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the office of the clerk of the county where such building is located a certificate of such election signed and acknowledged by the highest two officers thereof, stating the time and place of the election, its regularity, the name of the trustee, and the name of the body from which he was elected. The trustees so elected shall make, acknowledge and file a certificate stating the name of the corporation to be formed, its purposes and objects, the names and places of residence of the trustees, the names of the bodies which they respectively represent, and the name of the town, village or city where such building is to be located; and thereon such trustees and their successors shall be a corporation for the purposes specified in such certificate. [As amended by L. 1898, chaps. 46 and 464, and L. 1902, ch. 390.]

Preventing Fraudulent Representation in Labor Organizations.

LAWS OF 1898, CH. 671.

AN ACT to prevent fraudulent representation in labor organizations. Section 1. Any person who represents himself or herself to be a member of, or who claims to represent a labor organization which does not exist within the state, at the time of such representation, or who has in his or her possession a credential, certificate or letter of introduction bearing a fraudulent seal, or bearing the seal of a labor organization which has ceased to exist, and does not exist at the time of such representation, and attempts to gain admission by the use of said credential, certificate or letter of introduction, as a member of any convention, or meeting of reppresentatives of labor organizations of the state, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be punishable by a fine of not less than twenty dollars nor more than fifty dollars, and imprisonment for not less than ten days nor more than thirty days in the jail of the county wherein such conviction is had, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

§ 2. This act shall take effect immediately.

Unlawful to Compel Employes to Agree Not to Join Labor Organizations.

PENAL CODE: LAWS OF 1881, CHAP. 676.

§ 171A. Any person or persons, employer or employers of labor, and any person or persons of any corporation or corporations, on behalf of such corporation or corporations, who shall hereafter coerce or compel any person or persons, employee or employees, laborer or mechanic, to enter into an agreement, either written or verbal, from such person or persons, employe, laborer or mechanic, not to join or become a member of any labor organization, as a condition of such person or persons securing employment or continuing in the employment of any such person or persons, employer or employers, corporation or corporations, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. The penalty for such misdemeanor shall be imprisonment in a penal institution for not more than six months, or by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment. [Added by L. 1887, ch. 688.]

Illegal Combinations, Coercion, Etc.

PENAL CODE: LAWS OF 1881, CHAP. 676.

§ 168. Conspiracy defined.-If two or more persons conspire, either 1. To commit a crime; or

5. To prevent another from exercising a lawful trade or calling, or doing any other lawful act, by force, threats, intimidation or by interfering or threatening to interfere with tools, implements or property belonging to or used by another, or with the use or employment thereof; or,

6. To commit any act injurious to the public health, to public morals, or to trade or commerce, or for the perversion or obstruction of justice, or of the due administration of the laws;

Each of them is guilty of a misdemeanor.

§ 169. Conspiracies against peace, etc.-If two or more persons, being out of this state, conspire to commit any act against the peace of this state, the commission or attempted commission of which, within this state, would be treason against the state, they are punishable by imprisonment in a state prison not exceeding ten years.

170. No other conspiracies punishable.-No conspiracy is punishable criminally unless it is one of those enumerated in the last two sections, and the orderly and peaceable assembling or co-operation of persons employed in any calling, trade or handicraft for the purpose of obtaining an advance in the rate of wages or compensation, or of maintaining such rate, is not a conspiracy.

§ 653. Coercing another person, etc.-A person, who with a view to compel another person to do or to abstain from doing an act which such other person has a legal right to do or to abstain from doing, wrongfully and unlawfully,

1. Uses violence or inflicts injury upon such other person or his family, or a member thereof, or upon his property, or threatens such violence or injury; or

2. Deprives any such person of any tool, implement, or clothing, or hinders him in the use thereof; or

3. Uses or attempts the intimidation of such person by threats or force; Is guilty of a misdemeanor.

§ 673. Endangering life by refusal to labor.-A person who willfully and maliciously, either alone or in combination with others, breaks a contract of service of hiring, knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the probable consequence of his so doing will be to endanger human life, or to cause grievous bodily injury, or to expose valuable property to destruction or serious injury, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

§ 675. Relating to disorderly conduct on public conveyances.-Any person who shall by any offensive or disorderly act or language, annoy or interfere with any person or persons in any place or with the passengers

of any public stage, railroad car, ferry boat, or other public conveyance, or who shall disturb or offend the occupants of such stage, car, boat or conveyance, by any disorderly act, language or display, although such act, conduct or display may not amount to an assault or battery, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who wilfully and wrongfully commits any act which seriously injures the person or property of another or which seriously disturbs or endangers the public peace or health, or which openly outrages public decency, for which no other punishment is expressly prescribed by this code, is guilty of a misdemeanor; but nothing in this code contained shall be so construed as to prevent any person from demanding an increase of wages, or from assembling and using all lawful means to induce employers to pay such wages to all persons employed by them as shall be a just and fair compensation for services rendered. amended by L. 1891, ch. 327.]

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The "Anti-Pinkerton" Act: Prohibiting the Appointment of NonResidents as Special Officers to Preserve the Public Peace.

PENAL CODE: LAWS OF 1881, CHAP. 676.

§ 119. Making arrests, etc., without lawful authority.-No sheriff of a county, mayor of a city, or officials, or other person authorized by law to appoint special deputy sheriffs, special constables, marshals, policemen, or other peace officers in this state, to preserve the public peace or quell public disturbance, shall hereafter, at the instance of any agent, society, association or corporation, or otherwise, appoint as such special deputy, special constable, marshal, policemen, or other peace officer, any person who shall not be a citizen of the United States and a resident of the state of New York, and entitled to vote therein at the time of his appointment, and a resident of the same county as the mayor or sheriff or other official making such appointment; and no person shall assume or exercise the functions, powers, duties or privileges incident and belonging to the office of special deputy sheriff, special constables, marshal or policemen or other peace officer, without having first received his appointment in writing from the authority lawfully appointing him. Any person or persons who shall, in this state, without due authority, exercise, or attempt to exercise the functions of, or hold himself out to any one as a deputy sheriff, marshal or policeman, constable or peace officer, or any public officer, or person pretending to be a public officer, who, unlawfully, under the pretense or color of any process, arrests any person or detains him against his will, or seizes or levies upon any property, or dispossesses any one of any lands or tenements without a regular process therefor, or any person who knowingly violates any other provision of this section, is guilty of a misdemeanor. But nothing herein contained shall be deemed to affect, repeal or abridge the powers authorized to be exercised under sections one hundred and two, one hundred and four, one hundred and sixtynine, one hundred and eighty-three, eight hundred and ninety-five, eight hundred and ninety-six and eight hundred and ninety-seven of the code of criminal procedure; or under chapter three hundred and forty-six of the laws of eighteen hundred and sixty-three, as amended by chapter two hundred and fifty-nine of the laws of eighteen hundred and sixty-six, and

chapter one hundred and ninety-three, of the laws of eighteen hundred and seventy-five; or under chapter two hundred and twenty-three of the laws of eighteen hundred and eighty; or under chapter five hundred and twenty-seven of the laws of eighteen hundred and seventy-three; or under chapter two hundred and five of the laws of eighteen hundred and seventyfive; but all places kept for summer resorts and the grounds of racing associations in the counties of New York, Kings and Westchester, are hereby exempted from the provisions of this act. [As amended by L. 1892, ch. 272.]

Conductors and Trainmen as Policemen.

LAWS OF 1890, CHAPTER 565, BEING THE RAILROAD LAW AND CONSTITUTING CHAPTER XXXIX OF THE GENERAL LAWS.

§ 58. When conductors and brakemen may be policemen.-The governor may appoint any conductor or brakeman on any train conveying passengers on any steam railroad in this state, a policeman, with all the powers of a policeman in cities and villages, for the preservation of order and of the public peace, and the arrest of all persons committing offenses upon the land or property of the corporation owning or operating such railroad; and he may also appoint, on the application of any such corporation, or of any steamboat company, such additional policemen, designated by it, as he may deem proper, at any station or upon any steamboat navigating the waters of this state, who shall have the same powers, but not more than one at any one station, or upon any such steamboat. Every such policeman shall within fifteen days after receiving his commission, and before entering upon the duties of his office, take and subscribe the constitutional oath of office, and file it with his commission in the office of the secretary of state, who shall thereupon transmit to the county clerk of each county in which such policeman is authorized to act, a certificate, under his hand and official seal, setting forth the appointment and the filing of the commission and oath, which certificate shall be filed by the county clerk. Every such policeman shall when on duty wear a metallic shield, with the words "railway police" "steamboat police" as the case may be, and the name of the corporation for which appointed inscribed thereon, which shall always be worn in plain view, except when employed as a detective. The compensation of every such policeman shall be such as may be agreed upon between him and the corporation for which he is appointed, and shall be paid by the corporation. When any corporation shall no longer require the services of any such policeman they may file notice to that effect in the several offices in which notice of his appointment was originally filed, and thereupon such appointment shall cease and be at an end. [As amended by L. 1899, ch. 539.]

MISCELLANEOUS ACTS.
The Liability of Employers.

LAWS OF 1902, CHAP. 600.

AN ACT to extend and regulate the liability of employers to make compensation for personal injuries suffered by employees.

Section 1. Where, after this act takes effect, personal injury is caused to an employee who is himself in the exercise of due care and diligence at the time:

1. By reason of any defect in the condition of the ways, works or machinery connected with or used in the business of the employer which arose from or had not been discovered or remedied owing to the negligence of the employer or of any person in the service of the employer and entrusted by him with the duty of seeing that the ways, works or machinery were in proper condition;

2. By reason of the negligence of any person in the service of the employer entrusted with and exercising superintendence whose sole or principal duty is that of superintendence, or in the absence of such superintendent, of any person acting as superintendent with the authority or consent of such employer; the employee, or in case the injury results in death, the executor or administrator of a deceased employee who has left him surviving a husband, wife or next of kin, shall have the same right of compensation and remedies against the employer as if the employee had not been an employee of nor in the service of the employer nor engaged in his work. The provisions of law relating to actions for causing death by negligence, so far as the same are consistent with this act, shall apply to an action brought by an executor or administrator of a deceased employee suing under the provisions of this act.

§ 2. No action for recovery of compensation for injury or death under this act shall be maintained unless notice of the time, place and cause of the injury is given to the employer within one hundred and twenty days and the action is commenced within one year after the occurrence of the accident causing the injury or death. The notice required by this section shall be in writing and signed by the person injured or by some one in his behalf, but if from physical or mental incapacity it is impossible for the person injured to give notice within the time provided in said section, he may give the same within ten days after such incapacity is removed. In case of his death without having given such notice, his executor or administrator may give such notice within sixty days after his appointment, but no notice under the provisions of this section shall be deemed to be invalid or insufficient solely by reason of any inaccuracy in stating the time, place or cause of the injury if it be shown that there was no intention to mislead and that the party entitled to notice was not in fact misled thereby. The notice required by this section shall be served on the employer or if there is more than one employer, upon one of such employers, and may be served by delivering the same to or at the resi

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