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poetical works; as have such, which relate to The respective pieces, and which have been more
minutely investigated, in Mr. Warton's two ediPARADISE LOST,
tions of Milton's smaller poems. Upon a careful
examination of this manuscript, I have discoverCONTAINING PLANS OF SIMILAR SUBJECTS, INTEND- ed a few peculiarities, or variations of expression, ED FOR TRAGEDIES BY MILTON : FROM HIS OWN which have escaped the notice of those who have
preceded me in describing this literary curiosity; MS, IN TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.
and which will be found in their proper places.
For I have added, at the end of each particular In the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, | poem, as of Lycidas, Arcades, and Comus; and is a thin folio manuscript, marked, in the year at the end of each series of poems, as of Sonnets, 1799, when I was obligingly permitted by the
| Odes, and Miscellanies ; the several various read,
Odes, and Miscellanie master and fellows of that society to examine it, ings respectively belonging to them. In this arMiscell. R. iii. 4. It is handsomely bound; and
rangement I hope to gratify the reader: who, to the inside of one of the covers is pasted a paper
after reading the finished poem, may then trace with this inscription : Membra bæc eruditis
without interruption, (to use the language of Dr, simi et pænè divine Poetæ olim miserè disjecta et
Johnson respecting the imperfect rudiments of passim sparsa, postea vero fortuitò inventa, et
Paradise Lost,) the gradual growth and expansion in unum denuo collecta à Carolo Mason ejusdem
of great works in their seminal state; and observe Collegii Socio, et inter Miscellanea reposita, de
how they are sometimes suddenly advanced by inceps eâ quâ decuit religione servari voluit
accidental hints, and sometimes slowly improved Thomas Clarke', nuperrimmè hujusce Collegii,
by steady meditation. For this reason also I hare nunc verò Medii Templi Londini, Socius, 1736.
placed the dramatic plans of Paradise Lust at the These papers were found by Dr. Mason, above
conclusion of the poet's sublimer “ heroic song;" mentioned, who was also Woodwardian professor
and have subjoined, to the tragedy of Samson at Cambridge, among other old and neglected
| Agonistes, the plans of Milton's other intended manuscripts belonging to sir Henry Newton
dramas. Puckering ?, a considerable benefactor to the library. They contain two draughts of a letter to of the tragedy or mystery there are two plans. a friend, who had importuned Milton to take orders; the following plans of Paradise Lost in
THE PERSONS, the form of a tragedy, or mystery ; the plans or Michael.
Moses. subjects of several other intended tragedies, all | Heavenly Love, Divina Justice, Mercie, in the poet's own hand; and entire copies of Chorus of Angels.
Wisdom, Heavenly many of his smaller poems, in the same hand, Lucifer.
Love. except in a few instances, exhibiting his first Adam, with the ser- Michael. thoughts and subsequent corrections. All these | Eve, s pent, Hesperus, the evening, variations, Mr. Warton has observed, have been
starre, imperfectly and incorrectly printed by Dr. Birch.
Lucifer Various readings of this MS. bave been also ad Labour,
Adam, mitted into Dr. Newton's edition of all Milton's | Sicknesse,
Discontent, > Mutes. Conscience. 1 Afterwards master of the Rolls, and knight.
Labour, ,2 Mr. Warton says that sir Henry “ had so
Sicknesse, great an affection for this college, in which he
Discontent, had been educated, that in his eightieth year he
Ignorance, Mutes, desired to be readmitted : and, residing there a chi
Fear, whole summer, presented to the new library,
Death; just then finished, his own collection of books,
Faith. amounting to near four thousand volumes. He
Hope. was son of sir Adam Newton, tutor to prince
Charity Henry ; and many papers written by that prince, or relating to him, are involved in the collection. Sir Henry took the name of Puckering in remembrance of his uncle sir Thomas Puckering of War
Paradise Lost. wickshire, a learned and accomplished man, brother in law to sir Aram Newton, son of lord
THE PERSONS, keeper Puckering, a companion of the studies of prince llenry. Many of the books were presents Moses apologi&:1, recounting how he assumed to the prince from authors or editors. In Dr. his true budie; that it corrupts not, because of Duport's Hore subsccioa', a poem is addressed to his sabude) with God in the mount: declares the this preserver of Milton's manuscripts, Ad D. like of Enoch and Eliah; besides the puritie of Henricum Puckeringum, alias Newtonum, Equitum the place, that certaia pure winds, dews, and baroneitum. Cantabr. 1676. 8vo. pp. 222, 223. | clouds, præserve it from corruption; whence ex. This sir Henry had a son, pupil to Dr. Duport at horts to the sight of God ; tells they cannot see Trinity College, but who died before his father.” Adam in the state of innocence by reason of thire
Man, if he fall.
en l debating what should become of
| Chorus prepare resistance at his first approach. Mercie, ?
At last, after discourse of enmity on either side, Wisdome. Man, if he fall.
he departs ; whereat the Chorus sing of the bat
tell and victorie in Heaven against him and his Act 11.
accomplices : as before, after the first act, was Heavenly Love.
sung a hymn of the creation?. Evening-Starre.
Heer again may appear Lucifer, relating and Chorus sing the marriage song, and describe Pa
insulting in what he had don to the destruction radice.
of Man. Man next, and Eve, having by this time bin seduc't by the serpent, appears con
fusedly cover'd with leaves. Conscience, in a Act IIL.
shape, accuses him. Justice cites him to the tacifer contriving Adam's tuine.
place, whither Jehovah called for him. In the Chorus feares for Adam, and relates Lucifer's re
| mean while, the Chorus entertains the stage, and bellion and fall.
is informed, by some angel, [of] the manner of
his fall4. Act IV.
Heer the Chorus bewails Adam's fall. Adam then and Eve returne, and accuse one another;
but especially Adam Jayes the blame to his wife ; Eve, $
is stubborn in his offence. Justice appears; reaConscience cites them to God's examination sons with him, convinces him. The Chorus adChorus bewaites, and tells the good, Adam hath | monishes Adam, and bids him beware Lucifer's lost.
example of impenitences.
The angel is sent to banish them out of ParaAct V.
dise; but, before, causes to pass before his eyes, Adam and Eve driven out of Paradice : præsented
in shapes, a mask of all the evills of this life and
world. He is humbl'd, relents, dispaires. At by an angel with Labour,
last appeares Merey, comforts him, promises the Grief,
Messiah ; then calls in Faith, Hope, and ChaHatred,
rity ; instructs him. He répents; gives God the Envie,
glory, submitts to his penalty. The Chorus Warre, Mutes, to whom he gives thire | briefly concludes. Famine, names ; likewise Winter, Heat,
Compare this with the former draught7.
Tae subject proposed. Invocation of the Holy
Spirit. -The poem opens with John baptizing
3 End of the second act.
4 End of the third act. The next sketch, as Dr. Johnson has remarked,
S End of the fourth act. seems to have attained more maturity; and is en
6 End of the fifth act. titled
1 The reader may compare the allegorical
characters, and their offices, in this and the preAdam unparadiz'd.
ceding draught, with those in the Italian drama
by Andreini: The angel Gabriel, either descending or en Phillips, the nephew of Milton, has told us, tring ; showing, since the globe was created, his that Paradise Lost was first designed for a trafrequency as much on Earth as in Heaven; de gedy, and that in the fourth book of the poem scribes Paradise. Next, the Chorus, showing the “there are ten verses, which, several years before reason of his comming to keep his watch after the poem was begun, were shown to me, and J.ucifer's rebellion, by command from God: and some others, as designed for the very beginning withall expressing his desire to see and know of the said tragedy.” Life, &c. 1694, p. xxxv. more concerning this excellent and new creature, These verses are the opening of Satan's celebratMan. The angel Gabriel, as by his name signi ed address to the Sun. “O thou, that with sure fying a prince of power, tracing Paradise with a passing glory crown’d, &c.”
TODD. " more free office, passes by the station of the (') No edition of Paradise Regained had ever Chorus; and, desired by them, relates what he appeared with Arguments to the Books, before knew of Man; as the creation of Eve, with thire that which was published in 1795 by Mr. Dun.. love and marriage..
ster; from which they are adopted in this edi. After this, Lucifer appears after his overthrow, tion. Peck indeed endeavoured to supply the bemoans hinself, seeks revenge upon Man. The deficiency, in his Memoirs of Milton, 1740,
at the river Jordan, Jesus coming there is I, who ere while the happy garden sung baptized; and is attested, by the descent of By one man's disobedience lost, now sing the Holy Ghost, and by a voice from Heaven, Recover'd Paradise to all mankind, to be the Son of God. Satan, who is present, By one man's firm obedience fully tried upon this immediately flies up into the regions Through all temptation, and the tempter foild of the air: where, summoning his infernal | In all his wiles, defeated and repuis'd, council, he acquaints them with his appre- | And Eden rais'd in the waste wilderness. hensions that Jesus is that seed of the Woman, Thou Spirit, who ledst this glorious ercmite destined to destroy all their power, and points Into the desert, his victorious field, (thence
out to them the immediate necessity of bring- Against the spiritual foe, and brought'st him ding the matter to proof, and of attempting, By proof the undoubted Son of God, inspire,
by snares and fraud, to counteract and de- | As thou art wont, my prompted song, else mute, feat the person, from whom they have so much | And bear through height or depth of Nature's to dread. This office he offers himself to un
[deeds dertake; and, bis offer being accepted, sets With prosperous wing full summ'd, to tell of
out on his enterprise. - In the mean time Gol, Above heroic, though in secret done, . in the assembly of holy angels, declares that and unrecorded left through many an age;
he has given up his Son to be tempted by Sa-Worthy to have not remain'd so long unsung.
tan; but foretels that the tempter shall be Now had the great proclaimer, with a voice . completely defeated by him :-upon which More awful than the sound of trumpet, cried
the angels sing a hymn of triumph. Jesus is Repentance, and Heaven's kingdom nigh at hand , led up by the Spirit into the wilderness, while To all baptiz'd: to his great baptism flock'd
he is meditating on the commencement of his with awe the regions round, and with them • great office of Saviour of mankind. Pursuing
came his meditations he narrates, in a soliloquy, From Nazareth the son of Joseph deem'd what divine and philanthrophic impulses he to the food Jordan; came, as then obscure, had felt from his early youth, and how his Unmark'd, unknown; but him the Baptist soon mother Mary, on perceiving these dispositions Descried, divinely warp'd, and witness bore in him, had acquainted him with the circum- As to his worthier, and would have resign'd stances of his birth, and informed him that To him his heavenly office; nor was long he was no less a person than the Son of God; | His witness unconfirin'd: on him baptiz'd to which he adds what his own inquiries and | Heaven open'd, and in likeness of a dove reflections had supplied in confirmation of this | The Spirit descended, while the Father's voice great truth, and particularly dwells on the From Heaven pronounc'd him his beloved Son, recent attestation of it at the rirer Jordan. | That heard the adversary, who, roving still Our Lord passes forty days, fasting, in the | About the world, at that assembly fam'd wilderness; where the wild beasts become | Would not be last, and, with the voice divine mild and harmless in bis presence. Salan Nigh thunder-struck, the exalted man, to whom now appears under the form of an old peasant; Such high attest was given, a while survey'd and enters into discourse with our Lord, won- With wonder; then, with envy fraught and rage, dering what could have brought him alone Flies to his place, nor rests, but in mid air into so dangerous a place, and at the same To council summons all his mighty peers, time professing to recognize him for the per. Within thick clouds and dark ten-fold involv'd, son lately acknowledged by John, at the river A gloomy consistory; and them amidst, Jordan, to be the Sun of God. Jesus briefly With looks aghast and sad, he thus bespake. replies. Satan rejoins with a description of "O ancient powers of air, and this wide world, the difficulty of supporting life in the wilder (For much more willingly I mention air, ness; and entreats Jesus, if he be really the | This our old conquest, tban remeinber Hell, Son of God, to manifest bis divine power, by Our hated habitation,) well ye know changing some of the stones into bread. Je- | How many ages, as the years of men, sus reproves him, and at the same time tells | This universe we have possess'd, and ruld,
him that he knows who he is. Satan instantly In manner at our will, the affairs of Earth, · avows himself, and offers an artful apology Since Adam and his facile consort Eve
for himself and his conduct. Our blessed | Lost Paradise, deceiv'd by me; though since Lord severely reprimands him, and refutes With dread attending when that fatal Found every part of his justification. Satan, with | Shall be inflicted by the seed of Eve much semblance of humility, still endea- | L'pon my head. Long the decrees of Hearen yours to justify hi!nself; and, professing his | Delav, for longest time to him is short; admiration of Jesus and his regard for virtue, | And now, too soon for us, the circling hours requests to be permitted at a future time to This dreaded time hare compass'd, wherein we hear more of his conversation; but is answer Must bide the stroke of that long-threatca'd ed, that this must be as he shall find per- (At least if so we can, and by the head [wound, mission from above. Satan then disappears, | Broken be not intended all our power and the book closes with a short description pf To be infring'd, our freedom and our being, pight coming on in the desert.
In this fair empire won of Earth and air,)
For this ill news I bring, the woman's seed p. 70, &c. But the arguments, which he has Destin'd to this, is late of woman born. there given, are too diffuse; and want that con His birth to our just fear gave no small cause : ciseness and energy which distinguish Mr, Dun- | But his growth now to youth's full power dis. fier'e. TODD.
All virtue, grace, and wisdom to achieve | Then told'st her, doubting how these thing Things highest, greatest, multiplies my fear.
could be Before him a great prophet, to proclaim
| To her a virgin, that on her should come His coming, is sent harbinger, who all
The Holy Ghost, and the power of the Highests Invites, and in the consecrated stream
O'ershadow her. This man, born and now !pPretends to wash off sin, and fit them, so
To show him worthy of his birth divine (grown, Purified, to receive bim pure, or rather
And high prediction, henceforth I expose To do him honour as their king : all come, To Satan; let him tempt, and now assay And he himself among them was baptiz'd; His utmost subtlety, because he boasts Not thence to be more pure, but to receive And vaunts of his great cunning to the throng The testimony of Heaven, that wlio he is
Of his a postacy: he might have learnt Thenceforth the nations may not doubt; I saw | Less overweening, since he fail'd in Job, The prophet do him reverence ; on him, rising | Whose constant perseverance overcame Out of the water, Heaven above the clouds Whate'er his cruel malice could invent. Unfold her crystal doors : thence on his head He now shall know I can produce a man, A perfect dove descend, (whate'er it meant,) Of female seed, far abler to resist And out of Heaven the sovran voice I heard, All his solicitations, and at length • This is my Son belov'd, in him am pleas'd.' All his vast force, and drive him back to Hell; . His mother then is mortal, but his Sire
Winning, by conquest, what the first man losts He who obtains the monarchy of Heaven: By fallacy surpris'd. But first I mean And what will he not do to advance his Son ? To exercise him in the wilderness ; His first-begot we know, and sore have felt, There he shall first lay down the rudiments : When his fierce thunder drove us to the deep : Of his great warfare, ere ( send him forth Who this is we must learn, for Man he seems To conquer Sin and Death, the two grand foes, In all his lineaments, though in his face
By humiliation and strong sufferance: The glimpses of his father's glory shine.
His weakness shall o'ercome Satanic strength, Ye see our danger on the utmost edge
And all the'world, and mass of sinful flesh, Of hazard, which admits no long debate,
That all the angels and ethereal powers, But must with something sudden be oppos'd, They now, and men hereafter, may discern, (Not force, but well-couch'd fraud, well-woven From what consummate virtue I have chose Ere in the head of nations he appear, (snares,) | This perfect man, by merit call'd my Son, Their king, their leader, and supreme on Earth. To earn salvation for the sons of men." 1, when no other durst, sole undertook
So spake the Eternal Father, and all Heaven The dismal expedition to find out
Admiring stood a space, then into hymns And ruin Adam; and the exploit perform'd Burst forth, and in celestial measures mov'd, Successfully: a calmer voyage now (once, Circling the throne and singing, while the hand Will waft me; and the way, found prosperous
Sung with the voice, and this the argument. Induces best to hope of like success."
« Victory and triumph to the Son of God, He ended, and his words impression left Now entering his great duel, not of arms, Of much amazement to the infernal crew, But to vanquish by wisdom hellish wiles ! Distracted, and surpris'd with deep dismay The Father knows the Son; therefore secure At these sad tidings; but no time was then Ventures his filial virtue, though untried, For long indulgence to their fears or grief: Against whate'er may tempt, whate'er seduce," Unanimous they all commit the care
Allure, or terrify, or undermine. And management of this main enterprise
Be frustrate, all ye stratagems of Hell, To him, their great dictator, whose attempt And, devilish machinations, come to naught !" At first against mankind so well had thriv'd
So they in Heaven their odes and vigils tun'd: In Adam's overthrow, and led their march Mean while the Son of God, who yet some days From Hell's deep-vaulted den to dwell in light, Lodg'd in Bethabara, where John baptiz'd, Regents, and potentates, and kings, yea gods, Musing, and much revolving in his breast, Of many a pleasant realm and province wide. How best the mighty work he might begin So to the coast of Jordan he directs
Of saviour to mankind, and which way first His easy steps, girded with snaky wiles,
Publish his God-like office now mature, Where he might likeliest find this new-declar'd, One day forth walk'd alone, the Spirit leading This Man of men, attested Son of God,
| And his deep thoughts, the better to converse Temptation and all guile on him to try;
With solitude, till, far from track of men, So to subvert whom he suspected rais'd
Thought following thought, and step by step led To end his reign on Earth, so long enjoy'd : He enter'd now the bordering desert wild, son, But, contrary, unweeting he fulfill'd
And, with dark shades and rocks environ'd The purpos'd council, pre-ordain'd and fix'd, His holy meditations thus pursued. [round, Of the Most High; who, in full frequence “0, what a multitude of thoughts at once bright
Awaken'd in me swarm, while I consider Of angels, thus to Gabriel smiling spake. What from within I feel myself, and here
“ Gabriel, this day by proof thou shalt behold, | What from without comes often to my ears, Thou and all angels conversant on Earth - Ill sorting with my present state compar'd ! With man or men's affairs, how I begin
When I was yet a child, no childish play To verify that solemn message, late .
To me was pleasing'; all iny mind was set On which I sent thee to the virgin pure
Serious to learn and know, and thence to do In Galilee, that she should bear a son,
What might be public good; myself I thought Great in renown, and cald the Son of God; 1.Born to that end, born to promote all truth,
All righteous things: therefore, above my years, Which I belier'd was from above; bat he . The law of God I read, and found it sweet, Straight knew me, and with loudest voice pro. Made it my whole delight, and in it grew
claim'd To such perfection, that, ere yet my age Me him, (for it was shown him so from Heaven,) Had measur'd twice six years, at our great feast | Me him, whose harbinger he was ; and first I went into the temple, there to hear
Refus'd on me his baptism to confer, The teachers of our law, and to propose (own; As much his greater, and was hardly won : What might improve my knowledge or their But, as I rose out of the laving stream, And was admir'd by all : yet this not all
Heaven opened her eternal doors, from wbence To which my spirit aspir'd; victorious deeds The Spirit descended on me like a dove; Flam'd in my heart, heroic acts; one while And last, the sum of all, my father's voice, To rescue Israel from the Roman yoke,
Audibly heard from Heaven, pronounc'd me his, Then to subdue and quell, o'er all the Earth, • Me his beloved son, in whom alone Brute violence and proud tyrannic power, He was well pleas'd;' by which I knew the time Till truth were freed, and equity, restord: Now full, that I no more should live obscure, Yet held it more humane, more heavenly, first But openly begin, as best becomes, By winning words to conquer willing hearts, The authority which I deriv'd from Heaven, And make persuasion do the work of fear; And now by some strong motion I am led At least to try, and teach the erring soul, Into this wilderness, to what intent Not wilfully misdoing, but unaware
I learn not yet; perbaps I need not know, Misled; the stubborn only to subdue. (ceiving, For what concerns my knowledge God reveals."? These growing thoughts my mother soon per So spake our Morning-star, then in his rise, By words at times cast forth, inly rejoic'd, . And, looking mound, on every side bebeld And said to me apart, “ High are thy thoughts, A pathless desert, dusk with horrid shades; O son, but nourish them, and let them soar The way he came not having mark'd, return To wbat height sacred virtue and true worth Was difficult, by human steps untrod; Can raise them, though above example bigh; And he still on was led, but with such thoughts By matchless deeds express thy matchless sire, Accompanied of things past and to come For know, thou art no son of mortal man; Lodg'd in his breast, as well might recommend Though men esteem thee low of parentage, Such solitude before choicest society. Thy father is the Eternal King who rules
Full forty days be pass'd, whether on hill All Heaven and Earth, angels and sons of men; Sometimes, anon oa shady vale, each night A messenger from God foretold thy birth
Under the covert of some ancient oak, Conceiv'd in me a virgin; be foretold, (chrone, Or cedar, to defend him from the des, Thou should'st be great, and sit on David's Or harbour'd in one cave, is not reveald; And of thy kingdom there should be no end. Nor tasted buman food, nor hunger felt At thy nativity, a glorious quire
Till those days ended; hunger'd then at last Of angels, in the fields of Bethlehem, sung Among wild beasts: they at his sight grew mild, To shepherds, watching at their folds by night, Nor sleeping him nor waking harm'd; his walk And told them the Messiah now was born, The fiery serpent fied and noxious worm, Where they might see him, and to thee they The lion and fierce tiger glar'd aloof. came,
But now an aged man in rural weeds, Directed to the manger where thou lay'st, Following, as seem'd, the quest of some stray ere, For in the inn was left no better room:
Or wither'd sticks to gather, which might serve A star, not seen before, in Heaven appearing, Against a winter's day, when winds blow keen, Guided the wise men thither from the east, To warm him wet return'd from field at eve, To honour thee with incense, myrrh, and gold; He saw approach, who first with curious eye. By whose bright course led on they found the Perus’d him, then with words thus utter'd spake. place,
"Sir, what ill chance hath brought thee to Affirming it thy star, new-graven in Heaven,
this place By which they knew the king of Israel born. So far from path or road of men, who pass Just Simeon and prophetic Anna, warn'd
In troop or caravan for single mone By vision, found thee in the temple, and spake, Durst ever, who return'd, and drops not bere Before the altar and the vested priest,
His carcase, pind with hunger and with drought. Like things of thee to all that present stood. I ask the rather, and the more admire, This having heard, straight I again revolv'd For that to me thou seem'st the Man, whom late The law and prophets, searching what was writ Our new baptizing prophet at the ford Concerning the Messiah, to our scribes (spake Of Jordan honour'd so, and call'd thee Son. Known partly, and soon found, of whom they Of God : I saw and heard, for we sometimes I am; this chiefly, that my way must lie. Who dwell this wild, constrain:d by want, come Through many a hard assay, even to the death,
forth Ere I the promis'd kingdom can attain,
"To town or village nigh, (nighest is fer,) Or work redemption for mankind, whose sins. | Where aught we hear, and curious are to hear, Full weight must be transferr'd upon my head. What happens new; fame also finds us out." Yet, neither thus dishearten'd or dismay'dy
To whom the Son of God. “Who brought The time prefix'd I waited; when behold
me hither, The Baptist, (of whose birth I oft had heard, Will bring me hence; no other guide I seek. Not knew by sight,) now come, who was to “ By miracle he way,” replied the spain; Before Messiah, and his way prepare! [come “What other way I see not; for, we here I, as all others, to his baptism came,
Live on tongh roots and stubs, to thirst inur'd