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Though these perhaps do, more than they, I purged from the incommodities. If I were but
in his condition, I should think it hard measure, Although no part of mighty Nature be
without being convinced of any crime, to be seMore stor'd with beauty, power and mystery; questered from it, and made one of the principal Yet, to encourage human industry,
officers of state. But the reader may think that God has so order'd, that no other part
what I now say is of small authority, because ļ Such space and such dominion leaves for Art. never was, nor ever shall be, put to the trial: 1
can therefore only make my protestation, We no-where Art do so triumphant see, As when it grafts or buds the tree:
If ever I more riches did desire In other things we count it to excel,
Than cleanliness and quiet do require : Kit a docile scholar can appear
If e'er ambition did my fancy cheat, To Nature, and but imitate her well;
With any wish, su mean as to be great; It over-rules, and is her master, here.
Continue, Heaven, still from me to remove It imitates her Maker's power divine,
The humble blessings of that life I love. And changes her sometiines, and soinetimes does refine:
I know very many men will despise, and some It does, like grace, the fallen tree restore
pity me, for this humour, as a poor-spirited fel. To its blest state of Paradise before:
low; but I am content, and, like Horace, thank Who would not joy to see his conquering hand God for being so. O’er all the vegetable world command ? And the wild giants of the wood receive
Di bene fecerunt, inopis me quódque pusilli What law he's pleas'd to give ?
Finxerant animi 8.
I confess, I love littleness almost in all things, The golden fruit, that worthy is
A little convenient estate, a little cheerful house, Of Galatea's purple kiss :
a little company, and a rery little feast; and, if I He does the savage hawthorn teach
were ever to fall in love again (which is a great To bear the medlar and the pear :
passion, and therefore, I hope, I have done with
it) it would be, I think, with prettiness, rather He bids the rustic plum to rear A noble trunk, and be a peach.
than with majestical beauty. I would neither Ev'n Daphne's coyness he does mock,
wish that my mistress, nor my fortune, should be And weds the cherry to her stock,
a bona roba, nor, as Homer uses to describe his Though she refus'd Apullo's suit;
beauties, like a daughter of great Jupiter for the Ev'n she, that chaste and virgin tree,
stateliness and largeness of her person; but, as Now wonders at herself, to see
Lucretius says, That she's a mother made, and blushes in her Patvola, pumilio, Xapitav pia, tota merum sal , fruit.
Where there is one man of this, I believe there Methinks, I see great Dioclesian walk
are a thousand of Senecio's mind, whose ridi. In the Salonian garden's noble shade,
culous affectation of grandeur Seneca the elder 1 Which by his own imperial bands was made: | describes to this effect : “Senecio was a man of a I see him smile, methinks, as he does talk turbid and confused wit, who could not endure to With the ambassadors, who come in vain
speak any but mighty words and sentences, till T'entice him to a throne again.
this humour grew at last into so notorious a habit; “If I, my friends” (said he) “ should to you show or rather disease, as became the sport of the whole All the delights which in these gardens grow, town : he would have no servants, but huge, masTis likelier much, that you should with me stay, sy fellows; no plate or household-stuff, but thrice Than 'tis, that you should carry me away: as big as the fashion: you may believe me, for I And trust me not, my friends, if every day, speak it without raillery, his extravagancy came I walk not here with more delight,
at last into such a madness, that he would not put Than ever, after the most happy sight,
on a pair of shoes, each of which was not big In triumph to the Capitol I rode,
enough for both his feet: he would eat nothing To thank the gods, and to be thought myself, but what was great, nor touch any fruit but horsealmost a god.”
plums and pound-pears: he kept a concubine, that was a very giantess, and made her walk too always in chiopins, till at last he got the surname
of Senecio Grandio, which Messala said, was not VI.
his cognomen, but his cognomentum: when he de
claimed for the three hundred Lacedæmonians, OF GREATNESS.
who alone opposed Xerxes's army of above three
hundred thousand, he stretched out his arms, and “ Since we cannot attain to greatness “(says the
stood on tiptoes, that he might appear the taller,
| and cried out, in a very loud voice ; sieur de Montagne)" let us have our revenge by
1 rejoice, I
rejoice.'—We wondered, I remember, what new railing at it:" this he spoke but in jest. I believe
great fortune had befallen his eminence. “Xerxes he desired it no more than I do, and had less reason ; for he enjoyed so plentiful and honourable a | fortune in a most excellent country, as allowed 8.1 Sat. iv. 17. 9 Lucr. iv. 1155. him all the real conveniences of it, separated and Suasriarum Liber. Suas. 11.
(says he) is all mine own. He, who took away , playing at dice; and that was the main fruit of the sight of the sea, with the canvas veils of so his sovereignty. I omit the madnesses of Camany ships'”and then he goes on so, as I know ligula's delights, and the execrable sordidness of not what to make of the rest, whether it be the those of Tiberius. Would one think that Jugustus fault of the edition, or the orator's own burley way himself, the highest and most fortunate of manof nonsense.
kind, a person endowed too with many excellent This is the character that Seneca gives of this parts of nature, should be so hard put to it somebyperbolical fop, whom we stand amazed at, and times for want of recretations, as to be found yet there are very few men who are not in some | playing at nuts and bounding-stones, with little things, and to some degrees, Grandios. Is any Syrian and Moorish boys, whose company he thing more common, than to see our ladies of qua- took delight in, for their prating and their wanlity wear such high shoes as they cannot walk in, tonness? without one to lead them; and a gown as long
Was it for this that Rome's best blood he spilt again as their body, so that they cannot stir to
With so much falsehood, so much guilt ? . the next room without a page or to two hold it up?
Was it for this that his ambition strove I may safely say, that all the ostentation of
To equal Cæsar, first; and after, Jove ? our grandees is, just like a train, of no use in
Greatness is barren, sure, of solid joys; the world, but horribly cumbersome and incom
Her merchandize (1 fear) is all in toys; modious. What is all this, but a spicc of Grandio?
She conld not else, sure, so uncivil be, how tedious would this be, if we were always bound
To treat his universal majesty, to it! I do believe there is no king, who would
His new-created Deity, not rather be deposed, than endure every day of
With nuts, and bounding-stones, and boys. his reign all the ceremonies of his coronation.
The mightiest princes are glad to fly often from But we must excuse her for this meagre enterthese majestic pleasures (which is, methinks, no tainment; she has not really wherewithal to make small disparagement to them) as it were for refuge such feasts as we imagine. Her guests must be to the most contemptible divertisements and mean-contented sometimes with but slender cates, and est recreations of the vulgar, nay, even of chil- with the same cold meats served over and over dren. One of the most powerful and fortunate again, even till they become nauseous. When princes 2 of the world, of late, could find out no you have pared away all the vanity, what solid delight so satisfactory, as the keeping of little and natural contentment does there remain, which singing birds, and hearing of them, and whistling | may not be had with five hundred pounds a vear? to them. What did the emperors of the whole Not so many servants or borses ; but a few good world ? If ever any men had the free and full ones, which will do all the business as well : not enjoyment of all human greatness (nay that so many choice dishes at every meal; but at sewouid not suffice for they would be gods too). veral meals all of them, which makes them both they certainly possessed it: and yet one of them, the more healthy, and the more pleasant; not so who styled himself lord and god of the earth, | rich garments, nor so frequent changes; but as could uot tell how to pass his whole day pleasantly, warm and as comely, and so frequent change too, without spending constantly two or three hours as is every jot as good for the master, though not in catching of flies, and killing them with a bod- for the taylor or valet de chambre : not such a kin, as if his godship had been Beelzebub 3. One stately palace, nor gilt rooms, or the cosiliest sorts of his predecessors, Nero, (who never put any of tapestry ; but a convenient brick house, with bounds, nor met with any stop to his appetite) decent wainscot, and pretty forest-work hangings. culd dirert himself with no pastime more agree. Lastly (for 1 omit all other particulars, and will able, than to run about the streets all night in a dis end with that which I love inost in both conditions) guise, and abuse the women, and affront the men | not whole woods cut in walks, nor vast parks, nor whom he met, and sometimes to beat them, and fountain or cascade-gardens; but herb, and flowsometimes to be beaten by them: this was one of er, and fruit gardens, which are more useful, and his imperial nocturnal pleasures. His chiefest in the water every whit as clear and wholesome, as the day was, to sing and play upon a fiddle, in the if it darted from the breasts of a marble nymph, habit of a minstrel, upon the public stage: he was or the urn of a river-god. prouder of the garlands that were given to his di- If, for all this, you I ke better the substance of vine voice (as they called it then) in those kind of that former estate of life, do but consider the prizes, than all his forefathers were, of their inseparable accidents of both : servitude, disquiet, triumphs over nations: he did not at his death danger, and most commonly guilt, inherent in the complain, that so mighty an emperor, and the last one; in the other liberty, tranquillity, security, of all the Cæsarian race of deities, should be and innocence. And when you have thought upon brought to so shameful and miserable an end ; but this, you will confess that to be a truth which only cried out, “ Alas, what piły it is, that so appeared to you, before, but a ridiculous paraexcellent a musician should perish in this man- dux, that a bow fortune is better guarded and ner 4 !” His uncle Claudius spent half his time at attended than an high one. If, indeed, we look
only upon the flourishing head of the tree, it ap2 Louis XIII.--The Duke de Luynes, the Con
pears a most beautiful object, stable of France, is said to have gained the favour of this powerful and fortunate prince by training
- sed quantum vertice ad auras up singing birds for him. ANON.
Ætherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit , 3 Beelzebub signifies the lord of flies. Cowley. 4-Qualis artifex pereo ! Sueton. Nero. s Virg. Georg. ii. 291.
• As far up towards Heaven the branches grow. I absolute tyrant of three kingdoms, which was So far the root sinks down to Hell beluw. the third, and alınost touched the Heaven which
he affected, is believed to have died with grief and Another horrible disgrace to greatness is, that discontent, because he could not attain to the It is for the most part in pitiful want and distress : honest name of a king, and the old formality of what a wonderful thing is this ! Unless it degene- la crown, though he had before exceeded the rate into avarice, and so cease to be greatness, it I power by a wicked usurpation. If he could have falls perpetually into such necessities, as drive it | compasscd that, he would perhaps have wanted into all the meanest and most sordid ways of bor- something else that is necessary to felicity, and rowing, cozenage, and robbery:
pined away for want of the t.tle of an emperor or
a god. The reason of this is, that greatness has Mancipiis locuples, eget æris Cappadocum rex no reality in nature, being a creature of the
fancy, a notion that consists only in relation and This is the case of almost all great men, as well comparison : it is indeed an idol; but St. Paul as of the poor king of Cappadocia: they abound | teaches us, “that an idol is nothing in the with slaves, but are indigent of money. The an- world.” There is in truth no rising or meridian cient Roman emperors, who had the riches of the l of the Sun, but only in respect to several places: whole world for their revenue, had wherewithal to I there is no right or left, no upper-hand in nalive (one would have thought) pretty well at ease, ture ; every thing is little, and every thing is and to have been exempt from the pressures of great, according as it is diversely compared. extreme poverty. But yet with most of them it | There may be perhaps some village in Scotland was much otherwise; and they fell perpetually! or Ireland, where I might be a great man: and ito such miserable penury, that they were forced in that case I should be like Cæsar (you would to devour or squeeze most of their friends and wonder how Cæsar and I should be like one anoservants, to cheat with infamous projects, to ran ther in any thing); and choose rather to be the sack and pillage all their provinces. This fashion first man of the village, than second at Rome. of imperial grandeur is imitated by all inferior Our country is called Great Britany, in regard and subordinate sorts of it, as if it were a point of only of a lesser of the same name; it would be honour. They must be cheated of a third part but a ridiculous epithet for it, when we consider of their estates, two other thirds they must expend l it together with the kingdom of China. That, in vanity; so that they remain debtors for all the too, is but a pitiful rood of ground, in comparison necessary provisions of life, and have no way to l of the whole Earth besides : and this whole globe katisfy those debts, but out of the succours and of Earth, which we account so immense a body, supplies of rapine: “ as riches increase" (says is but one point or atom in relation to those numSolomon) " so do the mouths that devour berless worlds that are scattered up and down them 7.” The master mouth has no more than in the infinite space of the sky which we bebefore. The owner, methinks, is like Ocnus in hold. the fable, wlio is perpetually winding a rope of
The other many inconreniences of grandeur I hay, and an ass at the end perpetually eating | have spoken of dispersedly in several chapters; it.
and shall end this with an ode of Horace, not Out of these inconveniences arises naturally exactly copied, but truly imitated. one more, which is, that no greatness can be satisfied or contented with itself: still, if it could mount up a little higher, it would be happy, if it could gain but that point, it would obtain all its
Horace. Lib. III. Ode I. desires; but yet at last, when it is got up to the very top of the Pic of Teneriíf, it is in very great
Odi profanum vulgus, &c. danger of breaking its neck downwards, but in no possibility of ascending upwards into the seat of
Hence, ye profane; I hate you all ;
Both the great volgar, and the small. tranquillity above the Moon. The first ambitious nen in the world, the old giarts. are said to have
To virgin minds, which yet their native white
ness bold, made an heroical attempt of scaling Heaven in despite of the gods: and they cast Ossa upon
Not yet discolour'd with the love of gold
(That jaundice of the soul, Olympus, atid Pelion upon Ossa : two or three
t'bich makes it look so gilded and so foul), mountains more, they thought, would have done 1 their business; but the thunder spoilt all the work,
| To you, ye very few, these truths I tell;
The Muse inspires my song; hark, and observe when they were come up to the third story:
| We look on men, and wonder at such odds
Twixt things that were the same by birth;
ile louk on kings as giants of the Earth, A famous person of their offspring, the late
Tes: 130k sare
nies to the gods. want of onr nation, when from the condition of a verr inconsiderabie captain, he had made him-.
The humblest bush and proudest oak self lieutenant-general of an army of little Titans,
Are but of equal proof against the thunder-stroke.
Beauty, and strength, and wit, and wealth, ana which was his first mountain, and afterwards
power, general, which was his second, and after that, I
Have their short fourishing hour :
And love to see themselves, and smiley
Erin so in the same land,
fstand; | second is like the foolish chough, which loves to Poor weeds, rich corn, gay flowers, together steal money only to hide it. The first does · Alas! Death mows down all with an impartial much harm to mankind; and a little good tou, hand,
to some few : the second does good to none;
no, not to himself. The first can make no exAnd all ye men, whom greatness does so please, cuse to God, or angels, or rational men, for his Ye feast, I fear, like Damocles :
actions: the second can give no reason or co• If ye your eyes could upwards move
lour, not to the Devil himself, for what he does; (But ye, I fear, think nothing is above)
he is a slave to Mammon without waxes. The Ye would perceive by what a little thread
first makes a shift to be beloved: av, and envicd The sword still hangs over your head : too by some people; the second is the universal No tide of wine would drown your cares;
object of hatred and contempt. There is no Nomirth or music over-noise your fears :
vice has been so pelted with good sentences, and The fear of Death would you so watchful keep, especially by the poets, who have pursued it As not t'admit the image of it, Sleep.
with stories, and fables, and allegories, and al
lusions; and moved, as we say, every stone to Sleep, is a god too proud to wait in palaces,
ning at it: among all which I do not remember And yet so humble too, as not to scorn
a more fine and gentleman-like correction, than The meanest coun‘ry cottages :
that wbich was given it by one line of Ovid : " His poppy grows among the corn.” The halcyon Sleep will never build his nest
Desunt luxuriæ multa, avaritiæ omnia.
Much is wanting to luxury, all to avarice.
To which saying, I have a mind to add one 'Tis not enough; he must find quiet tuo. member, and tender it thus, The man, who in all wishes he does make, Poverty wants some, luxury many, avarice all · Does only Nature's counsel take,
things. That wise and happy man will never fear The evil aspects of the year;
Somebody says 8 of a virtuous and wise man, Nor tremble, though two comets should appear: “ that having nothing, he has all :" this is just He does not look in almanacs, to see
his antipode, who, having all things, yet has Whether he fortunate shall be;
nothing. He is a guardian eunuch to his beLet Mars and Saturn in the heavens conjoin,
loved gold: divi eos amatores esse maximos, And what they please against the world design,
sed nil potesse. They are the fondest lovers, So Jupiter within bim shine.
but impotent to enjoy.
Jf of your pleasures and desires no end be found,
And, oh, what man's condition can be worse Gud to your cares and fears will set no bound. Than his, whom plenty starves, and blessings What would content you? who can tell ?
curse; Ye fear so much to lose what ye have got,
The beggars but a common fate deplore,
The rich poor man's emphatically poor.
I wonder how it comes to pass, that there has Spare nought that may your wanton fancy please; never been any law made against him: against
But, trust me, when you have done all this, him do I say? I mean, for him : as there are Much will be missing still, and much will be public provisions made for all other madmen: amiss.
it is very reasonable that the king should appoint some persons (and I think the courtiers would not be against this proposition) to manage his
estate during his life (for his heirs commonly VII.
need not that care): and out of it to make it
their business to see, that he should not want OF AVARICE.
alimony besitting his condition, which he could
never get out of his own cruel fingers. We reThere are two sorts of avarice: the one is but
lieve idle vagrants, and counterfeit beggars ; of a bastard kind, and that is, the rapacious ap
but have no care at all of these really poor men, petite of gain; not for its own sake, but for the
who are, methinks, to be respecifully treated, in pleasure of refunding it immediately through all
regard of their quality. I might be endless the channels of pride and luxury: the other is
against them, but I am almost choaked with the the true kind, and properly so called ; which is
super-abundance of the matter ; too much plena restless and unsatiable desire of riches, nor for any farther end or use, but only to hoard, 8 The author, well acquajuted with the taste of and preserve, and perpetually increase them. his readers, would not disgust their delicacy by The covetous man, of the first kind, is like a letting them know that this “ somebody" was greedy ostrich, which devours any metal; but St. Paul, 12 Cor. vi. 10.)-though the sepse it is with an intent to feed upon it, and in effect, and expression would have done honour to Plato. it makes a shift to digest and excern it. The HURD,
ty impoverishes me, as it does them. I will | Do you within the bounds of nature live, conclude this odious subiect with part of Ho And to augment your own you need not strives race's first satire, which take in his own familiar One hundred acres will no less for you style:
Your life's whole business, than ten thousand, do,
But pleasant 'tis to take from a great store. I admire, Mæcenas, how it comes to pass, What, man ! though you 're resolv'd to take no That no man ever yet contented was,
more Nor is, nor perhaps will be, with that state Than I do from a small one? If your will In which his own choice plants him, or his fate. Be but a pitcher or a pot to fill, Happy the merchant, the old soldier cries : To some great river for it must you go, The merchant, beaten with tempestuous skies, When a clear spring just at your feet does flow? Happy the so!dier ! one half-hour to thee Give me the spring, which does to human use Gives speedy death, or glorious victory :
Safe, easy, and untroubled stores produce ; The lawyer, knockt up early from his rest
He who scorns these, and needs will drink at Nile, By restless clients, calls the peasant blest: Must run the danger of the crocodile, The peasant, when his labours ill succeed, And of the rapid stream itself, which may, Envies the mouth, which only talk does feed. At unawares, bear him perhaps away. 'Tis not (I think you'll say) that I want store In a full food Tantalus stands, his skin Of instances, if here I add no more;
Wash'd o'er in vain, for ever dry within: They are enough to reach, at least a mile, He catches at the stream with greedy lips, Beyond long orator Fabjus's style.
From his toucht mouth the wanton torrent slips: But hold, ve, whom no fortune e'er endears, You laugh now, and expand your careful brow; Gentlemen, malecontents, and mutineers,
'Tis finely said. but what's all this to you? Who bounteous Jove so often cruel call,
Change but the name, this fable is thy story, Behold, Jove's now resolv'd to please you all. Thou in a flood of useless wealth dost glory, Thou soldier, he a merchant: merchant, thou Which thou canst only touch, but never taste; A soldier be: and lawyer, to the plough.
Th' abundance still, and still the want, does last. Change all your stations straight: why do they stay? The treasures of the gods thou would'st not spare: The devil a man will change, now when he may. But when they're made thine own, they sacred Were I in general Jove's abused case,
are, By Jove I'd cudgel this rebellious race:
And must be kept with reverence; as if thou But he's too good; be all, then, as ye were ; No other use of precious gold didst know, However, make the best of what ye are,
But that of curious pictures, to delight, And in that state be cheerful and rejoice, With the fair stamp, thy virtuoso sight. · Which either was your fate, or was your choice, The only true and genuine use is this, No, they must labour yet, and sweat, and toil, To buy the things, which nature cannot miss And very miserable be awhile;
Without discomfort ; oil and vital bread, But 'tis with a design only to gain
And wine, by which the life of life is fed, W'bat may their age with plentcous case main And all those few things else by which we live : tain.
All that remains, is giv'n for thee to give. The prudent pismire does this lesson teach,
If cares and troubles, envy, grief, and fear, And industry to lazy mankind preach:
The bitter fruits be, which fair riches bear; The little drudge does trot about and sweat, If a new poverty grow out of store; Nor does he straight devour all he can get; The old plain way, ye gods ! let me be poor, But in his temperate mouth carries it home A stock for winter, which he knows must come. And, when the rolling world to creatures here Turns up the deform'd wrong-side of the year, And shuts him in, with storins, and cold, and
Paraphrase on Horace, B. III. Od. xvi, wet, He cheerfully does his past labours eat:
A tower of brass, one would have said, 0, does he so? your wise example, th' ant,
And locks, and bolts, and iron bars, Does not, at all times, rest and plenty want; And guards, as strict as in the heat of wars, Tut, weighing justly a mortal ant's condition, Might have preserv'd one innocent maidenhead, Divides his life 'twixt labour and fruition.
The jealous father thought he well might spare 'Thee, neither heat, nor storms, nor wet, nor cold, All further jealous care; From thy unnatural diligence can withhold : | And, as he walk'd, thimself alone he smild, To th’lodies thou would'st run, rather than see | To think how Venus' arts he had beguil'd; Another, though a friend, richer than thee.
And, when he slept, his rest was deep :' Fond man ! what good or beauty can be found | But Venus laugh'd to see and hear bim sleep. In heaps of treasure, buried under ground?
She taught the amorous Jove Which rather than diminish'd e'er to see,
A magical receipt in love, Thou would'st thyself, too, buried with them be: Which arm'd him stronger, and which help'd him And what's the difierence is 't not quite as bad
more, Never to use, as never to have had ?
Than all his thunder did, and his almighty-ship In thy vast barns millions of quarters store;
before. Thr belly, for all that, will hold no more
She taught him love's elixir, by which art Than mine does. Every baker makes much bread: | His godhead into gold he did convert : What tben? He's with no more, than others, No guards did then his passage stay, fed.
He pass'd with ease ; gold was the word;