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MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL:

TRANSACTIONS

OF THE

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY,

AND

I RECORD OF HISTOLOGICAL RESEARCH

AT HOME AND ABROAD.

EDITED BY

HENRY LAWSON, M.D., F.R.M.S.,
Assistant Physician to, and Lecturer on Physiology in, St. Mary's Hospital.

VOLUME VI.

20

LONDON:
ROBERT HARDWICKE, 192, PICCADILLY, W.

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THE MONTHLY
Microscopical Journal:

TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY,

AND
RECORD OF HISTOLOGICAL RESEARCH.

EDITED BY
HENRY LAWSON, M.D., F.R.M.S.,
ASSISTANT PHYSICIAN TO, AND LECTURER ON HISTOLOGY IN, ST. MARY'S HOSPITAL

The MONTHLY MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL' commands a large and increasing circulation in England, the Continent, and America, and is devoted exclusively to the interests of Microscopical Science in the widest and most accurate sense of the term. The articles requiring illustration are accompanied by most carefully-drawn Plates, executed by the best artists.

Published Monthly, price 18. 6d.; Annual Subscription, including postage: 198. 6d.

London : ROBERT HARDWICKE, 192, PICCADILLY, W.

GEOLOGY. ELEMENTARY COLLECTIONS to illustrate the modern works on Geology, and facilitate the interesting study of Mineralogy and Geology, can be had at 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, to 1000 guineas; also single specimens of Minerals, Rocks, Fossils, and Recent Shells, Geological Maps, Hammers, Models of Gold Nuggets, all the recent publications, &c., of J. TENNANT, Mineralogist to Her Majesty, 149, Strand, London, W.C.

« We do not hesitate to say that by a careful use of
PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION is given in this book a sound knowledge of the theoretical portion
MINERALOGY and GEOLOGY, by Mr. TENNANT, I of botany may be obtained without tedious labour.”-
F.R.G.S., at 149, Strand, Models, Diagrams, &c.

Mining Journal.
Illustrated by numerous Specimens.

| London : ROBERT HARDWICKE, 192, Piccadilly, W.

A MANUAL OF BOTANIC TERMS.

By M. C. COOKE.
With more than 300 Illustrations.

Fcap. 8vo, cloth, price 28. 6d.

DR. LANKESTER ON FOOD, AND ON THE USES OF ANIMALS,

in Relation to the Industry of Man.
A Course of Lectures delivered at the South Kensington Museum. By E. LANKESTER, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S.

Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. 750, fully illustrated, price 58.
Water.
Flesh-formers-Animal food.

Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate.
Salt-Mineral Food.
Alcohol-Wines, Spirits, and Beer,

Tobacco and Opium.
Heat-givers-Oil, Butter, Fat.

Condiments and Spices.
Silk.
Bone.

Sponges and Corals. Furs
Wool.
Soap.

Shell-fish.

Feathers, Horns, and Hair. Leather. Waste.

Insects.

Animal Perfumes. " Full of sound science, curious anecdotes, and quaint illustration. Dr. Lankester has a singular power of illustrative keenness; and in the discursive lessons which he delivers on so many subjects, there is an overflowing wealth of minute collateral information which is always brought to the level of the last achievements of science." Lancet.

London: ROBERT HARDWICKE, 192, PICCADILLY, W.

THE

MONTHLY MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL.

JULY 1, 1871.

I.On Bog Mosses. By R. BRAITHWAITE, M.D., F.L.S.
(Read before the Royal MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, June 7, 1871.)

Part I. FOR a considerable time the plants known as bog mosses have attracted attention, not only by the masses in which they are found growing, but by their peculiarity of structure, and the difficulty of finding characters by which to establish the species, for the varieties are endless, and such a common facies is impressed on the whole group that Linnæus regarded them all as one species, which he named Sphagnum palustre. In our own time, however, the careful use of the microscope has revealed to us their wonderful organization, and enabled us to establish many species.

Up to the publication of Professor Schimper's magnificent treatise,* the bog mosses had been universally associated with the other mosses in one class, but in that work they are placed apart, and

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XC. Fig. 1.-Prothallium with young plant. , 2.-Sphagnum cymbifolium. Vertical section of stem passing also through two

leaves, and the base of a branch fascicle. , 3.- Ditto. Transverse section. These show the pith, the woody cylinder,

and the four layers of bark cells. ... 4.-Cells of pith,

5.-Ditto of wood. 6.-Ditto of bark. 7.-Cells of a branch leaf of S. cymbifolium. 7x.—Transverse section of a leaf of S. squarrosum. , 8.-Cells of a branch leaf of S. acutifolium, seen from the back.

82.-Transverse section of same. ,, 9.-Male flower catkin of S. cymbifolium. ,, 10.-Ripe antheridium with paraphyses. „ 11.- Vertical section of a capsule still enclosed in the calyptra. c, calyptra ;

$, cavity of sporangium; P, pedicel of capsule enveloped by the

vaginula. (Fig. 1 from a specimen lent by Mr. Howse, the rest from Schimper's work.)

* " Entwickelungs-geschichte der Torfmoose,' 1858. VOL. VI.

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