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Church in Boston, and during a ministry of only five years rose to as high a reputation as any American preacher has ever attained. It was at this time that he delivered, at an Andover anniversary, his celebrated Sermon “On the Moral Dignity of the Missionary Enterprise.” It is said that the greatness of this magnificent discourse was hardly suspected even by the most appreciative of its bearers, so little was there then in the preacher's voice and manner to constrain attention ; but it had no sooner issued from the press than it passed into rapid and extensive circulation, was republished in many successive editions on both sides of the Atlantic. The brilliant reputation thus won concurred with his previous success as a member of the Board of Instruction to procure for him an invitation to the Professorship of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in his Alma Mater. Hardly had he entered on the duties of this office, when he was chosen President of Brown University. He promptly accepted the trust, and remained at the head of that institution for more than twenty-eight years. Though he resigned his presidency on account of impaired health, the few years that succeeded his resignation were a season of undiminished mental vigor and industry. During a temporary engagement as acting pastor of a church in Providence, he preached with greater eloquence and efficiency than at any previous time, and the printed sermons of this period transcend in vigor of thought, fervor of religious feeling, and the higher qualities of style and diction, all his earlier writings, the one master work excepted. He died in consequence of an attack of paralysis, on the 30th of September, 1865.
Dr. Wayland's publications have been numerous. Besides many sermons, lectures, and addresses, issued singly and in volumes, he was the author of valuable treatises for school and college use, on Political Economy, Mental Philosophy, and Moral Philosophy; the last of which has had a very extended circulation, and is believed to be more generally employed as a text-book in our colleges than any other manual in that department.
Dr. Wayland seemed born to command, and could not but have been a controlling mind in whatever sphere of life he might have chosen. Strong in his convictions, with not a little native impetuosity, which strenuous self-discipline directed rather than repressed, and with an energizing sense of right and duty in whatever he undertook, he usually succeeded not only in having his own way, but in drawing to it the current of surrounding opinion and feeling. In the administration of the University he was inflexibly just, accurate, and thorough, solicitous to raise the intellectual and moral standard of the institution, and selfsacrificingly kind to students who deserved his kindness. Others may have won more love in their daily intercourse with their pupils ; his students left him with a respect, which rose into reverence as they grew into sympathy with his lofty aims, and deepened into affection as they recalled the sincerity and earnestness of his endeavors to do them good. As a teacher, he was distinguished for the clearness of his expositions, the wealth of pertinent illustration which he brought to bear on every point, the enthusiasm he awakened, and the impulse to vigorous and independent thought which he imparted to his pupils.
As a writer, he was compact, clear, and strong. No style could be more free than his from rhetorical artifice. His most glowing discourses exhibit no outbreaks of sentiment or emotion, but have a sustained force and fervor which commands undivided attention.
In the private relations of life, Dr. Wayland was upright and faithful, unselfish and generous. As a citizen, he was public-spirited and philanthropic. No one could have been more loved, honored, and confided in than he was throughout the community in which the greater part of his life was passed.
The Right Rev. ALONZO POTTER was born in Beekman (now La Grange), New York, July 10, 1800. He entered Union College in 1814, was graduated in 1818, became Tutor in the following year, and two years later, at the age of twenty-one, he was chosen Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. Having meanwhile taken orders in the Episcopal Church, he accepted in 1826 the rectorship of St. Paul's Church in Boston, where in a ministry of but five years he won the enduring respect and affection of members of every Christian communion, and held a place second to none of his contemporaries among the clergy as a man of learning and ability, as an efficient and successful preacher, and as a devoted and faithful minister. In 1831 he was recalled to Union College as Professor of Moral Philosophy, to which office was shortly added that of Vice-President. In this latter capacity he had on his hands the principal portion of the interior discipline of the college, - financial engagements and the external affairs of the institution occupying the greater part of Dr. Nott's time. While here he continued in the frequent exercise of his profession, and was regarded as one of the pillars of his Church; so that, in the vacancy of the important Bishopric of Pennsylvania, he was chosen to that
office not only by the vote of the electing body, but equally by the approving suffrages of a widely extended public. He was consecrated as Bishop in 1845. He found his post of service as arduous as it was honorable, and for the first twelve years he performed an incredible amount of labor, both in the visitation of a diocese larger than some important kingdoms of the Old World, and in the preparation of sermons, charges, and other official papers, which continued to bear the marks of fresh, strong thought, and to betoken a mind no less industrious in his now crowded and care-cumbered arena than it had been during the quiet of his academic life. But his overtasked brain at length yielded to a stroke of paralysis in 1857. In 1858 he was relieved of a portion of his official duty by the appointment of an assistant bishop. A few months spent in foreign travel restored him to his work, which he was permitted for a few years longer to pursue with little less than his former vigor. But threatening symptoms again supervened, and by advice of his physician he sought relief by a seavoyage. He took passage for California in a new steamer belonging to the Pacific Mail Company. From Panama he went to Aspinwall to consecrate a chapel. He was detained there over night, and was subjected to malarious influences, which, after he had embarked on the Pacific, issued in malignant fever. On arriving in the harbor of San Francisco he appeared so far convalescent that arrangements were made for his removal on shore. But a relapse ensued, and he died on shipboard, July 4, 1865.
Bishop Potter published, in addition to numerous pamphlets, a treatise on Political Economy for college use, and several other educational works. He was also the author of the first part of “The School and Schoolmaster,” a work prepared by him in connection with Mr. George B. Emerson, and placed in every school-house in Massachusetts and New York.
He was an easy, graceful writer. His imagination, evidently vivid, else his words would not have been so transparent, was employed, not in imagery and ornament, but in the presentment of the objects of thought in their true aspects and relations. Never forsaking, postponing, or slighting the duties incumbent on him by virtue of his station, he was always ready to renounce needed rest or leisure in aid of any worthy cause. His services in behalf of the reformed system of common-school education will be beneficently felt long after they have ceased to be remembered. VOL. VII.
In private life he was greatly and worthily beloved. Simplicity and sweetness of spirit and mien, tender thoughtfulness for all around him, with all the amenities and graces that go to constitute the Christian gentleman, marked his daily intercourse, won for him troops of friends, and made it hardly possible that he should have an enemy. In his ecclesiastical relations, while loyal to his own Church, and steadfast in his own convictions of truth and right, he lived in mutual esteem and in the interchange of the kindest Christian offices with good men of every denomination.
COLONEL JAMES DUNCAN GRAHAM, of the U.S. Engineers, was born in Virginia. He entered the United States service as Third Lieutenant of Artillery in the year 1817, was appointed a Captain (by brevet) of Topographical Engineers, January 15, 1829, and rose in this corps by the regular course of seniority to the grade of Lieutenant-Colonel ; he was brevetted to this grade January 1, 1847, and obtained his actual commission for it, August 6, 1861. Upon the consolidation of the two corps of Engineers and Topographical Engineers, he received a colonel's commission in the combined corps, which he held at the time of his decease, December 28, 1865.
His scientific labors have been for the most part either directly in the line of military engineering duty, or incidentally connected therewith. Of the former class were his labors upon the Northeastern Boundary and Mexican Boundary Commissions, and upon the survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes. He was very assiduous as an instructor in practical astronomy to the younger officers under his command, and was himself an admirable observer. The latitudes and longitudes of the points upon our Northeastern Boundary were determined by him and his subordinates with great precision. He often availed himself of his travels in this line of duty to contribute largely to the advancement of American geography, and his determinations are always very accurate, though often made with apparently inadequate means. Thus a large number of the most accurate positions yet determined of our Lake ports, are due to his sextant observations made within ten years, while he was in charge of the Lake Harbor improvements.
Colonel Graham was an admirable example of a military astronomer, - a class to whom in every country a great deal of the progress of astronomical geography is due.
From the roll of our Foreign Honorary members it becomes our sad duty to withdraw the names of Encke, Lubbock, Sir William Rowan
Hamilton, Whewell, Sir William Hooker, Lindley, Admirals Smyth and Duperrey, all distinguished in the walks of science, and most of them illustrious for their original investigations.
John FRANCIS ENCKE was born in Hamburg, September 23, 1791. His father was a deacon in the Jacobi Church. After completing the course of study of the college or gymnasium in Hamburg, he entered the University of Göttingen in October, 1811, where he remained a student under the instructions of Gauss until the spring of 1813, when he entered the army and marched to Hamburg for the rescue of his country from the domination of the French. After the fall of Hamburg he entered the Hanseatic Legion, and served in the horse artillery until June, 1814. In the autumn of this year he returned to Göttingen and resumed his studies. In 1815 he entered the Prussian service for a short time. After the battle of Waterloo and the restoration of peace he completed his studies under Gauss, and was appointed assistant to Lindenau, in the Observatory of Lemburg, in 1816. He received the title of Professor in 1818, of Vice-Director in 1820, and in 1822 he succeeded Lindenau as Director of the Observatory. In 1825, at the recommendation of Bessel, he was appointed Director of the Observatory at Berlin.
He died in Spandau, of disease of the brain, on the 26th of August, 1865, having been relieved from all astronomical work, in consequence of the approach of the disease, from the beginning of 1864 up to the time of his death.
It would be impossible within the limits of such a notice as this to give anything like a detailed account of the services to science of this great astronomer. The bare enumeration of the titles of his many valuable papers would exceed them, and in fact such a notice of his work is not necessary here. The name of no one of the great astronomers of this century is more familiarly known in America than that of Encke, and his published labors have instructed astronomers in all parts of the world. They may be found, for the beginning of his career, in Lach's Correspondence and Lindenau's Zeitschrift, and, later, in the supplement to the Berlin Jahrbuch, in the Memoirs and Monthly Reports of the Berlin Academy, in the Astronomische Nachrichten, and in the volumes of the Berlin Observations.
It may be that Encke has contributed most to the advancement of his favorite science in Europe by the improvements that he introduced into the Berlin Ephemeris, by the character that he impressed on the Berlin Observatory, and by the pupils that he trained during his forty