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and the Giudicio Estremo of Toldo Costantini; both published 9 before Milton perhaps had determined the subject of his song. The writer of the article Pona (François) in the Nouveau Dict: Hist. à Caen, edit. 1786, says that Pona pub. lished L’Adamo, poema, 1664. The Adamo by this writer, (of which I am possessed) is not however a poem, although abounding with poetical expressions, . but a history, in three books, of the creation and of our first parents. I have made extracts from it in the notes on Par, Lost, B. ix. 704, 897, &c. Pona was an author not a little admired iq Italy : he died in 1652. Loredano, in a letter to him, says L'ingegno di V. S. è un giardino di Paradiso, ove non nascono che fiori immortali. Tale hò riconosciuto langelico ·. Loredano himself has also written an Italian Life of Adam ; which is mentioned in the notes on Par. Losty B. ix. 529, 1009. It is probable that Pona and Loredano were acquainted with Milton; that they were among those discerning persons, who, .66 in the private academies of Italy, whither," the poet tells us, “ he was favoured to resort ,” fostered his blooming genius by their approbation and encouragement. Loredano was the founder of the Accademia degli Incogniti. His house at Venice was the constant resort of learned men. Gaddi, an Italian friend whom Milton names, and who has celebrated the foundation of the academy, would hardly fail to in. troduce the young Englishman to the founder of it, if by no other means he had become known to him.
Italy, then, may perhaps be thought to have confirmed, if not to have excited, the design of Milton to sing " Man's disobedience, and the mortal taste of the forbidden fruit."
Mr. Bowle, in his catalogue of poets who have treated Milton's subject before bim, mentions Alcimus Avitus, archbishop of Vienna, who wrote a poem, in Latin hexameters, De Origine Mundi. Phillips, in his account of this author 4 adds the name of Claudius Marius Victor, a rhetorician of Marseilles, who wrote upon Genesis in hexameters also ; which are said to be extant. Pantaleon Candi. dus, a German poet, has a copy of verses, I find, in his Loci communes theologici, &c. Basil. 1570, p. 24-27, entitled Lapsus Adæ; and in a nuptial hymn, in the same volume,p. 110, he has painted the creation of Eve in lines not unworthy the attention of Milton.
Ergo, novum molitus opus, pater ipse profundum
9 The former in 1637; and I believe there is an earlier edition : the latter in 1648.
See the preface to his Church Government, B. II. and his Epitaph. Damon. v. 133, &c. 3 See Jacobi Gaddii Adlocutiones, et Elogia, &c. Florentiæ, 1636. 4to. p. 38. 4 Theat. Poet. edit. 1675. Ancient Poets, p. 12,
Agnoscitque suo sumptum de corpore corpus,
Aspicio, accipióque libens tua maxima rerum
Offers, egregiâque thori me compare donas, &c. I must not omit to mention an English poem, relating to the state of innocence, entitled The Glasse of Time in the two first Ages, divinely handled by Thomas Peyton, of Lincolne's Inne, Gent. 4to. Lond. 1623; and to observe also that part of Du Bartas had been translated into verse, and published, before the first edition of Sylvester's, " by William Lisle of Wilburgham, Esquier for the King's body," namely, in 1596 and 1598, and again in 1625. See the note on Milton's cxivth Psalm, ver. 11. Lisle's compound epithets, in his translation, are very numerous, and sometimes extremely beautiful. Sylvester has often merit also of this kind: but it is my duty to observe, that Sylvester is not always original; his shining phrases may be frequently traced in contemporary or preceding poets. In the notes on Milton's poetical works, I have sometimes had occasion to exhibit the expressions of Sylvester in this point of view. In justice, however, to this laborious writer, I shall here close my remarks with a detached specimen of his poetry; to which, if Milton has been indebted, the temptation of the Serpent in Paradise Lost affords such a contrast, that the reader will be at no loss how to appreciate the improvement.
Eve, second honour of this vniverse !
With th' air of these sweet words, the wily snake
“ As a false louer, that thick snares hath laid
And, rapt with joy, vpon this point persists,
Even so the Serpent that doth counterfet
Perceiuing Eve his flattering gloze digesti
“ No, fair,” (quoth he) “ beleeue not that the care
his purest, fairest, rarest fruit's fruition :
SYLVESTER's Du BARTAS, Edit. 1621. pp. 192, 193.
As Milton has been supposed to have been much obliged to other poets in de. scribing the unsubdued spirit of Satan, especially where he says,
. Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven : I am tempted to make an extract or two from Stafford's Niobe, a prose-work already mentioned", in which Satan speaks the following words; not dissimilar to passages in Fletcher and Crashaw, which have been cited, on the same subject.
“ They say forsooth, that pride was the cause of my fall; and that I dwell where there is nothing but weeping, howling, and gnashing of teeth ; of which that falsehood was the authour, I will make you plainelie perceiue. True it is, sir, that I (storming at the name of supremacie) sought to depose my Creatour ; which the watchful, all-seeing eye of Prouidence finding, degraded me of my angelicall dignitie, dispossessed me of all pleasures; and the Seraphin and Cherubin, Throni, Dominationes, Virtutes, Potestates, Principatus, Arch-angeli, Angeli, and all the celestiall Hierarchyes, with a shout of applause sung my departure out of Heauen : my Alleluia was turned into an Ehu; and too soone I found, that I was corruptibilis ab alio, though not in alio ; and that he, that gaue me my being, could againe take it from mee. Now for as much as I was once an angell of light, it was the will of Wisedome to confine me to darknes and to create mee prince thereof: that so I, who could not obey in Heauen, might commaund in Hell. And, belieue mee, sir, I had rather controule within my dark diocese, than to reinhabite cælum empyrium, and there liue in subjection, vnder check.” Edit. 1611, pp. 16–18 part the second. Stafford calls Satan the “ grim visag'd Goblin,” ibid. p. 85. And, in the first part of the book, he describes the devil as having "committed incest with his daughter, the World.” p. 3. He also attributes the gunpowder plot to the devil, “ with his unhallowed senate of popes, the inuentors and fautours of this vnheard-of attempt in Hell.”' p. 149.
I have thus brought together opinions, delivered at different periods respecting the origin of Paradise Lost; and have humbly endeavoured to trace, in part, the reading of the great poet, subservient to his plan. More successful discoveries
See the note p. 336.
TODD'S ORIGIN OF PARADISE LOST. will probably arise from the pursuits of those, who are devoted to patient and liberal investigation. Videlicet hoc illud est præcipuè studiorum genus, quod vigiliis augescat; ut cui subinde ceu fluminibus ex decursu, sic accedit ex lectione minutatim quo fiat uberius. To such persons may be recommended the masterly observations of him, who was once so far imposed upon as to believe Lauder an honest man, and Milton a plagiary : but who expressed, when" Douglas and Truth appeared,?" the strongest indignation against the envious impostor8 : for they are observations resulting from a wish not to depreciate, but zealously to praise, the Paradise Lost. " Among the inquiries, to which this ardour of cri. ticism has naturally given occasion, none is more obscure in itself, or more wore thy of rational curiosity, than a reirospect of the progress of this mighty genius in the construction of his work; a view of the fabric gradually rising, perhaps, from small beginnings, till its foundation rests in the center, and its turrets sparkle in the skies; to trace back the structure, through all its varieties, to the simplicity of its first plan; to find what was first projected, whence the scheme was taken, how it was improved, by what assistance it was executed, and from what stores the materials were collected; whether its founder dug them from the quar. ries of Nature, or demolished other buildings to embellish his own.” I may venture to add that, in such inquiries, patience will be invigorated rather than dispirited; and every new discovery will teach us more and more to admire the genius, the erudition, and the memory of the inimitable Milton.
6 Politian. Miscellaneorum Præf.
7 The Progress of Envy, an excellent poem occasioned by Lauder's attack on the character of Milton. See Lloyd's Poems, last line of Progress of Envy.
8 So bishop Douglas told the affectionate biographer of Dr. Johnson. See Boswell's Life of Johnson, Vol. I. p, 197, Edit. 1799.
See Boswell's Life of Johnson, Vol. I. p. 199.
SX PARADISUM AMISSAM SUMMI POETE, JOHANNIS' Et non mortali desuper igne pluunt :
Stat dubius cui se parti concedat Qlympus,
Et metuit pugnæ non superesse suæ. Qui legis Amissam Paradisum, grandia magni
At simul in cælis Messiæ insignia fulgent, Carmina Miltoni, quid nisi cuncta legis?
Et currus animes, armáque digna Deo, Res cunctas, et cunctarum primordia rerum,
Horrendúmque rotæ strident, et sæva rotarum Et fata, et fines, continet iste liber.
Erumpunt tervis fulgura luminibus, Inti ma panduntur magni penetralia mundi,
Et fammæ vibrant, et vera tonitrua rauco Scribitur et toto quicquid in orbe latet:
Admistis flammis insonuere polo: Terræque, traetúsque maris, cælúmque profun
Excidit attonitis mens omnis, et impetus omnis,
Et cassis dextris irrita tela cadunt; dum, Sulphureúmque Erebi, flammivomúmque spe
Ad pcenas fugiunt; et, ceu foret Orcus asylum,
Infernis certant condere se tenebris, cus: Quæque colunt terras, pontúmque, et Tartara
Cedite, Romani scriptores ; cedite, Graii;
Et quos fama recens vel celebravit annus. cæca, Quæque colunt summi lucida regna poli : Hæc quicunque leget tantùm cecinisse putabit Et quodcunque ullis conclusum est finibus us
Mævnidem ranas, Virgilium culices.
SAMUEL BARROW, M.D. quam, Et sine fine Chaos, et sine fine Deus; Et sine fine magis, si quid magis est sine fine, In Christo erga homines conciliatus amor.
ON PARADISE LOST. Hæc qui speraret quis crederet esse futurum ?
Et tamen hæc hodiè terra Britanna legit. When I beheld the poet blind, yet bold,
Quæ canit, et quantâ prælia dira tuba! Messiah crown'd, God's reconcil'd decree,
Heaven, Hell, Earth, Chaos, all; the argument Quantus in æthereis tollit se Lucifer armis! Held me a while misdoubting his intent,
Atque ipso graditur vix Michaële minor ! That he would ruin (for I saw him strong) Quantis, et quàm funestis concurritur iris, The sacred truths to fable and old song ;
Dum ferus hic stellas protegit, ille rapit ! (So Sampson grop'd the temple's posts in spight) Dum vulsos montes ceu tela reciproca torquent, l'he world o'erwhelming to revenge his sight.
1 This poem by Dr. Barrow, and the next by 2 Of Dr. Samuel Barrow, the author of these Milton's friend Andrew Marvel, have been usual- verses, no account has been given by the editors ly published in the editions of Paradise Lost, of Milton. Toland only calls him a doctor of since the edition of 1674, to wbich they are both | physie. Perhaps he was the physician to the prefixed. TODD,
army of general Monk. TODD,