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VOL. VII.

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father's sister's daughter's daughter .

great-grandson : 66 66 66

" granddaughter . “ great-grandson : .

" granddaughter 6 mother's sister . . . . . .

sister's son

" son's wife .
“ daughter
“ daughter's husbar

son's son . .
66 66

“ daughter . .
16 "

daughter's son .

To daughter .
great-grandson .
“ granddaughter .
great-grandson

« granddaughter
brother . . . . .
brother's son
16 son's wife. . .

daughter
daughter's husband.
son's son · · ·

o daughter. ..
other's daughter's son...

u daughter .

great-grandson . 66 66

“ granddaughter . .

great-grandson .

“ “ granddaughter “ father's father's brother's son . . .

daughter. .

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DESCRIPTION OF PERSONS.
My father's father's brother's son's son . . .

..
“ daughter .
daughter's son . .

u daughter
great-grandson .

“ granddaughter
mother's mother's sister's son . . .

“ daughter .
6 son's son . .
66 “ daughter
daughter's son . .

daughter
great-grandson . .

granddaughter
husband
wife
husband's father

" mother
66 wife's father . . .

mother .
66 son-in-law

" . .
daughter-in-law ..
brother-in-law (husband's brother) .
brother-in-law (sister's husband) (female speakin

" (wife's sister's husband)
6 66 wife's brother). .
sister-in-law (wife's sister)

" (husband's sister). .
" (brother's wife): .

" " (female speaking)

66 (husband's brother's wife). .. 16 " " (wife's brother's wife) . . .

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SAME IN ENGLISH.
My brother.'
“ sister.
“ brother.

sister.
child, male.

o female. .
parent, male.

o female.
“ brother.
66 sister.
66 brother.
“ sister.
66 child, male.
16 " female.
husband.
66 wife.

father-in-law.
66 mother-in-law.
“ father-in-law.

mother-in-law.
" child-in-law, male.
66 “ “ female.
66 husband or my male.

husband or my male.
" intimate companion.
“ brother-in-law.

« wife.
: " sister-in-law.

wife.
. " sister-in-law.

“ intimate companion. . " wife.

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It will be observed that the several collateral lines are merged in the lineal line, by means of which the posterity of my brothers and sisters, and of my collateral relatives, become my posterity. This is a fundamental characteristic of the classificatory system. In the Hawaiian no blood relatives, however remote in degree, can fall without the relationship of grandparent, grandchild, brother, or sister. The system, nevertheless, is clearly defined, and is founded upon a knowledge of the degrees of relationship, numerically, by means of which the classification is perfected. When the Ganowanian and Turanian forms are compared with the Hawaiian, and the principles of each are understood, it will be seen that poverty of language has nothing whatever to do with the latter system. The relationships which seem to be unreal and arbitrary may be found, in the sequel, to be those actually existing when the system was formed.

In the Hawaiian there are five grades of relatives, as follows: Myself, my brothers and sisters, and my first, second, third, and more remote cousins, are the first grade. These are my brothers and sisters without distinction. My father and mother and their brothers and sisters, together with their several cousins, as before, are the second grade. These, without distinction, are my parents. My grandfather and his brothers and sisters, and my grandmother and her brothers and sisters, on the father's side and on the mother's side, together with their several cousins, as before, are the third grade. These are my grandparents. Below me, my sons and daughters and their several cousins are the fourth grade. These are my children. My grandsons and granddaughters, and their several cousins, are the fifth grade. These are my grandchildren.* The Hawaiian system now realizes the nine grades of relations of the Chinese (conceiving them reduced to five) more perfectly than the Chinese itself does at the present time. An ancient Chinese author remarks as follows: —

“ All men born into the world have nine ranks of relatives. My own generation is one grade; my father's is one; my grandfather's is one; that of my grandfather's father is one ; and that of my grandfather's grandfather is one; thus above me are four grades. My son's generation is one grade; my grandson's is one ; that of my grandson's son is one; and that of my grandson’s grandson is one ; thus below me are four grades of relations : including myself in the estimate, there are in all nine grades. These are brethren ; and although each grade belongs to a different house, or family, yet they are all my relatives, and these are called the nine grades of relations.” A strong presumption arises from a comparison of the Hawaiian and Chinese systems, that the latter, in its original form, was identical, in all essential respects, with the former.

* All the individuals of the same grade are brothers and sisters to each other.

It remains to notice a remarkable custom of the Hawaiians, which had not entirely disappeared at the epoch of the establishment of the American missions. This custom was mentioned by Judge Lorin Andrews in explanation of a particular Hawaiian relationship in the following language : “ The relationship of “ Pinalua” is rather amphibious. It arose from the fact that two or more brothers, with their wives, and two or more sisters, with their husbands, were inclined to possess each other in common. But the modern use of the word is that of dear friend, or intimate companion.” This custom has an intimate connection with the solution about to be presented.

III. System of Relationship of the Ganowanian Family. The American Indians, when related, address each other by the term of relationship, and never by the personal name. As a custom it is substantially universal. If no relationship exists, the form of address is “my friend." This custom of saluting by kin has tended to impart as well as preserve a knowledge of the system, and to render it perfectly familiar to all. They recognize all the relationships known to the Aryan system, besides several which the latter does not discriminate. The system, as presented in the Table below, with some modifications in the different stock-languages, is now in practical daily use throughout the Ganowanian family.

In addition to a remarkably opulent nomenclature of relationships, some of these languages have a double set of terms for particular relationships, one of which is used by the males, and the other by the females. It will also be found, in very many cases, that the relationship of the same person to myself, a male, is different when I am a female. Notwithstanding the great diversities created by the system, it is logical and self-sustained throughout.

To develop its prominent characteristics it will be necessary to pass through the several lines, as in the former case.

The relationships of grandfather and grandmother, and of grandson and granddaughter, are the most remote which are recognized either in the ascending or descending series. Ancestors and descendants above and below them fall into the same categories respectively. In the collateral lines persons of common descent cannot fall without the relationship of brother or cousin. The relationship of brother and sister is conceived in the twofold form of elder and younger, and not in the concrete ; and there are special terms for each.

First Collateral Line. With myself a male, my brother's son and daughter are my son and daughter, each of them calling me father. This is the first indicative feature of the system. My brother's grandchildren are my grandchildren, each of them calling me grandfather.

On the other hand, my sister's son and daughter are my nephew and niece, each of them calling me uncle. (Second indicative feature.) My sister's grandchildren are my grandchildren, each of them calling me grandfather.

With myself a female, the first relationships are reversed; my brother's son and daughter are my nephew and niece, each of them calling me aunt; whilst my sister's son and daughter are equally my son and daughter, each of them calling me mother. The children of these nephews and nieces, sons and daughters, are, without distinction, my grandchildren, each of them calling me grandmother. In each of the cases above named, as well as in those hereafter stated, the primary terms are used in their primary sense, e.g. I call my brother's son my son, when I speak to him, the same as though he were my own son.

Second Collateral Line. My father's brother is my father, and calls me his son. (Third indicative feature.) His son and daughter are my brother and sister, elder or younger according to our respective ages. (Fourth indicative feature.) With myself a male, the children of this collateral brother are my sons and daughters, each of them calling me father; whilst the children of this collateral sister are my nephews and nieces, each of them calling me uncle. The children of each are my grandchildren, each of them calling me grandfather. On the contrary, with myself a female, the children of this collateral brother are my nephews and nieces, each of them calling me aunt; whilst the children of this collateral sister are my sons and daughters, each of them calling me mother. Their children in like manner are my grandchildren, each of them calling me grandmother.

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