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increased from 5,076 to 6,258. The leading trades in this subdivision are the freestone cutters, with 1,980 members; granite cutters, 773; stone cutters, 907. Over 80 per cent of the mem. bership is in New York City, which is to be credited with the entire increase in the year. The cement workers are scattered through 8 towns along the Hudson and have been losing ground, with respect to number of members, which in September stood at 710. The building and paving trades include all the skilled workmen and comprise about one-fourth (63,482) of the aggregate membership of all labor organizations in the State (276,141). The leading trade, carpenters and joiners, has 132 unions (118 in 1900) and 15,540 members (14,944 in 1900); then follow the painters and decorators with 68 unions and 10,082 members (in 1900, 48 and 9,783 respectively); brick layers and masons with 63 unions and 8,868 members (in 1900, 58 and 8,441) besides the stone masons; plumbers and gas fitters, 40 unions with 5,052 members (in 1900, 35 and 5,931); plasterers, 11 and 3,985 (in 1900, 7 and 3,000); housesmiths and architectural iron workers, 4 unions and 3,450 members, which is a loss of nearly 200; roofers and sheet metal workers, 26 unions and 2,887 members, nearly stationary; electrical workers, 33 unions and 2,174 members, an increase of 209. The building and street laborers have 43 unions (two less than in 1900) and a membership of 14,951, a gain of 1,551.

II. Clothing and Textile Industries. There are five subdivisions of this group: (1) garments, (2) hats, caps and furs, (3) boots, shoes, gloves, etc., (4) shirts, shirt waists and laundry, (5) textiles. The garment makers have 74 unions, a gain of 13, and a membership of 34,010, a gain of nearly 13,000, which is the increase credited to the entire group. This gain was all in New York City and occurred in the summer of 1901. The larger unions are those of the cloak makers, who have 8 organizations and a membership of 7,700 (a loss of 900); the tailors, who have 26 unions and a membership of 7,600, an increase of 5,300; the waist and wrapper makers, who have 3 unions and 5,900 mem. bers, a gain of 4,600; pants makers, who have 3 unions and 3,500 members, a gain of 1,000; clothing cutters, who have 7 unions

and 2,200 members, a gain of 700. There are 13 unions in the hat, cap and fur trades an increase of 1) with a membership of 1,936 (an increase of 350, mainly in New York City). The boot, shoe and glove trades have 21 unions (an increase of 5) with 2,599 members (a gain of 500, almost entirely among the glove makers of Gloversville and Johnstown). The shirt, collar and laundry workers have 20 unions (an increase of 5) with 1,681 members (a gain of 200). The textile workers have 22 unions (an increase of 21) and 1,657 members (a loss of 700, largely in Cohoes).

III. Metals, Machinery and Shipbuilding. In this group there was an increase of 31 unions and 4,291 members. The machinists gained 7 unions and 900 members; blacksmiths, 200; blast. furnace men, 200; boiler makers, 300; horseshoers, 200; machinists' helpers, 200; allied metal mechanics, a new organization, 400; while the foundry and machine shop laborers declined from 1,500 to 100 and the iron molders from 5,350 to 5,150, a loss of 200. The growth of smaller organizations counterbalanced these losses so that the iron and steel trades altogether gained 1,500 members. In the subdivision of “ Metals other than iron and steel” there was a decline of 400 (largely among New York City chandelier makers) which was partly made up by a new union of wire frame makers with 200 members. The stationary engineers gained 5 unions and 1,600 members (from 4,800 to 6,400); the marine engineers, 300; the stationary firemen, 300; and the marine firemen, 600, making a total increase of 6 unions and 2,800 members in the subdivision of "Engineers and fire.

In the subdivision of shipbuilding there was an increase of 1 union and 200 members (ship carpenters and calkers).

IV. Transportation.-In this group the increase in number of organizations was 35, of members, 3,517, distributed among the subdivisions thus: Railroads, 11 unions and 3,100 members; * street railways, 4 unions and 500 members; coach drivers and livery employees, loss of 1 union and 100 members; seamen and pilots, gain of 1,350 members; freight handlers, truckmen, etc., gain of 21. unions with a loss of 1,300 members. Of the indi

*

• The actual difference between the figures in last year's report and this is 3,800 ; but 700 members are accounted for by transfer of car builders and painters from Group IX.

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vidual trades the largest are the locomotive firemen, with 39 unions each year and a present membership of 4,050, an increase of 300; the street railway employees, 8 unions and 4,033 members, a gain of 500; longshoremen, with 18 unions (a gain of 5) and 4,000 members (a loss of 200); trainmen, 36 unions (loss of 1) and 3,844 members (an increase of 300); locomotive engineers, 38 unions and 3,489 members an increase of 130); seamen, 1 union with 2,900 members an increase of 1,300); car builders and repairers, 6 unions (an increase of 3) with 2,084 members (a gain of 1,600, chiefly in Buffalo); conductors, 22 unions (loss of 1 union) and 1,808 members (loss of 32); switchmen, 3 unions and 747 members (new); grain shovelers, 2 unions and 951 mem. bers (decline of 200); truckmen and team drivers, 29 unions (increase of 19) and 1,672 members (increase of 400).

V. Typographical Trades.—These trades gained 8 unions and 869 members, about equally divided between New York City and the interior. The compositors have 42 unions (gain of 7) and 7,911 members (increase of 300); the pressmen's assistants and press feeders, 5 unions (loss of 1) and 2,109 members (decline of 26); lithographers, 3 unions and 1,037 members (increase of 50); photo-engravers, 6 (gain of 2) with 939 members (increase of 250); pressmen, 10 unions and 1,948 members (increase of 60).

VI. Tobacco Trades.This group gained 2 unions but lost 2,139 members. The 2 unions of cigarette makers in New York City gained 100 members; the tobacco workers gained 1 new union (Utica) and 40 members; the 5 unions of cigar packers with 614 members lost only 100; but the cigar makers, who comprise most of the organized workers in the tobacco trade (46 unions and 8,531 members) lost 2,200 (700 male and 1,500 female members, in New York City).

VII. Food and Liquors.-While there was an increase of 17 unions in this group, the gain in membership was only 21. The brewery employees (including also a few workers in the mineral water business) have 58 unions (a gain of 9) and 4,851 members (a gain of nearly 400). The bakers and confectioners with 33 unions (a gain of 3) have 2,185 members, which is a decline of 400 (confined to New York City); the butchers with 22 unions

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(gain of 3) have 1,637 members, a loss of 250 (Buffalo); the cooks with 5 unions (gain of 2) have 722 members, an increase of 280 (new unions in Buffalo).

VIII. Theaters and Music.-This group of trades gained 6 unions and 1,990 members. The principal trades organized are the actors and the musicians; the actors have 3 unions and 3,202 members (increase of 50), the musicians 23 unions (increase of 7) and 7,147 members (increase of 1,900, of which 1,400 is in New York City). Stage mechanics with 8 unions have 1,001 members (increase of 18).

IX. Wood Working and Furniture.—This group of trades has been virtually stationary, having gained only 3 unions and 84 members. The leading trades are piano and organ workers (8 unions and 1,805 members,), machine wood working (15 unions and 1,628 members), cabinet makers (3 unions and 1,384 members), coopers (16 unions and 819 members), upholsterers (7 unions and 969 members) and wood carvers (6 unions and 665 members).

X. Restaurants and Retail Trade.—The trades under this head. ing have gained 27 unions and 1,501 members. The bartenders with 31 unions (increase of 9) have 2,213 members, a gain of over 700, and the clerks and salesmen with 27 unions (gain of 5) have 2,381 members (increase of 500); the ice handlers with 4 unions (increase of 2) have 322 members (gain of 130); milk peddlers, who are not all wage workers, but are recognized as laboring men by the trades councils, have 9 unions (increase of 5) and 810 members (gain of 220); the newsboys and bootblacks' organizations have disappeared from all the cities but Albany, where it has a membership of 24 (total loss of 325 in the trade).

XI. Public Employment.-In this class there are 23 additional organizations and 994 new members. Letter carriers have 60 unions (increase of 25) and 3,272 members (a gain of 350); dock builders with 1 union in New York City have 1,800 members (gain of 1,100); drivers and hostlers, with 3 unions have 447 members (loss of 100); post office clerks with 6 unions (decline of 1, Albany) have 956 members (a loss of 800, principally in

New York City); street cleaners with 3 unions have 1,205 members an increase of 600).

XII. Miscellaneous.-An increase of 1,655 members in this group is to be principally attributed to the organization of new trades. The glass workers with 15 organizations and 694 members have lost 6 unions and 340 members, but the barbers on the other hand with 33 unions and 1,788 members have gained 400. The paper makers, whose organization began in 1900, have made rapid progress and now have 11 unions (5 in 1900) and 510 members (185 in 1900); the tanners and curriers have also increased and now with 3 unions have 335 members as compared with 27 in 1900 (the gain being largely due to a new union in Gloversville-Johnstown); the organizations composed of workers at different trades (mixed employment) have 13 unions (gain of 1) and 1,949 members, an increase of 700.

The growth of 34 leading trades (comprising all that had over 2,000 members in 1901) is shown in the following table:

TABLE 3.
NUMBER AND MEMBERSHIP OF LEADING TRADE Usions 1894, 1900 AND 1961.

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Carpenters and joiners .............
Building and street labor..
Painters and decorators...
Brick layers and masons.... .......
Cigar makers.......
Compositors..................
Cloak makers ..................
Tallors.....................
Machinists ...........................
Musicians .......
Stationary engineers
Walst and wrapper makers
Iron molders
Plumbers and gas fitters
Malt liquors..............................
Firemen, locomotive...
Street railway employees ..................
Longsboremen
Plasterers .............................
Trainmen
Engineers, locomotive.........................
Pants makers ......
Housesmiths and architectural iron workers..
Letter carriers (post-ofice employees)
Actors ..............
Seamen.......
Roofers and sheet metal workers
Clerks and salesmen......................
Clothing cutters ..........................
Bartenders
Bakers and confectioners...........
Electrical workers..
Pressmen's assistants and press feeders.
Car builders and repairers

27

8 10 17 17 10

2 30 11 24 31 1

118
45
48
68
44
35

7
19
87
16
54

2 43 35 49 89

4 13

7 87 88

9,021 6,742 4,458 7,738 8,198 7,068 10,380 1,929 1,180 4,584 939

? 8,158 3,895 3,153 2,439 2,500

14,944 13,400 9,783 9,441 10,705 7,607 8,600 2,369 6,368 5,229 4,803 1,200 5,318 5,931 4,482 3,751 3,493 4,189 3,000 3,525 8,358 2,430 8,621 2,916 3,155 1,600 2,893 1,899 1,510 1,466 2,559 1,965 2,135

425

23
59

3
42
40
58
39

8 18 11 86 88 3 4 60 8 1 26 27

7 81 33 18 5 6

15,540 14,951 10,082 8,868 8,531 7,911 7,700 7,656 7,293 7,147 6,412 5,869 5,151 5,052 4,831 4,050 4,033 3,999 3,985 3,844 3,489 3,487 8,450 3,272 8,202 2,900 2,887 2,331 2,254 2,213 2,185 2,174 2,109 2,084

29
34

2,703
1,521
3,241
4,377

450
1,183

893 5,000 1,854

2
2

157

8 4 7 5 19 2

85
8
1
27
22

6
14
80
15
6
8

8,454

363 1,864

666

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