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My father's sister is my aunt. (Fifth indicative feature.) Her son and daughter are my cousins, each of them calling me cousin. With myself a male, the children of this male cousin are my sons and daughters, whilst the children of my female cousins are my nephews and nieces. On the contrary, with myself a female, the children of my male cousins are my nephews and nieces, whilst the children of my female cousins are my sons and daughters. The children of each of the latter are my grandchildren. My mother's brother is

my

uncle. (Sixth indicative feature.) His son and daughter are my cousins, and their descendants follow in the same relationships respectively as in the last case.

My mother's sister is my mother. (Seventh indicative feature.) Her son and daughter are my brother and sister, elder or younger. (Eighth indicative feature.) The children and descendants of this collateral brother follow in the same relationships respectively as the descendants of my father's brother first above given.

the son

Third Collateral Line. This line is a counterpart in all respects of the first and second, with some additional relationships. My grandfather's brother is my grandfather. (Ninth indicative feature.) His son is

my father ; and daughter of this father are my brother and sister, elder or younger; the children of this collateral brother, myself a male, are my sons and daughters ; of this collateral sister are my nephews and nieces, and their children are my grandchildren. With myself a female the same changes must be made as in the former cases.

My grandfather's sister is my grandmother; her daughter is my aunt; the children of this aunt are my cousins ; and the children and descendants of the latter follow in the same relationships as before.

My grandmother's brother is my grandfather; his son is my uncle ; the children of this uncle are my cousins; and the children and descendants of these cousins follow in the same relationships as before.

In like manner my grandmother's sister is my grandmother; her daughter is my mother; the children of this mother are my brothers and sisters, elder or younger; and the children and descendants of this collateral brother and sister follow in the same relationships as in previous cases.

The fourth and fifth collateral lines are counterparts of the first three, as will be found by consulting the subjoined Tablė.

In each of the foregoing the collateral lines are finally brought into and merged in the lineal line, which is a fundamental characteristic of the system. This also gives the tenth indicative feature. Certain relationships are here called “indicative," because they determine those which precede and follow them; and because they embrace so much which is radical and fundamental, that, when they are found present in different systems of relationship, the identity of these systems may be considered established.

The Seneca-Iroquois system of consanguinity and affinity, as given in the Table, now prevails, with modifications, in upwards of seventy Indian nations. Its radical characteristics are found in their several systems with such striking exactness as apparently to leave no doubt that it was derived into each stock-language with the blood from a common original source.

Another fact, not less significant, remains to be mentioned, namely, that the system of relationship of the people of South-India speaking the Dravidian language, and numbering upwards of twenty-eight millions, is identical, with the exception of two or three unimportant particulars, with the Seneca-Iroquois. The same system, greatly modified by Sanskritic influence, also prevails among the people of NorthIndia speaking the Gaura language, and numbering upwards of one hundred millions; and also, with further modifications, among the Chinese and Japanese.

For the purpose of comparison, and also for reference to the Asiatic form in the solution of the origin of the classificatory system, the Seneca-Iroqouis and the Tamil systems are placed side by side in the following Table.

Comparative Table of the System of Relationship of the Seneca-Iroquois Indians of New York, and of the People of

South-India speaking the Tamil Dialect of the Dravidian Language. En=my.

Description of Persons.

Relationship in Tamil.

Translation.

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66

1 păddi

táy

.

3d grandfather

grandmother
“ 2d grandfather

“grandmother
“ grandfather
“ grandmother
« father
" mother

son
“ daughter
grandson
" granddaughter
2d grandson

granddaughter
“ 3d grandson
"granddaughter
elder brother

sister
younger

brother

sister • brothers (Sanskrit) • sisters

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17 « 18 "

1 My great-grandfather's father
2 "

mother
great-grandfather

grandmother
grandfather
grandmother

father
8 "

mother
9"

son
10 “ daughter
11 65 grandson
12“ granddaughter
13 "

great-grandson
14

great-granddaughter
15 “ great-grandson's son
16 "

daughter
elder brother

sister
19
younger

brother
20 €

sister
21 "

brothers
22 " sisters
brother's son

(male speaking)
24

son's wife 25

daughter 26 "

daughter's husband

grandson 28 «

granddaughter 29 "

great-grandson

granddaughter
31

sister's son
82 66

son's wife
33 "

daughter
34. "

daughter's husband

grandson 86 «

granddaughter 37 "

great-grandson 396

granddaughter 39 brother's son

(female speaking)

Relationship
in

Translation.
Seneca-Iroquois.
hoc'-sote

My grandfather
oc' sote

* grandmother
hoc-sote

grandfather
Oc'-sote

grandmother
hocl-sote

grandfather ocl-sofe

“ grandmother hál-pih

" father
no-yeh'

mother
ha-ah'-wuk

son
ka-ahl-wuk

“ daughter
ha-yä'-da

" grandson
ka-ya-da.

granddaughter
ba-yä'-da

grandson
ka-ya-da

granddaughter
ha-yä'-da

grandson
ka-ya-da.

granddaughter
ha'-je

" elder brother ah'-je

sister ha'-gá

younger brother
kal-gá

sister
da-ya-gua-dan'-no-di “brothers

6 sisters
ha-ah'-wuk
ka'-sih'

“ daughter-in-law
ka-ah-wuk

“ daughter
oc-nal-hosc

son-in-law
ha-ya'-da

grandson
ka-ya-da.

granddaughter ha-ya'-da

grandson ka-ya-da

granddaughter
ha-ya-wan-da

nephew
kal-sa

“ daughter-in-law
ka-ya'-wan-da

4 niece
OC-na-hosc

" son-in-law
ha-yil-da

" grandson ka-ya-da.

granddaughter ha-ya-da

grandson ka-yilda

* granddaughter ha-soh'-neh

"nepbew

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23 "

66 son

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« makan
* makal
66 pêrăn
u pêrtti
irandám pêrăn

pêrtti
“ mŭndam pêrán

pêrtti
u tamaiyán, baạnăn
“ akkárl, btámåkay
" tambi
“ tangaichebi, btangay
+ säkotbăree .

săkotharckal
16 măkán
* mărămakal
« makal
mărūmákån
« pêrăn

pêrtti
irandám pêrån

pertti.
* márúmåkan
46 mákål .
< má růmäkål
16 makan
n pêrån
« pôrtti
" Irandám pôrän

pôrtti
* mårimakan

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“ dau'ter-in-law & piece
“ daughter
" son-in-law & nephew
grandson
" granddaughter
« 2d grandson

granddaughter
nephew
“ daughter
16 piece

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Translation

VOL. VII.

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My daughter * niece

son
“ grandson
“ granddnughter
“ 2d grandson

granddaughter
son
“ dau'ter-in-law & niece
“ daughter

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66

Description of Persons. 40 My brother's son's wife 41

(female speaking) daughter

daughter's husband " 43 *

grandson

granddaughter 45

great-grandson
46 45

granddaughter
47 "

sister's son
48 €

son's wife 49 *

daughter 50 66

daughter's husband 51 "

grandson 52 *

granddaughter

great-grandson 64 65

granddaughter 55 66 father's brother

56

Kelationship in

Senoca-Iroquois.
ka'-sit
ka-soh'-neh
0C-na-hosc
ha-ya-da
ka-ya-da
ha-yil-da
ka-ya-da
ha-ah'-wuk
kal-så
ka-ah'-wuk
oc-na-bosc
ha-ya'-da
ka-yii'-da
ha-ya'-da
ka-ya'-da
hal-nih

66

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Translation. Relationship in Tamil. My daughter-in-law En måkål 65 niece

* mărūmåkal
son-in-law

makan
grandson
granddaughter

o pêrtti
"grandson

“ irandám pêran
"granddaughter

pertti
son

46 må kan
is daughter-in-law 1 mărúmåkál
daughter.

16 må kál « son-in-law

" makan "grandson

“ pêrăn “ granddaughter

" pertti
grandson

irandím pêran.
granddaughter

pertti
« father

periya ta k kappăn

« seriya
“ step-mother.
" elder brother “ támaiyán
younger brother

16 tambi
" sister-in-law “ maittuni (0.) anni (y.)
" elder sister

“ akkarl b, tamakay
younger sister

- tangaichchi b, tangay
« brother-in-law " maittănan
son

" makan
i nephew

( mặrùm kín daughter.

" mákal 66 niece

" már imákál
6 nephew

“ mărumåkan
* son

makan
66 niece

" márůmå kål “ daughter

" mákal " grandson

pêran “ granddaughter

pêrtti
66 aunt

" attai
" step-father

maman
16 cousin

"attan b, măittınăn 16 cousin

“ machchan " sister-in-law

tanguy « cousin

" maittuni it cousin

“ măchchi b, măchchărl brother-in-law

annan (o.) tambi (y.) SOD

" mărimåkan of nephew

1 ( mắkin

65

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ka'-gå

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grandson
granddaughter
“ 2d grandson

granddaughter
“ great-father (if older
" little-father(if younger

mother (th`n my fathr)
" elder brother
" younger brother
* cousin & sister-in-law
" elder sister
* younger sister
« broth'r-in-law & cous'n

son
- nephew
** daughter

piece
6 nephew

son
16 piece
« daughter
** grandson
6 granddaughter
6 aunt
** Uncle
+ cousin

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56

brother's wife 57 «

son (older than myself) 58 "

(younger than myself)
59 "

son's wife.
60) "
61

daughter (older than myself)
62 16

(younger than myself)

daughter's husband . 63 65

son's son

son
64

(male, speaking)

(female 65 «

daughter

(male 66

(female 67

daughter's son

(male
68

(female
69 6
70 66

daughter (male

(female 71

great-grandson
72 6

granddaughter
73 father's sister
74 «

sister's husband
75 "

son
76

(male speaking)

(female
77 "

son's wife
78

66
79

(male, speaking)

(female 80 6

daughter's husband 81

son's son 82

( male speaking) (female

)

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66

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ha-yal-o
ha-ah'-wuk
ba-sohl-neh
ka-ah'-wuk
ka-soh'-neh
ha-yål-wän-da
ha-ah'-wuk
ka-ya'-wän-da
ka-ah-wuk.
ha-yü'-da
ka-yä'-da
ah-ga'-huc
hoc-no-esc
ah-gáre'-seh
ah-gåre'-seh
ab-ge-ah-ne-ah
ah-gáre'-seh
ah-găre'-seh
ha-1-o'
ha-nhl-wuk
ha-soh'-beh

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“ younger sister

cousin

daughter

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84 66

.

66

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87 66
89
89
90 6

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64

92 6 93 "

son

Pemale Peaking

66

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96 «

83 My father's sister's son's daughter (male speaking)

(female 85

daughter's son (male 86 "

(female
daughter (male

(female
great-grandson

granddaughter
91
mother's brother
brother's wife

(male
94 “

)

(femalt
95

son's wife
daughter

( male speaking) 97

(female daughter's husband son's son

(male speaking)

(female

daughter (male
102

(female
103

daughter's son ( male

(female
105

daughter (male
106 66

(female 107 «

great-grandson 108

granddaughter mother's sister

ka-ah'-wuk
ka-soh'-neh
ha-ya'-wan-da
ha-ah'-wuk
ka yä'-wan-da
ka-ah'-wuk
ha-ya-da
ka-yä'-da
hoc-no-seh
ah-gå-ne-ah
ah ga re'-seh
ah-gåre'-seh
ah-ge-ah'-ne-ah
ah-parel-seh
ah-gare'-seh
ha-ya'-o
ha-ah'-wuk
ha-soh'-peh
ka-ah'-wuk
ka-soh'-neh
ha-yal-wän-da
ha-ah'-wuk
ka-ya'-win-da
ka-ah'-wuk
ha-ya-da
ka-ya-da
no-yeh'

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98 "
99
100 €
101 "

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. My daughter En mărūmåkal

My niece (i niece “6 måkal

“ daughter 6 nephew " makan

son " márůmăkan

“ nephew Bon 16 niece. " makal

“ daughter
“ daughter
mărūmå kål

" piece
grandson
16 pêră n

grandson
granddaughter
“ pertti

"granddaughter
uncle.
46 maman

« uncle
6 aunt-mother " máme

46 aunt
16 cousin
• 14ittănắn

it cousin
« cousin

« machchan
" sister-in-law.

younger sister
" tangay
« cousin
“ maittăni

" cousin
" cousin

máchcharl " brother-in-law annan (o.) tambi (y.)

“ elder or younger bro'r
" marămá kan

“ nephew
“ nephew
* makan

66 son
“ daughter
• márůmå kål

" niece
* niece
6 makal

" daughter
" nephew
"makan

6 son
son
“ márūmå kan

“ nephew
(6 piece
1 mákal

“ daughter
“ daughter
" måsůmå kål

« niece
grandson
" pêrán

grandson
granddaughter
“ pertti

bi granddaughter
u periyă tảy (if older than, mother, great or little
mother

66 sériya “(if y'r my m'er)
" step-father “ tak káppăn (P. or 8.) « father,
* elder brother “ tapiaiyán, b, annan

" elder brother
younger brother
" tambi

younger brother
“ sister-in-law t maitróni

“ sister-in-law & cousin
" elder sister " akkarl b, tămakay “ elder sister
younger sister
"i tanga ichchi, b, tangay

younger sister
" brother-in-law " maittŭpan

“ bro'r-in-law & cousin son

" makan “ nephew " marúmåkin

“ nephew · daughter " makal

“ daughter < piece “ márůmåkål

" piece
" nephew
“ márůmakán

" nephew
son
“ mákán

son
" piece
i márůmákál

" piece “ daughter * inakal

“ daughter " grandron ( Prắn

grandson granddaughter " pèrtti

granddaughter
grandfather "paddan (P. and 8.) " grandfather, g't or lit.
#fatber

" tak ktáppán (P. and 8.) " father, great or little

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110

sister's husband
111

son
112

(older than 113 "

son's wife 114 " 115 "

daughter (older than myself) 116 €

(younger 117 «

daughter's husband

son's son 118 "

(male speaking) 119 6

(female 121)

(male 121 46

(female 122 «

daughter's son

(male 1234

(female 124 "

daughter male 125 4

(female 126 «

great-grandson 127 «

granddaughter father's father's brother 128 «

brother's son.

66

daughter

hoc-no'-ce
hal-je
ha'-gá
ah-ge-ah-De-ah
ah'-je
| ka'-ga
ha-ya'-o.
ha-ah'-wuk
ha-Bohnen
ka ah-wuk
ka-soh'-neh
ha-yi-wån-da
ha-ah'-wuk
ka-ya'-win-da
ka-ah'-wuk
ba-ya-du
ka-ya-da
hoc sote
hal-nih

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