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26 Those who knew their Duty, and condemned the Crimes of others, Seet. To this Revelation let us give the mostattentive Heed, and be much upon

our Guard againft those vain and sophistical Reasonings, to which they, who knowing God, negle& to glorify.bin as GOD, are so ready to fly;

left we approve ourselves Fools in Proportion to the Degree in which we Ver. 28. profess to be Wife, and provoke God to give us up to an injudicious Mind,

and to leave us to that reciprocal Influence which evil Principles, and evil Actions have, to render each other more inveterate and incurable.

Ver. 21.
Ver. 22.

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The Apostle discourses

. more particularly of those who; knew their Duty, and get acted cantrary to it; and of the Condemnation they muft -expect from GOD; that so might properly introduce the particular Charge he had to advance against the Jews, as, above all others, answering that Cham ratter. Rom. II. 1,---16.

Sect. 4.


I HAVE just been {peaking of the great and Therefore thou art inex-

aggravated Guilt of those, who not only do foever thou art that judgeft: Rom. II. I. Things which they know to be displeasing to

Far GOD, and evil in themselves, but also agree together to countenance those that do them. And it may be, some who know they are not of that Number (a), but, on one Principle or another, bear their Testimony against the prevailing Immoralities of those about them, may imagine themselves secure and happy. I must, therefore, argue from the Premises just laid down, that thou art inexcusable, Ob Man, whosoever thou art that judgeft, and pretendest to pass Sentence ypon


(a) Some who know that they are not of that Number.] There is a greater Delicacy in the Apostle's Transition here, than moft Commentators have imagined." From what he had before faid, to prove the most abandoned and ignorant of the Heathens inexcusable in their Wickedness, he justly. infers, that the Crimes of those who had such Knowledge of the Truth as to condemn the Vices of others, were proportionably yet more inexcusable. This was eminently the Case with the Jews : But he does not directly fpeak of them till the gth Verse; but draws the Inference at first, in such general Terms, as might also comprehend Gentili Philaföphers, and all others, who contradicted the moral Instructions which they themselves gave.

(6) Doft



And 3

Bill more inexcusable in their Disobedience to GOD. For: wherein thou judgest others : For I know what the Character of such Sect. 4. another, thou condemneft thyself; for thou that judgeft, them all have their Blemishes and Faults ; and generally is, and I know that the best of


Rom. I. 1, soft the fame Things.

therefore I may say, that wherein thou judgest ano-
ther, thou' condemnest thy self; for thou who judgest,
dost the same Things in many Instances (6), and

consequently art convicted out of thine own
2 But we are sure that Mouth. For we know in general, that the
the Judgment of God is ac-
cording to Truth, against Judgment of GOD is according to Truth, and Justice,
them which commit such against all those who do fuch. Things, however they

3 And thinkest thou this, may behave towards their Fellow Sinners. o Man, that judgest them canst thou then, by the Sentence which thou which do such”Things, and paffest upon others, think to evade that which doft the same, that thou goeth forth against thy self ? Or reasones thou thalt escape the Judgment of thus, Oh Man, whosoever thou art, whether Pa. God?


Philofopher or Jewish Teacher, who judget those that do such Things, while thou doeft them thy

self, that thou shouldest escape the Judgment of GOD? 4 Or despisest thou the Or is thy Heart so obdurate, as to make light of

Riches of his Goodness, and those Judgments which thou must certainly meet,
Forbearance, and Long-fuf- because they are not immediately executed: And
Goodness of God leadeth dost thou indeed despise the Riches of his Gentleness
thee to Repentance? and Forbearance, and Long-suffering (c), exercised

towards thee for such a Length of Time, so 'as
to think it may be safely trifled with? Surely if
thou dost, thou art shamefully

. ignorant indeed,
as not knowing, that the Goodness and Gentleness
of GOD leadeth thee to Repentance. He bears
with thee, that thou mayest prevent the threaten'd

Blow, by humbling thy self before him, and for$. But after thy Hardness faking thy Sins. and impenitent Heart, trea. Grace has its Limits; and however thou mayest

But this Day of Mercy and

5. flatter thy self now, the Consequence will soon appear fatal, and thou wilt find, to thine unutterable Confusion, that by this Hardness and Impeni



(6) Doff the same things.] Dr. Whitby thews, by manyvery proper Quotations, chiefly from Jofephus, that the Fews of that Age were guilty of many of those Crimes, which had been enumerated above. See Joseph. de Bello Fudaic. Lib. v. cap. 13. (al. 16.) §. 6. and Lib. vü. cap. 8. (al. 28.) §. 1. Edit. Havercamp.

(c) Gentleness, Forbearance, and Long-suffering.) Mr. Blackwall (Sacr. Class. vol. 1. pag. 306.) enlarges on the great Emphasis of these Words in the Original. He thinks xpnçolms fignifies Benevolence and Generosity in the General, avoxin Mercy in the Proposals of Pardon and Happiness to fallen Creatures, and paexpo@eura Patience in attending so long on such obstinate Wretches. I have given what I take to be the exactest rendering of each ; but did not judge it convenient to protract the Paraphrase of so lively a Pofage, by attempting in many Words to illustrate it. 6 D 2

(1) Children

7 may seem.


GOD will recompence every Man'according to bis Works. Sect. 4. tènce ofitby. Heart, thou art treasuring up to. tby- fureft up unto thyself

Wrath Rom. II. < Self a more abundant Store of Wrath in the Day against the Day of Wrath,

and Revelation of the righof final Wrath, and of that Revelation of the righ- teous Judgment of God; teous Judgment of GOD, which is now, as it

were under a Veil, and so disregarded because 6 unseen ; but it shall then be set forth to View, in all its Lustre and Terror. The divine Be

6 Whowill render to eveing is indeed a most gracious and indulgent Fa- B Man according to his ther; but be it known unto thee, that he is also the wife and holy Governor of the Universe, who will recompence every Man according to his Works, in the final Distribution of Good and Evil; how unequal foever his present Dispensations To these generous and elevated

7 To them, who by paSouls, that are not discouraged by present Diffi- tient Continuance in well culties, nor insnared by the Allurements of the Honour, and Immortality; World, hut amidst them all, by a patient and per. eternal Life : severing Course of well-doing, Jeek for Glory and Honour and Immortality, he will graciously render

the great Prize they pursue, even eternal Life. 8 But to the perverse and ungrateful Children of Con 8 But unto them that are tention (d) who quarrel with the merciful Dif- contentious, and do not

obey the Truth, but obey pensation that should have saved them, and are Unrighteoufness ; Indignaobstinately disobedient to the Dictates of Truth, but tion, and Wrath. servilely obedient to the usurped and base Tyranny of Unrighteousness, perversely opposing the Evidence of true Religion, because they are averse to its practical Design, she will render] a quite different Portion. For them is reserved all that can be imagined most dreadful ; Indignation shall be

conceived, and Wrath shall break forth against 9

The sharpest Tribulation, the most 9 Tribulation and An. hopeless and inextricable Anguish and Despair (e)

guish which


(d) Children of Contention.) Mr. Locke thinks that Patience in the former Verse, and Contention here, refer to the malignant Enmity with which the Jews endeavoured to exclude. the Gentiles from the Church. Compare Gal. i. 7. 1. Tim. vi. 4, 5; but it seems much better to explain it in a Latitude which indeed shall include this, as one Inftance of Obstinacy and Perverseness, without contracting that extensive and important Senfe which our Interpretation gives. And that the Contention of the Gentiles is included here, evidently appears by the Conclusion of the Sentence:

(e) Indignation and Wrath, Tribulation and Anguish, &c.] Here feems to be a Reference to these exprellive Words, Plal. lxxviii. 49. when speaking of the Egyptians, 'tis said, he cast upon them the Fierceness of his Anger, Wrath, and Indignation, and Trouble. And it may finely intimate, that the Jews would, in the Day of Vengeance, be more severely punished, than even their Egyptian Enemies were, when God made their plagues so wonder


There is no Acceptance of Persons with GOD.

29. gùith upon' every Soul of which shall be poured out in a Torrent of un- Sect 4. few fart, and allo of the mingled Misery, even upon every Soul of Man who

Rom. II. g. Gentile.

worketh that which is Evil. This shall be ren-
dered to the Jew in the first Place (/), who far
from escaping by his superior Advantages and
Privileges, will, by the Abuse of them, be ob-
noxious to distinguished Wrath. Nor shall the
Greek escape, who shall be judged according to

the Light he hath enjoyed, or the Opportunity.
3:10. But Glory, Honour, he had of enjoying more. But, as I said be- 10.
and Peace to every Man fore, and repeat it with Pleasure, as the more de-
Jew first, and also to the lightful Part of the subject, which I love to dwell

upon ; Glory, Honour, and Peace, [shall be recom-
penced to every one who worketh Good; first to
the Jew who stands fairer, (in Virtue of the Di-
vine Revelation he enjoys,) for distinguished De-
grees of it, as well as receives the first Messages
of this Salvation; and then to the Greek, who, if

he exclude not himself, shall not be exempted 11 For there is no Re

from his Share,

proper spect of Persons with God.

For there is no partial u
Acceptance of Persons with GOD (8), which
Thould engage him on Account of outward Con-
dition, or lineal Descent, to spare Obstinacy and

Wickedness in a Jew, or to reject the humble 12 For as many as have Faith and Obedience of a Gentile. And he Sinned without Law, shall will fully display this Impartiality of Administra

tion in the great Day of universal Judgment ;
for as many as have finned without the Mofaick


I 2

ful. stevogwpice properly signifies Straitness; and is used by Xenophox to signify a narrow Way, that cannot be pasled. See Raphel. Fot. ex Xen. in loc. As for the Difference between @umos and Opyn, Elsner (Obferv. vol. ii. pag. 14.) takes fome Pains to shew, that the former signifies the first Conception of Anger, the latter a Desire and Purpose of Punishing, Some Reference to this Interpretation will be found in the Paraphrase, though expressed as briefly as possible.

(f) To the few first.] Here we have the first express mention of Jews in this Section ; and it is introduced with great Energy and Weight. Their being trained up in the Knowledge of the true Religion, and having Christ and his Apostles first sent to them, will place them in the foremost Rank of the Criminals, who obey not the Truth.

(8) Acceptance of Persons.] That is, in passing the final Sentence, he is determined by their real Characters. This is very coníistent with an Inequality in distributing Advantages, and Opportunities of Improvement, according to the sovereign Pleafure of the great Lord of All, This Assertion of the Apostles, so often repeated, will appear the more important and seasonable, as the Jews thought, that no Ifraelite should be deprived of future Happiness, whatever his Faults had been ; unless he were guilty of Apostacy, Idolatry, and a few other very enormous Crimes. See Mr. Jortin's Discourses concerning the Truth of the Christian Religion ; pag. 26, 27. and the Notes there.

(h) Sinned


GOD will judge Jews and Gentiles by the Light then' enjoy. Sect. 4. Law (), and have continued impenitent in their also perish without Law :

Crimes, Jhall without the Law perish; the Light in the Law, thall be judged Rom. II. 12. of Nature, without the Knowlege of Revelation, by the Law,

being sufficient to condemn-them. And es many
as bave finned under the Instruction and Obliga,
tion of the Law, shall with proportionable Seve-
rity be judged by the Law (i), and meet with a
more awful Sentence, as their Offences have been
aggravated by such express Discoveries of the Di-.

vine Will : For not ibe Men who are merely re 13 (For not the Hearers
spectful Hearers of the Law of God in the Synago- God, but the Doers of the

of the Law, are juft before gues, or loud and vehement Applauders or De- Law Thall be justified. fenders of it elsewhere, [arejust before GOD, nor will he ever accept any


upon it, instead of the Obedience it demands'; but the Doers of the Law, who steadily and universally, in the Tenor of their Lives, act agreeably to its Precepts; they, and they only, shall be justified, in the Day of final Audit and Account; whether their knowledge of it were more or less express.

14 For when the GenFor when the Gentiles, who have not the written tiles, which have not the 14

Revelation of the Divine Law, do by an Instinct Law, do by Nature the
of Nature, and in Consequence of the untaughr Things contained in the
Dictates of their own Mind, the moral Duties re- Law, are a Law unto them-
quired by the Precepts of the Law (k), these bav- felves :
ing not the Benefits of an express and revealed
Law, are nevertheless a Law unto themselves :
The Voice of Nature is their Rule, and they are
inwardly taught, by the Constitution of their own
Minds, to revere it as the Law of that God by

whom it was formed.

And they, who are in

15 Which thew the this State, do evidently shew the

Work of the Law, in their

Hearts, their conin its most important moral Precepts, written upon their Hearts, by the fame Divine Hand that engraved the Decalogue upon the Tables given

Work of the Law written

- science


(b) Sinned without the Mofaick Law, &c.] 'Tis evident that must here be intended ; for none can sin without the natural Law, under which all are born.

(i) Perish,--be judged.] These two Phrases are so different, that one would hardly think they were intended to signify the same Ideas ; yet so many Arguments, both from Reason and Revelation, lie against supposing wicked Heathens annibilated, as Mr. Locke seems to infinuate from these Words; that I think it most rational to interpret both these Expressions, as fignifying real Punishment, but in different Degrees.

(k) By. Nature.]. Raphelius (Not. ex Xen. in loc.) Mews, that Animals are said to do that by Nature, which they do by Infinet ; and Elsner, (Observ. vol. ij." pag. 16. that le 18 voley signifies the Duties inculcated by the Law.

(1) According

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