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water, manufactured by the Boston Lead Company, Shaw and Willard's patent.
“ The first lot was made by placing two semicylinders of pure blocktin around a hollow core, or mandril, through which a current of cold water could be made to run, so as to keep the tin as cool as possible. The semicylinders of tin were also chilled in snow or pounded ice. When placed around the core, and held closely together by tongs, melted lead, at as low a temperature as it could be cast, was poured around the tin, and allowed to cool, the compound cylinder being eight inches long and six inches in diameter. Then, by means of a powerful hydraulic press, giving a pressure of 3,150 pounds per square inch, or between four and five hundred tons upon the ram or piston, the cylinder of lead and tin was forced out below, a mandril, or former, keeping the inner portion of the tube open and of a uniform size. When the thick cylinder was nearly driven out of its mould, the press was stopped, and a new casting was made upon the remaining metal; so that continuous and perfectly united tubes of any desired length were formed, and were wound up on a reel in a room below. By this method, it was thought, a pipe lined with pure block-tin surrounded by the more flexible lead could be produced; but it has been found that pipes made in this way charged the water which stood in them overnight with lead.
“ Dr. Jackson was therefore called upon to make a series of analyses of the linings of many of these tubes, and discovered that the lining was composed of 22 per cent of lead and 88 per cent of tin, or an alloy. He was then invited to witness the operation of making the pipes, when every endeavor to prevent the penetration of the molten lead into the substance of the tin proved that it was impossible, so long as the molten lead was cast around the tin, — for the lead requires a temperature of 612° for its fusion, and tin only 442° ; while the great mass of hot lead rendered the tin almost a paste, into which the lead readily penetrated. There being 170° difference between the melting-points of the two metals, it was suggested that, if the lead was cast first around an iron core, and, when cold enough, on withdrawing the core and casting in the tin, the difficulty might be remedied. This, the foreman of the works said, could be easily effected, and it was soon after done with entire success; for chemical analysis showed the tin lining of such pipes to be absolutely pure tin. By this improved pro
cess all the pipes now made at the Boston lead-works, and also at the New York works, are manufactured ; and the public may rely on their producing a faultless water-pipe.
“It is also found that, by this improvement, the pipes can be made more rapidly than heretofore, and that a plug or compound cylinder for drawing may be cast thirteen inches long, which is a great advantage.
“A series of experiments were made to ascertain the action of distilled water and of Boston well-water on lead pipes, and on those made as first described, in which the tin had become alloyed with 22 per cent of lead; and it was found that a lead pipe in 24 hours yielded to distilled water 4.80 grs. of oxide of lead per gallon, and that a pipe lined with tin alloyed with 22 per cent of lead yielded to a gallon of the water 2-24 grs. of oxide of lead, while the pipe lined with pure tin yielded nothing to the water. When Boston well-water, containing 26 grs. of various saline matters per gallon, was substituted for distilled water, lead pipe, in 24 hours, yielded to it 2 grains of oxide of lead, and the pipe lined with tin alloyed with 22 per cent of lead yielded 1.865 grs. of lead to the water, the sulphates in the well-water protecting the lead to a considerable extent. The well-water of Waltham, which was very much less saline than Boston well-water, dissolved 0.8 gr. of oxide of lead from a pipe made of the tin alloyed with lead; this impregnation having taken place in a single night, or about 12 hours.
“It would seem from these researches, that the lead-encased tin pipe, as originally manufactured, is better than lead pipe, but is still objectionable as a water conduit, and much more so for more powerful solvents for lead, such as soda-water and beer; while the pipe, as now made, is as unobjectionable as pure block-tin pipe, and is actually cheaper than lead when purchased by the linear foot.”
Five hundred and ninetieth Meeting.
January 29, 1868. — STATUTE MEETING. The PRESIDENT in the chair.
Professor August De La Rive was elected a Foreign Honor- • ary Member in Class I. Section 3, in place of the late Michael Faraday.
Professor M. E. Chevreul was also elected a Foreign Honorary Member in Class I. Seetion 3.
Five hundred and ninety-first Meeting.
February 11, 1868. — Monthly MEETING. The PRESIDENT in the chair.
The following paper was presented and read by the author:
A Conjectural Solution of the Origin of the Classificatory
System of Relationship.
By LEWIS H. MORGAN,
OF RochesTER, NEW YORK.
About twenty years ago I found among the Iroquois Indians' of New York a system of relationship, for the designation and classification of kindred, both unique and extraordinary in its character, and wholly unlike any with which we are familiar. At the time I supposed it was a scheme devised by themselves, and confined to this particular stock of the American aborigines. Afterwards, in 1857, I had occasion to re-examine the subject, when the idea of its possible prevalence among other Indian nations suggested itself, together with its uses, in that event, for ethnological purposes. In the following summer I obtained the system of the Ojibwa Indians, of Lake Superior ; and, although prepared in some measure for the result, it was with some degree of surprise that I found among them the same elaborate and complicated system which then existed among the Iroquois. Every term of relationship was radically different from the corresponding term in the Iroquois ; but the classification of kindred was the same. It was manifest that the two systems were identical in their radical characteristics. It seemed probable, also, that both were derived from a common source, since it was not supposable that two peoples, although speaking dialects of stock-languages, as widely separated as the Algonkin and Iroquois, could simultaneously have invented the same system, or derived it by borrowing one from the other.
From this fact of identity, several inferences at once presented
themselves. Its prevalence among these stocks rendered probable its prevalence among the remaining stocks of the American aborigines. If then it should, upon investigation, be found to be universal among them, it would follow that the system was coeval, in point of time, with the commencement of their spread upon the American continent; and also, as a system transmitted with the blood, it might contain the necessary evidence to establish their unity of origin. And, in the next place, if the Indian family came in fact from Asia, that they must have brought the system with them from that continent, and have left it behind them among the people from whom they separated; and, further than this, that its perpetuation upon this continent would render probable its like perpetuation upon the Asiatic, where it might still be found; and, finally, that it might possibly furnish some evidence upon the question of the Asiatic origin of the Indian family.
Having found, before the close of 1859, that the system prevailed in the five principal Indian stock-languages east of the Rocky Mountains, as well as in several of the dialects of each, its universal spread through the Indian family had become extremely probable ; and having also discovered traces of it both in the Sandwich Islands and in South-India, it seemed advisable to prosecute the investigation upon a more extended scale, and to attempt to reach, as far as possible, all the families of mankind. This would require an extensive foreign correspondence, which a private individual could not hope to maintain successfully. I then applied to the Secretaries of the several American Boards of Foreign Missions for the co-operation of their respective missionaries in foreign fields, which was cordially promised, and the promise amply redeemed. I also applied to Professor Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, for the use of the name of that institution to insure attention to the circular and schedule by means of which the system of relationship of the different nations was to be obtained. Professor Henry not only complied with this request, but also, at my suggestion, procured a circular to be issued by the Secretary of State of the United States to the diplomatic and consular representatives of the government in foreign countries, commending the investigation to their attention. From this time onward, the foreign correspondence, except with the missionaries, was conducted through the Smithsonian Institution and the Department of State.
In verification of the results it will be sufficient to state, that, by personal explorations, continued through several years, in the Lake Superior region, in the Hudson's Bay Territory, and in the territories between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains, and by correspondence with government officials and private individuals in other parts of North America, I have been able to bring together the system of relationship of upwards of seventy Indian nations, speaking as many independent dialects. Beside these, and by means of the foreign correspondence referred to, the system of the principal nations of Europe and Asia, of a portion of those of Africa, of Central and South America, and of the Islands of the Pacific, have also been obtained. The tabulated schedules, now in course of publication by the Smithsonian Institution, will cover four hundred and fifty pages of the Smithsonian Contributions, and represent four fifths and upwards, numerically, of the entire human family. These strictly personal statements would be inappropriate in this connection, except as they become necessary to show that the solution about to be presented rests upon a wide basis of ascertained facts.
I propose to present, in a brief form, 1st. The system of relationship of the Aryan Family: using the Roman form as typical. 2d. That of the Malayan Family: using the Hawaiian form as typical. 3d. That of the Ganowanian * Family: using the Seneca-Iroquois as typical. These are preliminary to the principal object, which is : 4th. To submit a conjectural solution of the origin of the classi ficatory system of relationship.
It may be premised that all of the systems of consanguinity and affinity, thus far ascertained, resolve themselves into two radically distinct forms, of which one will be called the descriptive, and the other the classificatory.
In the first, consanguinei are, in the main, described by a combination of the primary terms of relationship. There is a small amount of classification, by means of special or secondary terms introduced by civilians and scholars to relieve the burdensomeness of the system; but the great body of relatives, both by blood and marriage, are described. This is the system of the Aryan, Semitic, and Uralian families. In its origin, as the parent of the present form, it was purely descriptive, as is still exemplified by the Erse and Scandinavian, and by the condition of the Sanskritic, when this language ceased to be spoken. This system follows the streams of the blood, and is in
* Gä-no-wal-ni-an: name proposed for the American Indian family. From Gä'-no, an arrow, and Wä-ă'-no, a bow; the family of the Bow and Arrow.