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both for the care of his education and the just | schools, employing or rather casting away and civil usage of him.
six or seven years in the learning of words only, That the scholar shall understand Latin very and that too very imperfectly : well, and be moderately initiated in the Greek, That a method be here established, for the before he be capable of being chosen into the ser- | infusing knowledge and language at the same vice; and that he shall not remain in it above time into them; and that this may be their seven years.
| apprenticeship in natural philosophy. This, That his lodging shall be with the professor we conceive, may be done, by breeding them whom he serves.
up in authors, or pieces of authors, who treat That no professor shall be a maried man, or of some parts of nature, and who may be una divine, or lawyer in practice; only physic he derstood with as much ease and pleasure, as may be allowed to prescribe, because the study those which are commonly taught; such are, of that art is a great part of the duty of his place, in Latin, Varro, Cato, Columella, Pliny, part and the duty of that is so great, that it will not ( of Celsus and of Seneca, Cicero de Divinatione, suffer him to lose 'much time in mercenary de Naturâ Deorum,and several scattered pieces, practice.
Virgil's Georgics, Grotius, Nemesianus, ManiThat the professors shall, in the college, lius : And the truth is, because we want good poets wear the habit of ordinary masters of art in the (I mean we have but few), who hare purposely universities, or of doctors, if any of them be so. treated of solid and learned, that is, natural
That they shall all keep an inviolable and ex- matters (the most part indulging to the weakemplary friendship with one another; and thatness of the world, and feeding it either with the assembly shall lay a considerable pecuniary the follies of love or with the fables of gods and mulct upon any one who shall be proved to have heroes), we conceive that one book ought to entered so far into a quarrel as to give uncivil be compiled of all the scattered little parcels language to his brother-professor ; and that the among the ancient poets that might serve for perseverance in any enmity shall be punished by the advancement of natural science, and which the governors with expulsion.
would make no small or unuseful or unpleasant That the chaplain shall eat at the master's volume. To this we would have added the table (paying his twenty pounds a year as the morals and rhetorics of Cicero, and the inothers do); and that he shall read prayers once a stitutions of Quinctilian; and for the comedians, day at least, a little before supper-time ; that he from whom almost all that necessary part of shall preach in the chapel every Sunday morn common discourse, and all the most intimate ing, and catechize in the afternoon the scholars proprieties of the language, are drawn, we conand the school-boys : that he shall every month ceive, the boys may be made masters of them, administer the holy sacrament; that he shall as a part of their recreation, and not of their not trouble himself and his auditors with the task, if once a month, or at least once in two, controversies of divinity, but only teach God in they act one of Terence's Comedies, and afterhis just commandments, and in his wonderful wards (the most advanced) some of Plautus's; works.
and this is for many reasons one of the best
exercises they can be enjoined, and most innoTNE SCHOOL.
cent pleasures they can be allowed. As for the
Greek authors, they may study Nicander, OpiTHAT the school may be built so as to coniain anus, (whom Scaliger does not doubt to prefer about two hundred boys.
above Homer himself, and place next to his That it be divided into four classes, not as adored Virgil) Aristotle's history of animals, and others are ordinarily into six or seven ; because other parts, Theophrastus and Dioscorides of we suppose that the children sent hither, to be plants, and a collection made out of several of initiated in things as well as words, ought to have both poets and other Grecian writers. For the past the two or three first, and to have attained morals and rhetoric, Aristotle may suffice, or the age of about thirteen years, being already | Hermogenes and Longinus be added for the latwell advanced in the Latin grammar, and some ter. With the history of animals they should be authors.
showed anatomy as a divertisement, and made That none, though never so rich, shall pay any to know the figures and natures of those creathing for their teaching; and that, if any pro tures which are not common among us, disfessor shall be convicted to have taken any money abusing them at the same time of those errours in consideration of his pains in the school, he shall which are universally admitted concerning many. be expelled with ignominy by the governors ; but The same method should be used to make them if any persons of great estate and quality, finding acquainted with all plants; and to this must their sons much better proficients in learning | be added a little of the ancient and modern here, than boys of the same age commonly are geography, the understanding of the globes, and at other schools, shall not think fit to receive the principles of geometry and astronomy. They an obligation of so near concernment without should likewise use to declaim in Latin, and returning some marks of acknowledgment, | English, as the Romans did in Greek and Latin, they may, if they please, (for notbing is to and in all this travail be rather led on by familia. be demanded) bestow some little rarity or rity, encouragement, and emulation, than driven euriosity upon the society, in recompense of by severity, punishment, and terrour. Upon their trouble.
festivals and play-times, they should exercise And, because it is deplorable to consider the themselves in the fields, by riding, leaping, fencloss wbich children make of their time at most ing, mustering, and training, after the manner of soldiers, &c. And, to prevent all dangers and deserves to meet with so few adversaries as this ; all disorder, there should always be two of the for who can without impudent folly oppose the esscholars with them, to be as witnesses and direc- tablishment of twenty well-selected persons in tors of their actions ; in foul weather, it would such a condition of life, that their whole business not be amiss for them to learn to dance, that is, and sole profession may be to study the improveto learn just so much (for all beyond is superflu- | ment and advantage of all other professions, from ous, if not worse) as may give them a graceful that of the highest general even to the lowest arcomportment of their bodies.
tisan? who shall be obliged to employ their whole - Upun Sundays, and all days of devotion, they time, wit, learning, and industry, to these four, are to be a part of the chaplain's province. the most useful that can be imagined, and to no
That, for all these ends, the college so order it, other ends; first, to weigh, examine, and prove, as that there may be some convenient and plea- all things of nature delivered to us by former sant houses thereabouts, kept by religious, dis- ages; to detect, explode, and strike a censure creet, and careful persons, for the lodging and through, all false monies with which the world has boarding of young scholars; that they have a been paid and cheated so long ; and (as I may constant eye over them, to see that they be say) to set the mark of the college upon all true bred up there piously, cleanly, and plentifully, coins, that they may pass hereafter without any according to the proportion of the parents' ex- farther trial : secendly, to recover the lost invenpenses.
tions, and, as it were, drowned lands of the anAnd that the college, when it shall please cients : thirdly, to improve all arts which we now God, either by their own industry and success, or hare; and lastly, to discover others which we by the benevolence of patrons, to enrich them so have not : and who shall besides all this (as a befar, as that it may come to their turn and duty to nefit by the by), give the best educ ation in the be charitable to others, shall, at their own world (purely gratis) to as many men's children charges, erect and maintain some house or houses as shall think fit to make use of the obligation ? for the entertainment of such poor men's sons, Neither does it at all check or interfere with any whose good natural parts may promise either use parties in a state or religion ; but is indifferently or ornament to the commonwealth, during the to be embraced by all differences in opinion, and time of their abode at school ; and shall take care can hardly be conceived capable (as many good that it shall he done with the same conveniences institutions have done) even of degeneration into as are enjoyed even by rich men's children (though any thing harmful. So that, all things considerthey maintain the fewer for that cause), there ed, I will suppose this Proposition shall encounbeing nothing of eminent and illustrious to be ter with no enemies : the only question is, wheexpected from a low, sordid, and hospital-like ther it will find friends enough to carry it on fron educat.on.
discourse and design to reality and effect; the necessary expenses of the beginning (for it will
maintain itself well enough afterwards) being so CONCLUSION.
great (though I have set them as low as is possi
ble, in order to so vast a work), that it may seem IF I be not much abused by a natural fondness hopeless to raise such a sum out of those few dead to my own conceptions (that cogir, of the Greeks, relics of human charity and public generosity which no other language has a proper word for), / which are yet remaining in the world. there was never any project thought upon, which
LIFE OF DEN HAM,
BY DR JOIINSON.
OF SIR JOHN DENHAM very little is known but what is related of him by Wood, or by himself.
He was born at Dublin in 1615; the only son of Sir John Denham, of Little Horsely in Essex, then chief baron of the Exchequer in Ireland, and of Eleanor, daughter of sir Garret More, baron of Mellefont.
Two years afterwards, his father, being made one of the barons of the Exchequer in England, brought him away from his native country, and educated him in London.
In 1631 he was sent to Oxford, where he was considered as " a dreaming young man, given more to dice and cards than study:" and thercfore gave no prognostics of his future eminence; nor was suspected to conceal, under his sluggishness and laxity, a genius born to improve the literature of his country.
When he was, three years afterwards, removed to Lincoln's Inn, he prosecuted the common law with sufficient appearance of application; yet did not lose his pro. pensity to cards and dice; but was very often plundered by gamesters.
Being severely reproved for this folly, he professed, and perhaps believed, him. self reclaimed; and to testify the sincerity of his repentance, wrote and published An Essay upon Gaming.
He seems to have divided his studies between law and poetry; for, iu 1636, he translated the second book of the Æneid.
Two years after, his father died; and then, notwithstanding his resolutions and professions, he returned again to the vice of gaming, and lost several thousand pounds that had been left him.
In 1642, he published The Sophy. This seems to have given him his first hold of the public attention ; for Waller remarked, “ that he broke out like the Irish rebellion, three-score thousand strong, when no body was aware, or in the least suspected it;" an observation which could have had no propriety, had his poetical abilities been known before.