es- Who can through gross effects their causes see: pecially in Martial's. But I must not oinit to | Whose courage from the deeps of knowledge make some excuse for the bold undertaking of
springs, my own unskilful pencil upon the beauties of a | Nor vainly fears inevitable things; face that has been drawn before by so many great But does his walk of virtue calmly go masters; especially, that I should dare to do it in Through all th’alarms of Death and Hell below.
| Happy! but, next such conquerors, happy they, 'Virg. Æn, viii. 365. ? 1 Ep. ii. 3. Whose humble life lies not in fortune's way.