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Sect. 17.

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For be considered himself as the Serpant of all. Want of the necessary Supplies of Life, than than that any Man hould : that any Man among you Mould make this my

make my glorying yoid. 1 Cor. XI. Boasting void, by having it to say, that I have 15.

eaten his Bread, and been supported at' his Ex16 pence.

For if I preach the Gospel, after what 16 For though I preach hath happened in my fingular Case, I have no the Gospel, I have nothing Matter of ] Boasting in that, for, having re- is láid upon me, yea, W. ceived such a Commission, how could I refuse? is unto me if I preach not I may say, a Kind of invincible Necessity lieth up- the Gospel. on me, and Woe to me indeed, if I preach not the Gospel. To decline a Work, assigned to me by to condescending an Appearance of Christ, when with malicious Rage I was attempting to destroy his Church, would be an Instance of Ingratitude

and Obstinacy, deserving the most dreadful and 17 insupportable Condemnation. If indeed I do

17 For if I do this Thing: this voluntarily, and shew upon every Occasion a But if against my Will, a

willingly I have a Reward: cordial Willingness to do it, I have indeed some Dispensation of the Gospel Room to expect a Reward; but if I do it un- is committed unto me. willingly, as I said before, a Dispensation is en

trusted to me, and I must of Necessity fulfil it. 18 What then is that Circumstance in my. Conduct,

18 What is Reward for which I may expect a Reward of Praise from then? Verily that when I the Mouth of my Divine Master ? Surely this, make the Gospel of Christ:

preach the Gospel, I may that when I preach the Gospel of Christ, I may without Charge, that I a. render it unexpenfve; that fo Í may be sure not bufe not my. Power in the

Gospel. in the least Degree to abuse my Power in the Gof

pel to any low and secular Purposes, or carry it 19. beyond its due Bounds.

För in this Respect,

19 For though I be free being free from all Men, and under no obliga- made myself Servant unto

from all Men, yet have I tion, in this Manner, to give them my Labours, all, that'1 might gain the I. made myself the Servant of all (a), addicting more. myself to the most fatiguing Duties, that I might advance their Happiness, and gain the more to true Religion and Salvation; in which I have

found. a noble Equivalent for all I could do, or 20 bear. And I not only submitted to preach the 20. And unto the Jews 1

Gospel (a). The Servant of all.] This has a stronger Sense, than can easily be expressed in the Par raphrase; and intimates, that he acted with as Self-denying a Regard to their Interests, and as much Caution not to offend them, as if he were absolutely in their Power, as a Slave is in that of his Master.




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To the Jew he became as a Jew, that he might gain the Jews. 307 became as a Jew, that I might Gospel without any Reward, but I made it a Sect. 17. gain the Jews; to them that constant Maxim, to accommodate my

Manner of are under the Law, as under the Law, that I might Living to the Way and Relish of those about 1 Cor. IX. gain them that are under me; facrificing my own Humour and Inclinathe Law;

tion; and that in some Instances, when I could
not do it, without considerable Inconvenience to
myself : Accordingly, to the Jews, I become as a
Jew (6), that I might gain over more of the Jews
to Christianity : To those, I say, who were, or ap-
prehended themselves to be, under the tedious
Ceremonies, and disagreeable Restraints of the
Mosaick Law, I became, as if I were still in
Conscience under the Obligations of the Law (c),
tho’I knew it to have been abolished; and this,

that I might gain those, who apprehend them-
21. To them that are selves to be under the Bond of that Law. On 21
without Law, as without the other Hand, to those, who were without the
to God, but under the Law Law of Moses, and cither unacquainted with it,
to Christ) tha: I might gain or apprehended themselves under no Obligation
them that are without Law. to conform to its peculiar Institutions, I behaved,

as if I had myself also been without the Law,
neglecting its ceremonial Precepts, which I well
knew to be superseded, and abolished. [Yet] still
taking Care, that it might appear both from my
Words and Actions, that I was not witkout Law
to GOD; but apprehended myself under a Law
of the most affectionate Duty and Gratitude to
Christ, who came by new Bonds to engage us to
the strictest Obedience. But these Freedoins I
used, and this Moderation I manifested, not by
any Means for my own Indulgence, but that
might gain those, who are without the Law (d),


(6) To the Jews, &c.] Compare, for the Illustration of this, Aets xvi. 3. Chap. xxi. 21, &c. which Instances were undoubtedly a Specimen of many more of the like Kind.

(c) As if I were still under the Obligations of the Law.] This can only signify, that he voluntarily complied with it, as an indifferent Thing; but it cannot by any Means imply, that he declared such Observances necessary, or refused to converse with any, who would not conform to them; for this was the very Dissimulation, which, with so generous a Freedom, he condemned in St. Peter. Gal. ii. 14, &c.

(d) That I might gain those without the Law.] This seems to imply, that the Gentiles, not yet converted to Christianity, are here referred to , unless gaining the Persons spoken of fignifies rendering them better disposed to regard his Decisions ;" which is at most but a subordinate Sense.

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Sect. 17.


308 To the Weak he became as weak, that he might gain the Weak.

and make my Ministry more agreeable and useful,

to such as were educated among the Gentiles, 1.Cor.IX. I therefore became to the Weak, as if I had been

22 To the Weak became.

I as weak, that I'might gain as weak and scrupulous as they, in the various Ar

the-Weak : I-am made all ticles of Food and Dress, which might come into Things to all Mens that I Question, that I might gain upon tbe Weak; for might: by: all Means fave the Soul of the Weakest appeared to me infinite- 'some. ly valuable ; and I have the Warrant of my great Master, to esteem it more precious, than all the Treasures of the World. In a Word, I became all Things to all Men ; accommodating myself to them, so far as with a safe Conscience I could, that by any, or all Means if possible, I might save some : And it is the daily Grief of my Soul, that

after all these Efforts, the Number is so small, 23 And this I do for the Sake of the Gospel, to pro

23 And this I do for the mote its Success to the utmost of my Ability; be partaker thereof with you.

Gospel's-Sake, that I might that I also may be a Sharer in the generous Plea

sure arising from the Communication of it (e.).

24 Know ye not that may illustrate this, by referring to the

they which run in a Race, Games, so well known in Greece ;, and particu- run all, but one receiveth the larly to the Isthmian, so often celebrated among

Prize? you at Corinth.

Do you not know, that with Respect to those who run in the Stadium or Foot Race (f), all indeed run, and contend with each other; whereas.but one receiveth the Prize(g)? Yet the uncertain Hope, that each may be that one, animates them all to strain every Nerye in the


por pel A Sharer in the Communication of it.] We render it, that I might be Partaker with you ; but as the Words, with you, are not in the Original, which is iva OVIKOLYWOS yerwald

I. rather understand the Words as referring to the Satisfaction he found, in imparting the invaluable and inexhaustible Blessings of the Gospel to all around him ; a Sentiment most suitable to his Character and Office,

(f) The Stadium, or Foot Race.] On comparing the Tranfation, I had before made of this Paffage, with that of my learned and worthy Friend Mr. Wei, (in his excellent Dif fertation on the Olympick Games, pag. 189, 190.) I had the pleasure to find a remarkable Agreement; but where there was any Difference, I have generally altered what I had wrote, either in the Version, or Paraphrase, to make it conformable to his; whose Judg. ment, in any Point of Criticism, has with me great Weight; but especially on a Subject; of which he appears to have been-fo eminent a Master, that his Writings upon it, are as dī . Linguished in their Kind, as the Games he so elegantly describes, were in theirs.

i) One receiveth the Prize.] 'Tis true, that in fome Games there were several Prizes of different Value ; yet in those, to which he here refers, there was but one for the Victor : and the Argument is very strong and Atriking.

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And every 25

His Self-denial was like that of the Combatants in the Games;

309 Prize ? So run that ye may course. You have much greater Encourage- Sect. 17. obtain

ment to exert yourselves, in the Pursuit of celef-
tial Blessings. See to it therefore, that yefo run

1 Cor. IX.
that ye may obtain, and that you lay aside every
Thing, that would be an Incumbrance to you,

or render you incapable of dispatching the Race 25 And every Man that with necessary Vigor and Alacrity. striveth for the Mastery is

one who contendeth in the Games, whether in run-
temperate in all Things :
Now they do it to obtain a ning, as above, or in Wrestling, or combating,
corruptible Crown, but we is temperate in all Things (5); abstaining from
an incorruptible.

whatever might enervate his Strengh, and sub-
mitting to a regular Course of Diet, Exercise and
Hardship, that he may be the more capable of
exerting himself with Success. [And this] they
indeed [do,] that they may obtain a corruptible
Crown (i), a Garland of Leaves, that will toon
wither and perish : But we are animated by the
View of an incorruptible Crown, the Duration,
and Glory of which will be commensurate to the

Existence of our immortal Souls.
26 I therefore so run, not It is no small Pleasure to me, while I am ex- 26
as uncertainly : So fight I,

hortir:g you to this, to reflect that I am, thro'
Divine Grace, myself an Example of the Tema
perance I recommend, I for my Part run nat
as one who is to pass undistinguished (k); but know-



(b) Temperate in all Things.] Whoever considers on the one Hand, to what great Selfdezial, in Articles of Food, Sleep, and every other sensual Indulgence, they, who were to contend in their Games, were obliged ; and on the other, of how great Importance it is, that the Youth of a Community should be formed to a manly Taste, and resolute Self-Gor vernment ; will undoubtedly fee the great national Prudence of the Greeks, in the Institu. tion and Support of these Games; to which it is very probable; their remaskable Valour and Success in War, during the best Days of their several Republicks, might in some confiderable Degree be owing. See, for the Illustration of the Temperance here referred to, Elsner's excellent . Note on this Text, and Ælian. Var. Hift. Lib. iii. Cap. 30. Lib. x. Cap. 2.

(i) Corruptible Crown, a Garland of Leaves, &c.] It is well known, that the Crown in the Olympick Games, sacred to Jupiter, was of Wild-Olive; in the Pythian, sacred to Apole lo, of Laurel ; in the Ihmian, or Corinthian, solemnized in Honour of Palamon, of Pinetree ; and in the Nenaan, of Smallage, or Parsey. Now the most of these were Evergreens ; yet they would soon grow dry, and break to Pieces. Elsner, (Observ. Vol. ii. pag, 103.) produces many Paffages, in which the Contenders in these Exercises, are rallied by the Grecian Wits, for the extraordinary Pains they took for such trifling Rewards ; and Plato has a celebrated Passage, which greatly resenibles this. of St. Paul; but by no Means equals it in Beauty and Force.

(*) I run not as one that is to pass undistinguished.] Textiv adnaws, is to run unnoticed. But as some have explained it, of is running without attending to the Marks, and Lines, 5.

66 which



Left, tho' à Herald to others, be Ahould be difappointed himself Seet: 17. ing what Eyes are upon' me, and solicitous to not as one that beateth the

gain the Approbation of my Judge, and attend- Air : 1 Cor. IX. ing with Diligence and Care to the Boundaries

which are marked out to us, I exert myself:
to the utmost. I fo fight, not as one that beats
the Air (1), who fights as it were with his own
Shadow, or practises a feigned Combat, but as
one, who has a real and living Enemy to contend
with, and who knowing that his Life and his All

is in Question, would strike sure, and not lose
27 his Blows upon empty Air..

Thus I allow not 27 But I keep under my. myself in a Habit of 'Indolence and Luxury, but Body, and bring it into Subimitate on a much nobler Occasion, and to a Means, when I have preachmuch greater Degree, the Self-denial of the Com- ed to others, I myself thould batants, I mentioned above; I bruise and mortify be a Cast-away. my Body (m), and bring it into such a Degree of Servitude, as the fuperior Interests of my Soul require. And this I judge a most necessary Precaution ; left after having served as a Herald to others, and after having made Proclamation of the glorious Rewards to be attained, and endeavoured to animate their Zeal in the Pursuit, I mould mySelf be disapproved (n) of the great Judge, and finally declared unworthy of obtaining a Share in them.


" which determined the Path ;" I have hinted at that Sense. As for Heinsius's Interpreta. tion, who explains it “ moving so slowly, as that he might seem to stand still,” it is, like many others, peculiar to that Writer, quite insupportable: No one in such a Circumftarice, could be said to run at all.

(1) Beats the Air, &c.] In order to attain the greater Agility and Dexterity, it was usual for those, who intended to hox in the Games, to exercise their Arms with the Gauntlet ong when they had no Antagonist near them; and this was called ortopexia, in which a Man would of Course beat the Air. But Bos has taken a great deal of Pains in his Note here, to fhew, that it is a proverbial Expression for a Man's mising his Blow, and spending it, not on his Enemy, but on empty Air.

(m) Bruise and mortify my Body.] Tawaļw, properly signifies to frike on the Face as Boxers did , and particularly on (the vwwFOV,) the Part of it under the Eyes, at which they especially aimed. Hence it comes to fignify a livid Tumour on that Part; and fometimes it is proverbially used for a Face terribly bruised, mortified, and disfigured, like that of a Boxer just come from the Combat ; as Bos has shewn at large, Exercit. pag. 138, &C.

(n) Left after having served as an Herald, I should be disapproved.] I thought it of Iniportance to retain the primitive Sense of these Gymnastick Expressions. It is well known to those, who are at all acquainted with the Original, that the Word xmpušas, expresses the discharging the Office of an Herald; whose Business it was, to proclaim the Conditions of the Games, and display the Prizes, to awaken the Emulation and Resolution of those, who


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