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us,

which are Patience, Experience, and Hope.

61 perience; and Experience, dy Resolution for him, as we are sure will be Sect. 1o. Hope: acceptable to him; and therefore this Experience

Rom. V. 4. and Proof of our Graces, which like pure

Gold brighten in the Furnace, worketh a more lively

and triumphant Hope of a glorious future Re5 And Hope maketh not ward ; And this Hope sublime, and confident 5 alhamed, because the Love as it is, does not shame and confound [us] with our Hearts, by the Holy Disappointment; yea we know it cannot, because Ghost which is given unto we have already within ourselves the

very Beginning of that Heaven, at which it aspires. For the Love of GOD, in the Perfection of which the Blessedness of that celestial World consists, is, in a plentiful Effusion, poured into our Hearts by his Holy Spirit, which is given unto us, and enables us to see his Love amidst all his Corrections, and to delight ourselves daily in him; tho' for the present he appoints us Trials which may

feem ever so rigorous.
6 For when we were yet Now all these invaluable Priviledges and 6
without Strength, in due

Time Christ died for the Hopes, which make our Lives fo joyful amidst
Ungodly,

such various Tribulations and extreme Sufferings,
are to be traced up to the Death of Christ, and
resolved into his Love; for when we were yet in
a weak and languishing, infirm and helpless State,
destitute of all these Divine Principles and Hopes;
yea incapable of delivering ourselves from the
Depths of Guilt and Misery, into which we
were plunged, Christ most seasonably died for us,
even in the Stead of the Ungodly (e), for Jews and
Gentiles, when they were, as we have proved
before, all under Sin.

Now

(e) Died in the Stead of the Ungodly.] By Ungodly here Mr. Locke underftands Gentiles, as also by weak, Sinners, Enemies, &c. They are undoubtedly included; but it seems very inconsistent with the whole Strain of the Apostle's Argument in the preceding Chapters, to confine it to them. Compare Chap. iii. 9; ----20, 22, 23. Chap. iv. 52 Chap. v. 20. I therefore all along explain such Passages in the most extensive Sense; and think nothing in the whole Neui Testament plainer, than that the Gospel supposes every human Creature, to whom it is addressed, to be in a State of Guilt and Condemnation, and incapable of being accepted with God, any otherwise than thro' the Grace and Mercy which it proclaims. Compare John iii. 16, 36. Chap. v. 24. 1 John iii. 14. Mark xvi. 15, 16. Luke xxiv. 47. and especially 1.John i. 10. than which no Assertion can be more positive and express.. Albert. (Obferv. Sacr. pag. 304.) has well proved that sula xaspor Mould be rendered seasonably; and Raphelius (Not. ex Xen. in ver. 8.) has abundantly demonstrated, that utep muwi anodam fignifies he died in our Room and Stead ; nor can I find, that arobavesu umep tuvos has ever any other Signification, than that of rescuing the Life of another at the Expence of our own : And the very next Verse Thews, independent on any other Authority, how evidently it bears that

Sensc

a

6:2 Justified by Christ's Death, we.sball be Javed by bis Life. Seat. 10. Now (f)

this is a most memorable Thing, 7 For scarcely for a righand worthy our frequent, attentive, and affectio- teous Man will one die; Rom. V. 7. nate Confideration.

Yet peradventure for For scarcely would one be

good Man fome would even willing to die in the Stead of a righteous Man, dare to die tho' we apprehended him in the most immediate. Danger; [if], perhaps in the Stead of a remarkably good and benevolent Man (g), one would even dare to die : For certainly it is but here and there one, in a great Multitude, who would be wil

ling to.redeem the most eminently useful Life at 8 the Price of his own. But GOD batb recom

8 But God commenmended his astonishing Love towards us, and set it deth his Love toward us, in

that while we were yet Sinoff as it were with this grand Circumstance of. ners, Christ died for us. high Embellishment, if I may so speak, that qeben we were get Sinners, and therefore not only undeserving of his Favour, but justly obnoxious to Wrath and Punishment, Chrift died in our Stead, that our Guilt might be cancelled, and we brought into a State of Divine Acceptance.

Since therefore it hath pleased the blessed God to 9 Much more then, being 9 give us such an unexampled Display of his Love now justified by his Blood,

we Thall be saved from as this, how high may our Expectations rise, and Wrath through him, how chearfully may we conclude that much more being - now justified by the Efficacy of his most precious Blood, we shall be saved from Wrath by bim!

For

i. 29.

Sense here; aş one can hardly imagine any one would die for a good Man, unless it were to redeem his Life by giving up his own. How much higher, not only Grotius, but Le Clerc, carried their Explications of this great Doctrine, than fome Moderns have done, may be feen by consulting Grotius's Gloss on 1 Pet. ii. 19. (de Satisf. Cap. ix.) and Le Clerc on Fobn

(f) Now: yog.] It is very evident, that yaş cannot have the Force of an illative Particle here, or in the preceding Verse; and it is hardly possible to number all the Pallages in Paul's Writings to which the like Remark may be applied.

(8) Righteous,--good.] 'Tis true that in one Sense Righteousness must include Goodness, as 'we owe to every Man a benevolent Affection, and are bound in Duty to God to do atl the Good we can'to the whole human Species. But he may in common Speech be called a juft or righteous Man, who gives to every one what is by Law his Due; and be a goil or benivolent Man, who voluntarily abounds-in kind and generous Actions, to which no human L'aws can compel him. Tully' has the like Distinction, (de Ofic. Lib. I. Cap. x. Edit, Pierc. and it is admirably illustrated by Raphelius (Not. cx Xen. in Lec.) by opposite Quotations from other ancient Writers.' It may very possibly, (as Godwyn has thewn in his Jewish Antiquities. Lib. I. Cap. ix.) bear fome Allusion to a Distribution of Mankind into the three Classes, 210, Enjoy, and O'yun, good Men, righteous Men, and Sinners; which some Rabbinical Writers mention All the Beauty and Grace of this Pal ding adxy instead of draio, as the Editor of the New Version of 1727 does; without, as I can find, any single Authority : For a wicked Man no one would willingly dir, tho' for a Benefactor some have readily offered to die. And azale don't signify merely a personal Ben efaktor, but in general a benevolent Man.,

IO

Reflections on the Happiness of Peace with GOD.

63
For we can never imagine that God would pro- Sect. 10.
vide at fo expensive a Rate for our Justification,

Rom. V. 9.
and then finally leave us under Wrath; tho' we
have acquiesced in the Scheme of his Grace for

our Deliverance.
1o For if when we were For it, as I have already maintained, when we
Enemies, we were reconci-
led to GOD by the Death were Enemies, through the Perversenets of our
of his Son : Much more Minds, and the Rebellion of our Lives, we were
being reconciled, we shall reconciled to GOD by the Death of his own dear
be saved by his Life.

Son, and if foreseeing we should fall into this
State of Hostility, he made this wonderful Pro-
vision for our being admitted to Terms of Peace;
luw much more being thus reconciled, shall we be
Javed from Misery, and made compleatlyhappy
by bis recovered Life, now he is risen from the
Dead, and ascended to Glory?

IM PRO V E M E N T.

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sence; yea

ITH what Extasies of holy Joy may we juftly survey these in

estimable Privileges, the blessed Consequences of having embraced the Gospel, and being justified by Faith unfeigned! How great a Ver. B. Happiness to have Peace with GOD, with that omnipotent Being, who can at Pleasure arm all Nature againft us, or for us! To have access to him Ver. 2. by Jesus Christ, and daily converse with him as our Father in Heaven! To rejoice in an assured Hope of enjoying Glory with Christ, in his Pre

of enjoying the God of Glory. To see all Afliction not only difarmed, but turned into Matter of Triumph, while Tribulation work- Ver. 3, 4. eth Experience, Patience, and Hope! So may all our Tribulations work, and be they ever so severe, they will be Reasons for our Joy and Praise. The Pain of them will soon be over; the happy Consequences of them will be as lasting as our immortal Souls.

Let us endeavour to dilate our Hearts, that we may receive the largest Efufons of the Love of GOD, to be shed abroad there. The Love of Ver. 5o; God! That Plant of Paradise, which will spring up into eternal Life. And to excite it, let us be daily, meditating upon the rich Wonders of redeeming Love and Grace; adoring that seasonable Interposition of Divine Ver. 6.. Mercy, that when we were weak and guilty Creatures, when we lay for ever helpless under a Sentence of everlasting Condemnation, that is, when we appeared thus in the Eyes of him, who beboldeth Things which Ver. 77 are not as if they were, Christ died for us, and gave a Token of his Love even for the worst of Sinners, which few among the Children of Men are willing to give, with Respect to the most upright and benevolent of 3

their

+

64

We glory in GOD. through Jesus Christ. Sect. 10. their Brethren. Since the Love of God comes thus recommended, let

us cordially embrace it, and awaken all the Powers of our Souls to a diligent Care to secure the happy Fruits; that we may not receive the Grace of GOD in vain. If we do indeed experience in ourselves, not only that

there is a Foundation laid for our Reconciliation, but that we are actually Ver. 10. reconciled to GOD by the Death of bis Son, our Hopes may rise high, that

we shall much more obtain consummate Salvation by his Life. For surely it is infinitely more astonishing, that the Son of God should die to reconcile Enemies, than that having subdued their Hearts by his dying Love, and received them to Friendship as the Purchase of his Blood, he should imploy his recovered Life and extensive Authority for their Protection, and compleat Salvation.

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The Apostle shews, that the Calamities brought by the first

Adam on his Seed are repaired with glorious Advantage to all

, who .by Faith become interested in the second Adam. Rom. V. 11, to the End.

ROMANS V.11.

Sect. Il.

ment.

ROMANS V. II.
HAVE been breathing out our Hopes, and Avance joy in. Gans
I

our Joys, as we are Christians, and are through our Lord Jesus Rom. V. 11. taught by the Principles of our Divine Re- Christ, by whom we have

ligion to rejoice, not only in the Prospect of now received the Attone-
Glory, but even in Tribulation itself. And
now I must add, that it is not only [fo] but
that there is another grand Consideration, which,
though not yet mentioned, lies at the Root of
all our Confidence and Happiness; which is this,
that we boast in GOD as invariably our covenant
God, and Father through Jesus Christ our Lord,
by whom we have now, in these late Times, re-
ceived the great and important Reconciliation (a),

which

(a) Received the Reconciliation.] The Word xalanday here bas so apparent a Reference to xatninayopee and salaandysiles in the preceding Verse, that 'tis surprizing it should have been rendered by fo different a Word in our Version ; especially as it is so improper to speak of our receiving an Attonement, which God receives as made for our Sins.

(b) Therefore

2

65

For, tho' by the one Offence of Adam Death came ;

which not only averts the Terrors of his Wrath; Sect. II. but opens upon us all the Blessings of his

perpe

Rom.V,120 tual Friendship and Love. 12 Wherefore, as by And therefore (6) we may from these Premione Man Sin entered into ses infer, that the Benefit which we Belicvers rethe World, and Death by Sin; and to Death paffed ceive from Christ (c), is equal to the Detriment upon all Men, for that all we receive from Adam ; yea, is on the whole greahave finned.

ter than that; for we now obtain Righteousness
and Life from one ; as by one Man, that is, Adam,
the common Father of the human Species, Sin
entered into the new made World, and Death, be-
fore unknown in the Creation of God, entered
by Sin; and so Death pased on from one Gene-
ration to another upon all Men; unto which all
bave finned in him (d), that is, they are so far
involved in the Consequence of his first Trans-

gression, as by Means of it are become obnoxious
For until the Law, to Death. And that this was indeed the Case, 13
Sin was in the World: But and this Offence the Engine of Mortality in the

Sin

whole human Species, we may infer from one
very obvious Fact, I mean the Death of Infants,
from the very Beginning; for from the Fall of
Adam unto the Time when God gave the Law
by Moses, as well as after it, Sin was, and ap-
peared to be in the World, by the continual Ex-
ecution of its Punishment, that is, Death. But

it

13

(b) Therefore.] Aic Isle certainly does often fignify in this Refpect; but there are fome Instances even among the Texts collected by Mr. Taylor here, in which it may as well be rendered therefore : Particularly Mat. xiii. 13. Johu ix. 23. Chap. xii. 18. Chap. xiii. 2. I Cor. iv. 17. Chap. xi. 30. Eph. i. 15. In all which Places our Rendering seems preferable to what he would propose.

(c) We Believers.) As this 12th Verse is an Inference from the 11th, it seems evident that they only are spoken of; for it is plain from comparing the 9th, 10th and 11th Verses with the is, that it is only they, who are justified by Faith, who have Peace with GOD, and who joy in him by Chrif as having received the Reconciliation. And this obvious Remark clears the following Passage of Difficulties, which would be exceeding great, if it were to be considered without Regard to this Connection, and which have in Fact, misled many Commentators; who for Want of attending to it, have plunged themselves and their Rea. ders into great Perplexity, and given a Sense to the Paragraph, of which it is by no Means capable. (d) Unto which all have finned : EP w Tavles mpaplov.] Elsner (Obferv. Vol

. ii. pag. 26.) would render it, on Account of whom ; and he produces some remarkable Authorities for it (Compare Phil. iii. 12. Rom. x. 19. Chap. xvi. 19. I Thef. iii. 7.) but I think those produced by Mr. Taylor (from Gal. v. 13. Eph. ii

. 19. 1 Thel. iv. 7,

1 Tbel. iv. 7. 2 Tim. ii. 14.2 with the Use of the Particles in some of the purest Greek Clasicks, fufficient to support his Rendering, which I have here followed. See his Scripture Do&trine of Original Sin, Part 1, pag. 51, &c. Note.

I

(e) Likeness

VOL. IV.

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