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ing to his promise raised unto Israel a Sa- is preached unto you the forgiveness of viour, Jesus:

sins: 24 "When John had first preached be- 39 And by him all that believe are justifore his coming the baptism of repentance fied from all things, from which ye could not to all the people of Israel.

be justified by the law of Moses. 25 And as John fulfilled his course, he 40 Beware therefore, lest that come said, "Whom think ye that I am? I am not upon you, which is spoken of in "the prohe. But, behold, there cometh one after phets ; me, whose shoes of his feet I am not worthy 41 Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and to loose.

perish: for I work a work in your days

, a 26 Men and brethren, children of the work which ye shall in no wise believe

, stock of Abraham, and whosoever among though a man declare it unto you. you feareth God, to you is the word of this 42° And when the Jews were gone out of salvation sent.

the synagogue, the Gentiles besought that 27 For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and these words might be preached to them their rulers, because they knew him not, nor **the next sabbath. yet the voices of the prophets which are 43 Now when the congregation was broken read every sabbath day, they have fulfilled up, many of the Jews and religious prosethem in condemning him.

lytes followed Paul and Barnabas : who, 28 "And though they found no cause of speaking to them, persuaded them to condeath in him, yet desired they Pilate that tinue in the grace of God. he should be slain.

44 | And the next sabbath day came 29 And when they had fulfilled all almost the whole city together to hear the that was written of him, they took him word of God. down from the tree, and laid him in a se- 45 But when the Jews saw the multitudes, pulchre.

they were filled with envy, and spake against 30 "But God raised him from the dead : those things which were spoken by Paul, 31 And he was seen many days of them contradicting and blaspheming. which came up with him from Galilee to 46 Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, Jerusalem, who are his witnesses unto the and said, It was necessary that the word of people.

God should first have been spoken to you: 32 And we declare unto you glad tidings, but seeing ye put it from you, and judge how that the promise which was made unto yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, the fathers,

we turn to the Gentiles. 33 God hath fulfilled the same unto us 47 For so hath the Lord commanded us their children, in that he hath raised up saying, "I have set thee to be a light of the Jesus again; as it is also written in the se- Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvacond psalm, "sThou art my Son, this day tion unto the ends of the earth. have I begotten thee.

48 And when the Gentiles heard this

, 34 And as concerning that he raised him they were glad, and glorified the word of up from the dead, now no more to return to the Lord: and as many as were ordained to corruption, he said on this wise, "I will give eternal life believed. you the sure "mercies of David.

49 And the word of the Lord was pub35 Wherefore he saith also in another lished throughout all the region. psalm, "Thou shalt not suffer thine Holy 50 But the Jews stirred up the devout One to see corruption.

and honourable women, and the chief men 36 For David, after he had served his of the city, and raised persecution against own generation by the will of God, fell on Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them out sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw of their coasts. corruption:

51 “But they shook off the dust of their 37 But he, whom God raised again, saw feet against them, and came unto Icono corruption.

nium. 38 | Be it known unto you therefore, 52 And the disciples were filled with joy, men and brethren, that through this man and with the Holy Ghost. just tungs: which word the Septuag., both in the place of Isa. 55. 3, and in many others, use for that wlich is in the Hebrex, seroch

Gr. in the week between, or, in the sabbath between,

11 Matt. 3. 1.

12 John l. 20.

13 Matt. 27.192.

14 Matt 28. 6.

. 1.

16 Isa, 55. 3.

17 Gr. Te iriu, kulg, er

18 Psal. 16. 10.

1 Hab, 1.5

19 Or, after he had in his own age served the will of God. 30 1 Kings 2. 10.

23 Isa. 49. 6.

* Matt. 10. 14.

Verse 1. “Simeon ... called Niger."—Nothing is known of this disciple. His surname, “Niger," means black; and hence it has been supposed that he was so called from his black or tawny complexion ; whence it is also supposed that he may have been a native of some part of Africa,

Lucius of Cyrene.”—This person is not usually supposed to be Luke the Evangelist, but probably the same as the “Lucius" of Rom. xvi. 21.

" Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrurch.”This must mean the Herod who, some years before, had been tetrarch of Galilee; but who, if still alive, was at this time in banishment. The word cúvagopos literally denotes, as here translated, “ brought up with ;” but its definite signification cannot here be determined with precision, since, like the phrase of translation, it is applied, 1. to a foster-brother, and so the Ethiopic here renders by

* the son of Herod's nurse,"—a very probable interpretation : 2. One who takes food with another: 3. One who is educated with another ; school-fellow. In thinking that the first is probably the meaning here to be preferred, it should be mentioned that the relation implied, is one far more intimate and endearing in the East than it usually is in Europe. This may partly arise from the length of the time during which the breast continues to be given to Oriental children.

4. “ Seleucia."- A city on the coast of Syria, near the mouth of the Orontes, and about twenty-four miles from Antioch. To distinguish it from other places of the same name, it was called Seleucia Pieria. It had its name from Seleucus Nicator, the first Greek king of Syria, by wbom it was founded.

Cyprus.”—This is well known as a large and important island of the Mediterranean, about 100 miles from the coast of Syria, and 60 from that of Cilicia in Asia Minor. It is about 200 miles in length, and 60 in its greatest breadth. Once it had many considerable cities, of which those mentioned in the text, Salamis and Paphos, were the chief: the former, which was situated on the eastern coast, was famous for its temple to ter; and the latter, at the opposite extremity of the island, was still more renowned for its temple dedicated to Venus. For the worship of this goddess, the whole island, and this city in particular, was renowned ; and hence her common and well-known titles of “Cyprian goddess” and “ Paphian goddess." This beautiful island was eminently fertile in all kinds of productions suited to its climate; and its wines were held in very high estimation. It has also been always noted for its redundant produce of corn, with which it has been enabled to supply other countries. At present Cyprus exhibits but the ruin of its former glory and beauty. The spontaneous fertility of its soil cannot be suppressed even by desolation and neglect; its olives, oranges, and vines, will still grow, combined even with the sugar-cane: but now not more than thirty thousand persons are found on this large and rich island, which once sustained a population of two millions.

7. The deputy of the country.”—The word rendered “ deputy” is kv@utatos, or proconsul. This has been objected to by infidels as a mistake, under the impression that Cyprus was not such a province as gave the title of proconsul to its governor. Many commentators have conceded this point, but suppose that Luke gave the higher title by way of compliment. This does not seem very likely. Lardner, however, ably vindicated the literal accuracy of the Evangelist, and produced a passage from Dion Cassius, in which this very title is given to the governor of Cypris. But to this it was again fairly enough objected, that, in the cited passage, Dion speaks at the same time of several Roman provinces, one of which was certainly governed by a proconsul ; and that, in the absence of other authority, it might be concluded that, for the sake of brevity, he used one term for all, whether it properly applied to all or not. The accuracy of Luke, even on this obscure and much disputed point, has now been most conclusively established by the discovery of a coin belonging to Cyprus, struck in the very age in which Sergius Paulus was governor of the island ; that is, in the reign of Claudius Cæsar, whose head and name are on the face of it; and it was in this reign that St. Paul visited the island. It was a coin belonging to the people of that island, as appears from the word KTIPINN on the reverse, and though not struck while Sergius Paulus himself was governor, the inscription upon the reverse shows that it was struck in the time of Proclus, who was next to Sergius Paulus in the government of the island. On this coin the very same title, ANOTIATOE, is given to Proclus which is given by St. Luke to Sergius Paulus. That Cyprus was a proconsulate is also evident from an ancient inscription of Caligula's reign (the predecessor of Claudius), in which Aquilius Scaura is called the “proconsul” of Cyprus. (See Lardner, vol. ii. pp. 51-54; Bishop Marsh's · Lectures,' as cited by Horne, vol. i. p. 195.)

8. Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation).”—That is to say, that “sorcerer," or more properly magus (págos), was the interpretation of the name or title, Elymas (from the Arabic Aliman, wise), which was a name given to the magi in Arabia. The word magus, which properly means a wise man, a man of science and learning (see the note on Matt. ii. 1), is used in a good or indifferent, and in a bad sense, in Scripture ; even as, in the use of our own language, “a wise man,” which in its proper sense is the highest of characters, does also, in a popular sense, denote a fortune-teller, one who professes to be acquainted with arts by which he can discern the secrets of the future. This last sense evidently comes from “ wizard” (wise-ard), a word of similarly equivocal import to “wise man," and together illustrating well the indefinite signification of the word magus, which means exactly the same thing in both

In Scripture the context must determine the sense ; and as Bar-jesus is not punished for being a magus, but for “ seeking to turn away a deputy from the faith,” we should not have known with certainty that he professed to be more than a man of learning and science, had we not previously been informed that he was “a false prophet."

9. Saul (who also is called Paul)."—Here the name of Paul is first given to the apostle, and by this name only he is always subsequently mentioned. As it occurs just here, it is thought by some that he took the name of Paul out of deference to the proconsul, his first illustrious convert. But in this we should discover nothing of the apostle's usual character; and, besides, Luke gives him this name before the conversion of the proconsul is noticed. We incline to think, according to our previous statement under John xx. 24, that being a native of Asia Minor, he always had two names, one among the Jews and the other among the Gentiles. That Saul was his Jewish name we know, and that Paul was his other name is probable, because any Greek name he might have borne, would have passed well enough among the Romans, without the necessity of his taking a third, Latin, name. That his original Gentile naine was the Roman one of Paul is also the more probable from his being born a Roman citizen, which privilege was likely to be indicated by his bearing a Roman name. The reasons for his now resuming it, would be the same as those which might have led him to assume it, had it not been previously borne by him ; which reasons are, on that supposition, thus stated by Doddridge: “I think Beza's account of the matter most easy and probable-that having conversed hitherto chiefly with Jews and Syrians, to whom the name of Saul was familiar, and now coming among Romans and Greeks, they would naturally pronounce his name Paul; as one whose Hebrew name was Jochanan would be called by the Greeks and Latins Johannes, by the French Jean, by the Dutch Hans, and by the English John. Beza thinks the family of the proconsul might be the first who addressed or spoke to him by the name of Paul.” This conjecture of Beza's is exceedingly probable. It is clear, however, that the reasons here stated must, according to the view we have

senses.

taken, equally have operated in procuring him the name of Paul before he left his native Tarsus, that city being chiefly inhabited by Greeks.

13. Perga in Pamphylia.—The province of Pamphylia was opposite the western extremity of Cyprus, where Paul embarked ; and occupied a central portion of the southern coast of Asia Minor, having on the east Paul's native province of Cilicia, and the small province of Lycia on the west. Perga was the chief town of Pamphylia, and is chiefly noticed by the ancients for a famous temple, dedicated to Diana, in whose honour a noted annual festival was there celebrated. It was situated, at some distance from the sea, upon the river Cestrus. D'Anville thinks it may be found in the Kara-Hisar, or Black Castle, of the Turks.

14. Antioch in Pisidia.—The province of Pisidia lay immediately behind Pamphylia, inland; and, consequently, northward. Its capital, Antioch, is named as Antioch in Pisidia, to distinguish it from sixteen other places of the same name in Syria, and particularly from the Syrian capital on the Orontes. Pliny says, that the present Antioch was also called Cæsarea. It appears to have been situated on the indefinite limits of Pisidia and Phrygia ; and we are not aware that its situation has been well ascertained, although D'Anville seems to think its site denoted by the Akshehr, or White City, of the Turks.

Sat down." - Lightfoot says, that if the elders of the synagogue had no other knowledge of Paul and Barnabas, they might have known they were preachers by their sitting down when they entered the synagogue, this being the practice of those who were accustomed to teach or preach.

15. If ye have any word of exhortation," &c.—Being strangers, they were not asked to read, as our Savion did in the synagogue of Nazareth. It was not usual .for any one to read in a synagogue of which he was not a member; and hence, although our Saviour taught in many synagogues, it does not appear that he ever read in any but that to which he belonged. The word of exhortation," or sermon, must not be confounded with such an exposition of Scripture as our Lord delivered on the occasion to which we have referred. It was a distinct matter, after the regular service had been finished. There was then almost always a discourse delivered by some competent person. There was no regular officer for the purpose ; but any properly qualified teacher, who happened to be present, was asked, or offered himself, to address the congregation. As the Jews residing in foreign parts had less abundant opportunities of obtaining instruction in this way than those in Judea, they were probably all the more anxious to avail themselves of such opportunities as offered of hearing such strangers as visited their synagogues. This will explain the character of the preseat application. .

!

CHAPTER XIV.

8 And there sat a certain man at Lys

tra, impotent in his feet, being a cripple i Paul and Barnabas are persecuted from Iconium.

8 At Lystra Paul healeth a cripple, whereupon from his mother's womb, who never had they are reputed as gods. 19 Paul is stoned. 21 walked : They pass through divers churches, confirming 9 The same heard Paul speak : who stedthe disciples in faith and patience. 26 Return- fastly beholding him, and perceiving that ing to Antioch, they report what God had done

he had faith to be healed, with them.

10 Said with a loud voice, Stand upright And it came to pass in Iconium, that they on thy feet. And he leaped and walked. went both together into the synagogue of 11 And when the people saw what Paul the Jews, and so spake, that a great multi- had done, they lifted up their voices, saytude both of the Jews and also of the Greeks ing in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are believed.

come down to us in the likeness of men. 2 But the unbelieving Jews stirred up 12 And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; the Gentiles, and made their minds evil and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the affected against the brethren.

chief speaker. 3 Long time therefore abode they speak- 13 Then the priest of Jupiter, which was ing boldly in the Lord, which gave testi. before their city, brought oxen and garlands mony unto the word of his grace, and grant- unto the gates, and would have done sacried signs and wonders to be done by their fice with the people. hands.

14 Which when the apostles, Barnabas 4 But the multitude of the city was di- and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, vided : and part held with the Jews, and and ran in among the people, crying out, part with the apostles.

15 And saying, Sirs, why do ye these 5 And when there was an assault made things? We also are men of like passions both of the Gentiles, and also of the Jews with you, and preach unto you that ye should with their rulers, to use them despitefully, turn from these vanities unto the living God, and to stone them,

which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, 6 They were ware of it, and fled unto

and all things that are therein: Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia, and 16 Who in times past suffered all nations unto the region that lieth round about :

to walk in their own ways. 7 And there they preached the Gospel. 17 Nevertheless he left not himself with

1 Gen. 1. 1. Psal. 146 6. Rerel. 14. 7.

* Psal. 81. 12.

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out witness, in that he did good, and gave and that we must through much tribulation us rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons, enter into the kingdom of God. filling our hearts with food and gladness. 23 And when they had ordained them

18 And with these sayings scarce re- elders in every church, and had prayed with strained they the people, that they had not fasting, they commended them to the Lord, done sacrifice unto them.

on whom they believed. 19 | And there came thither certain Jews 24 And after they had passed throughout from Antioch and Iconium, who persuaded Pisidia, they came to Pamphylia. the people, 'and, having stoned Paul, drew 25 And when they had preached the word him out of the city, supposing he had been in Perga, they went down into Attalia : dead.

26 And thence sailed to Antioch, from 20 Howbeit, as the disciples stood round whence they had been recommended to the about him, he rose up, and came into the grace of God for the work which they fulcity: and the next day he departed with filled. Barnabas to Derbe.

27 And when they were come, and had 21 And when they had preached the gathered the church together, they rehearsed Gospel to that city, and had taught many, all that God had done with them, and how they returned again to Lystra, and to Ico- he had opened the door of faith unto the nium, and Antioch,

Gentiles. 22 Confirming the souls of the disciples, 29 And there they abode long time with and exhorting them to continue in the faith, the disciples.

3 2 Cor. 11. 25.

Verse 1. “ Iconium."-This was the capital of the province of Lycaonia ; and must have been a place of some importance from this circumstance, as well as from being mentioned by Pliny, as the chief of fourteen cities in the tetrarchy of Lycaonia. It was situated upon the lake Trogilis, 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean; and still exists, under its old name in the form of Koniah, as one of the very first inland cities of Asiatic Turkey: being the capital of the extensive province of Caramania. It enjoys a fine climate, and is pleasantly situated in the midst of gardens and meadows; while, at some distance, it is nearly surrounded by mountains, which ascend to the regions of perpetual snow. Notwithstanding its having been the chief town of Lycaonia, Sir John Macdonald (Kinneir) suspects that it was not a place of much real consideration until after the taking of Nice, by the Crusaders, in 1099, when the Seljukian sultans of Roum chose it as their residence. These sultans rebuilt the walls and embellished the city. They were, however, expelled in 1189 by Frederic Barbarossa, who took it by assault; but after his death they recovered their capital, and reigned there in splendour, till the irruption of Ghengiz Khan and his grandson Hulokoo, who broke the power of the Seljukians. It has been included in the dominions of the Grand Seignior ever since the time of Bajazet. who finally expelled the Ameers” of Caramania. Under the Sultan it remained for a long the capital of an extensive government, and the seat of one of the most powerful pashas of the empire ; but of late years it has dwindled into comparative insignificance; and all travellers describe its aspect as one of desolation and decay. "The modern city,” says Kinneir, " has an imposing appearance, from the number and size of its mosques, colleges, and other pubic buildings; but these stately edifices are crumbling into ruins, while the houses of the inhabitants consist of a mixture of small huts, built of sun-dried bricks, and wretched hovels thatched with reeds." The city is about four miles is circumference; but much waste land is included within this limit. The wall, of this extent, was strengthened with upwards of a hundred square towers; which, however, are now allowed to moulder away, without any attempt being made to arrest the progress of their ruin.

6. Lystra and Derbe.”—Since Ptolemy places Lystra in Isauria, and Strabo says that Derbe was on the border of Isauria, while the evangelist places them in Lycaonia, it appears that they were upon the indeterminate frontier between the two districts. The small country of Isauria, which lay on the borders of Lycaonia and Pisidia, seems however to have been sometimes considered as a part of Lycaonia; in which sense, perhaps, Lystra and Derbe are here called cities of that province. The situation of the two towns is not distinctly known.

" Lycaonia.”—This province extended its length from Cilicia and Isauria, having Cappadocia on the east, Phrygia on the north-west, Pisidia on the west, and Cilicia, with the district of Isauria, on the south. It was sometimes considered a western province of Phrygia, and at other times a south-eastern one of Pisidia.

11. The speech of Lycaonia.”—Their dialect was probably a corrupt Greek intermixed with Syriac words.

12. They called Barnahas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius.”—Mercury was deemed the god of letters and eloquence. and was usually represented as an active young man: having therefore determined to consider that Paul and Barnabas were gods, it was natural enough that they should regard Paul, he being the younger and more eloqnent of the two, as Mercury. The appearance of Barnabas may probably, in like manner, have reminded the Lystrians of the appearance in which Jupiter was represented to them by painters and sculptors. This was as a venerable full-bearded per sonage, in the advanced prime of life, of grave countenance and majestic presence-not looking as one prone to speak, but as one whose mind was deeply concentrated on thoughts and purposes within ; and yet not so deeply as to be un observant of the outer world and its concerns. The ancient mythology is so full of accounts of the gods descending to the earth and walking ainong men in human forms, that, considering the miracle which had been wrought, the mistake of the Lystrians was not unnatural, when their conduct is viewed with reference to the prevailing notions of the time. When Jupiter appeared on earth, Mercury was usually represented as his attendant, which suggests another reason for their being associated on the present occasion.

13. " Garlands."- Commentators do not agree as to the purpose to which these “ garlands” were to be applied. As the idolaters used to put garlands on the head of their idol, before they offered sacrifice, some think that they were intended to be set on the heads of the apostles. But perhaps it is better to understand that the garlands were for the victims, whose heads and necks were generally thus decorated. Garlands were also worn by the sacrificers. They were, for the most part, made from such trees or plants as were esteemed most agreeable to the god who was the immediate object of worship

19. Having stoned Paul, drew him out of the city.”—There is an observable distinction between this stoning of Paul by the heathen, and the stoning of Stephen by the Jews. The latter hurried Stephen out of the city, and stoned him beyond the walls: the Lystrians, although they could not have been more excited against Paul than the Jews were against Stephen, stone him at once in the city, and afterwards drag forth his supposed corpse. These little characteristic differences deserve to be noticed.

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CHAPTER XV.

4 And when they were come to Jerusa1 Great dissension ariseth touching circumcision.

lem, they were received of the church, and 6 The apostles consult about it, 22 and send their of the apostles and elders, and they declared determination by letters to the churches, 36 Paul all things that God had done with them. and Barnabas, thinking to visit the brethren toge

5 But there rose up certain of the sect of ther, full at strife, and depart asunder.

the Pharisees which believed, saying, That And certain men which came down from it was needful to circumcise them, and to Judæa taught the brethren, and said, 'Ex- command them to keep the law of Moses. cept ye be circumcised after the manner of 6 | And the apostles and elders came Moses, ye cannot be saved.

together for to consider of this matter. 2 When therefore Paul and Barnabas 7 And when there had been much dishad no small dissension and disputation puting, Peter rose up, and said unto them, with them, they determined that Paul and Men and brethren, ye know how that a Barnabas, and certain other of them, should good while ago God made choice among us, go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear elders about this question.

the word of the Gospel, and believe. 3 And being brought on their way by

8 And God, which knoweth the hearts, the church, they passed through Phenice bare them witness, giving them the Holy and Samaria, declaring the conversion of Ghost, even as he did unto us; the Gentiles: and they caused great joy 9 And put no difference between us and unto all the brethren.

them, Spurifying their hearts by faith.

by

2 Chap. 10. 20, and 11. 13. 3 Chap. 10. 43. I Cor. 1. 2.

1 Galat. 5. 2.

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