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may, at their own expense, and under the direction of the keeper, be supplied with any other proper articles of food. Such keeper shall cause each prisoner committed to his jail for imprisonment under sentence, to be constantly employed at hard labor when practicable, during every day, except Sunday, and the board of supervisors of the county, or judge of the county, may prescribe the kind of labor at which such prisoner shall be employed; and the keeper shall account, at least annually, with the board of supervisors of the county, for the proceeds of such labor. Such keeper may, with the consent of the board of supervisors of the county, or the county judge, from time to time, cause such of the convicts under his charge as are capable of hard labor, to be employed outside of the jail in the same, or in an adjoining county, upon such terms as may be agreed upon between the keepers and the officers, or persons, under whose direction such convicts shall be placed, subject to such regulations as the board or judge may prescribe; and the board of supervisors of the several counties are authorized to employ convicts under sentence to confinement in the county jails, in building and repairing penal institutions • of the county and in building and repairing the highways in their respec

tive counties or in preparing the materials for such highways for sale to and for the use of such counties or towns, villages, and cities therein; and to make rules and regulations for their employment; and the said board of supervisors are hereby authorized to cause money to be raised by taxation for the purpose of urnishin materials and carrying this provision into effect; and the courts of this state are hereby authorized to sentence convicts committed to detention in the county jails to such hard labor as may be provided for them by the boards of supervisors. [As amended by L. 1896, ch. 826.]

Employment of Prisoners in New York City Penal Institutions.

LAWS OF 1901, CHAP. 466 (THE NEW YORK CHARTER). $ 700. Employment of inmates; articles manufactured; cultivation of lands.--Every inmate of an institution under the charge of the commissioner, whose age and health will permit, shall be employed in quarrying or cutting stope, or in cultivating land under the control of the commissioner, or in manufacturing such articles as may be required for ordinary use in the institutions under the control of the commissioner, or for the use of any department of The City of New York, or in preparing and building sea walls upon islands or other places belonging to The City of New York upon which public institutions now are or may hereafter be erected, or in public works carried on by any department of the city, or at such mechanical or other labor as shall be found from experience to be suited to the capacity of the individual. The articles raised or manufactured by such labor shall be subject to the order of and shall be placed under the control of the commissioner, and shall be utilized in the institutions under his charge or in some other department of the city. All the lands under the jurisdiction of the commissioner not otherwise occupied or utilized, and which are capable of cultivation shall in the discretion of the commissioner be used for agricultural purposes.

§ 701. Detail of inmates to work in other departments.-At the request of any of the heads of the administrative departments of The City of New York (who are hereby empowered to make such request) the commissioner of correction may detail and designate any inmate or inmates of any of the institutions in the department of correction to perform work, labor and services in and upon the grounds and building or in and upon any public work or improvement under the charge of such other department. And such inmates when so employed shall at all times be under the personal oversight and direction of a keeper or keepers from the department of correction, but no inmate of any correctional institution shall be employed in any ward of any hospital, except hospitals in penal institutions, while such ward is being used for hospital purposes. The provisions of this act or of law requiring advertisement for bids or proposals, or the awarding of contracts, for work to be done or supplies to be furnished for any of said departments shall not be applicable to public work which may be done or to the supplies which may be furnished under the provisions of the prison law.

8 702. Hours of labor; discipline.--The hours of labor required of any inmate of any institution under the charge of the commissioner shall be fixed by the commissioner.

*

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION, Providing for the Indenturing of Apprentices. LAWS OF 1896, CHAPTER 272, BEING THE DOMESTIC RELATIONS LAW AND

CONSTITUTING CHAPTER 48 OF THE GENERAL LAWS.

ARTICLE VII.

Apprentices and Servants.*

Section 70. Definitions; effect of article.

71. Contents of indenture.
72. Indenture by minor.
73. Indenture by poor officers.
74. Indenture by charitable corporations.
75. Penalty for failure of master or employer to perform provisions of indenture.
76. Assignment of indenture on death of master or employer.
77. Contract with apprentice in restraint of trade void.

§ 70. Definitions; effect of article.—The instrument whereby a minor is bound out to serve as a clerk or servant in any trade, profession or employment, or is apprenticed to learn the art or mystery of any trade or craft, is an indenture. Every indenture made in pursuance of the laws repealed by this chapter shall be valid hereunder, but hereafter a minor shall not be bound out or apprenticed except in pursuance of this article.

$ 71. Contents off indenture.—Every indenture must contain: 1. The names of the parties;

2. The age of the minor as nearly as can be ascertained, which age on the filing of the indenture shall be taken prima facie to be the true age;

3. A statement of the nature of the service or employment to which the minor is bound or apprenticed;

4. The term of service or apprenticeship, stating the beginning and end thereof;

5. An agreement that the minor will not leave his master or employer during the term for which he is indentured;

6. An agreement that suitable and proper board, lodging and medical attendance for the minor during the continuance of the term shall be provided, either by the master or employer, or by the parent or guardian of the apprentice. (As amended by L. 1899, ch. 448.]

7. A statement of every sum of money paid or agreed to be paid in relation to the service;

8. If such minor is bound as an apprentice to learn the art or mystery of any trade or craft, an agreement on the part of the employer to teach, or cause to be carefully and skillfully taught, to such apprentice, every branch of the business to which such apprentice is indentured, and that at the expiration of such apprenticeship he will give to such apprentice

*The enforcement of this law rests upon the Commissioner of Labor. See section 67 of the Labor Law. Consents to " in original.

a certificate, in writing, that such apprentice has served at such trade or craft a full term of apprenticeship specified in such indenture;

9. If a minor is indentured by the poor officers of a county, city or town, or by the authorities of an orphan asylum, penal or charitable institution, an agreement that the master or employer will cause such child to be instructed in reading, writing and the general rules of arithmetic, and that at the expiration of the term of service he will give to such minor a new bible.

Every such indenture shall be filed in the office of the county clerk of the county where the master or employer resides.

$ 72. Indenture by minor; by whom signed.—Any minor may, by the execution of the indenture provided by this article, bind himself or herself:

1. As an apprentice to learn the art or mystery of any trade or craft for a term of not less than three nor more than five years; or

2. As a servant or clerk in any profession, trade or employment for a term of service not longer than the minority of such minor, unless such indenture be made by a minor coming from a foreign country, for the purpose of paying his passage, when such indenture may be made for a term of one year although such term may extend beyond the time when such person will be of full age.

An indenture made in pursuance of this section must be signed, 1. By the minor;

2. By the father of the minor unless he is legally incapable of giving consent or has abandoned his family;

3. By the mother of the minor unless she is legally, incapable of giving consent;

4. By the guardian of the person of the minor, if any;

5. If there be neither parents or* guardians of the minor legally capable of giving consent, by the county judge of the county or a justice of the supreme court of the district, in which the minor resides; whose consent shall be necessary to the binding out or apprenticing in pursuance of this section of a minor coming from a foreign country or of the child of an Indian woman, in addition to the other consents herein provided;

6. By the master or employer.

8 73. Indenture by poor officers; by whom signed.—The poor officers of a municipal corporation may, by an execution of the indenture provided by this article, bind out or apprentice any minor whose support shall become chargeable to such municipal corporation.

In such case the indenture shall be signed,
1. By the officer or officers binding out or apprenticing the minor;
2. By the master or employer;

3. By the county judge of the county, if the support of such child was chargeable to the county, by two justices of the peace, if chargeable to the town, or by the mayor and aldermen or any two of them, if chargeable to the city.

The poor officers by whom a child is indentured and their successors in office, shall be guardians of every such child and shall inquire into the treatment thereof, and redress any grievance as provided by law.

So in original.

$ 74. Indenture by a charitable corporation; by whom signed.—Where an orphan asylum or charitable institution is authorized to bind out or apprentice dependent or indigent children committed to its charge, every such child shall, when practicable, be bound out or apprenticed to persons of the same religious faith as the parents of such child, and the indenture shall in such case be signed,

1. In the corporate name of such institution by the officer or officers thereof authorized by the directors to sign the corporate name to such instrument, and shall be sealed with the corporate seal;

2. By the master or employer; and
3. May be signed by the child, if over twelve years of age.

$ 75. Penalty for failure of master or employer to perform provisions of indenture.--If a master or employer to whom a minor has been indentured shall fail, during the term of service, to perform any provision of such indenture, on his part, such minor or any person in his behalf may bring an action against the master or employer to recover damages for such failure; and if satisfied that there is sufficient cause, the court shall direct such indenture to be canceled, and may render judgment against such master or employer for not to exceed one thousand nor less than one hundred dollars, to be collected and paid over for the use and benefit of such minor to the corporation or officers indenturing such minor, if so indentured, and otherwise, to the parents or guardian of the child.

§ 76. Assignment of indenture on death of master or employer.-On the death of a master or employer to whom a person is indentured by the poor officers of a municipal corporation, the personal representatives of the master or employer may, with the written and acknowledged consent of such person, assign such indenture and the assignee shall become vested with all the rights and subject to all the liabilities of his assignor; or if such consent be refused, the assignment may be made with like effect by the county judge of the county, on proof that fourteen days' notice of the application therefor has been given to the person indentured, to the officers by whom indentured, and to his parent or guardian, if in the country.

$ 77. Contracts with apprentices in restraint of trade void.-No person shall accept from any apprentice any agreement or cause him to be bound by oath, that after his term of service expires, he will not exercise his trade, profession or employment in any particular place; nor shall any person exact from any apprentice, after his term of service expires, any money or other thing, for exercising his trade, profession or employment in any place. Any security given in violation of this section shall be void; and any money paid, or valuable thing delivered, for the consideration, in whole or in part, of any such agreement or exaction, may be recovered back by the person paying the same with interest; and every person accepting such agreement, causing such obligation to be entered into, or exacting money or other thing, is also liable to the apprentice in the penalty of one hundred dollars, which may be recovered in a civil suit.

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