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And reigned over the whole human Race; Sect. 11. it is a self-evident Principle that Sin is not, and Sin is not imputed when

cannot be, imputed, where there is no Law; since there is no Law. Rom. V.13. the very Essence of Sin is the Violation of a

Law. And consequently, if we see in Fact that
Sin was imputed, we must conclude that the

Persons, to whose Account it appears to have been
14 charged, were under fome Law.

Nevertheless

14 Nevertheless, Death it is certain Death reigned from Adam to Mojes, reigned from Adam to Mo

ses, even over them that had even over Infants as well as others, over those I.

not sinned after the Similisay, who had not finned, according to the Likeness tude of Adam's Tranfgrelof the Transgression of Adam (e), that is, who fion, who is the Figure of

him that was to come: had never in their own Persons offended God, as Adam their Father did; who, with Respect to the Extent of his Actions to all his Seed, was the Figure, or Model (f), of bim 'who was to come, (8), that is, a Kind of Type of the Meffiah, as being a publick Person and fæderal

Head.
15 Yet I must observe by the Way, that with 15 But not as the of

Respect to the free Gift of God in the Gospel- fence, so also is the free
Dispensation, it [is] not exactly as the Offence, nor Offence of one many be
limited in all Respects as that is ; for if by the dead ; much more the Grace
Offence of one many died, if the whole human of God, and the Gift by

Grace,
Family, numerous as it is, became obnoxious to
· Death and Destruction thereby; how much
more batb the free Grace of GOD, and the Gift

which

(e) Likeness of Adam's Tranfgreffion.) Mr. Locke and several more interpret this of the Gentiles, who did not fin against a positive. Law. But they might certainly have died for their Tranfgression against the natural Law, under which they were born, and for which the Apostle expressly asserts, not only that they were in Fact liable to perish, Chap. ii. 12, &c.) but that they knew they were worthy of Death, (Chap. i. ult.)

(f) Figure, or Model.] That the Word tumos has this Signification will appear from : Aets vii. 44. Rom. vi. 17. Phil. iii. 17. 3 Thell. i. 7. 2 Thel. iii. 9. I Tim. iv. 12. Tit. ij. 7. Heb. viii. 5. 1 Pet. v. 3

(8) Of him who was to come : 98 perhorlos.] Here is evidently an Ellipfis. Most Commentators have explained it as referring to the great Perfon that was to come, or in other Words the future [Adam,] that is Chrif. But Sir Norton Knatchbull would explain it of Mankind to come.

He thinks that Adam cannot with any Propriety be called a Type of Chrift, as the Type of a Thing is its Shape, Model, or Representation; and therefore if the Thing be good, the Type of it must be so too. Dr. Milner, in Vindication of this Interpretation, observes, that this will best agree with the Apostle's Defign. For if Adam was to be confidered as a publick Perfon, the Type, Figure, or Representation of Mankind, his Conduct will, as the Apostle' says it does, affect Infants. Dr. Milner's Fading Flowers of Life, pag. 14. -But it may be sufficient to answer, that upon the common Interpretation, there was plainly a Correspondence between Christ and Adam, as each was a publick Head, tho' the Influence of each on his respective Seed was different ; fo that the whole Reasoning of both these learned and ingenious Writers seems inconclufive.

(b) Thankfully

2

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Believers in Christ shall be justified from many Offences : Grace, which is by one (which is granted] by that Grace, as manifested Sect. II. Man, Jesus Christ hath and displayed in that one greater and better Man como abounded unto many.

Jesus Christ, abounded to many, that is, to all the Rom. V. 15.

numerous Family of Believers. 16 And not as it was by And this in two very important Respects. In

16
one that finned, fo is the the first place, the Gift [is] not merely, as the Ruin
Gift: For the Judgnient that came upon us by one that finned, in Respect to
tion : But the fiee Gift is the Number of Offences in Question ; for the Sen-
of many Offences unto Juf- tence of but one [Offence passed] upon us to Condemna-
tification.

tion; and we were no farther affected by the sub-
sequent Sins of Adam, than by those of

any

intermediate Parent: But the Gift of Divine Grace, exhibited in the Gospel, [is effectual] to our Yuftification from the Guilt of many Offences. It not only delivers us from the Sentence, to which we were from our Birth liable on Account of Adam's Sin, but from that more grievous and dreadful Sentence, which we had brought upon

ourselves in adult Life by our innumerable and 17 For if by one Man's aggravated personal Tranigressions. Moreover Offence Death reigned by there is another important Article in which the receiveAbundance of Grace, Grace of the Gospel exceeds the seeming Seveand of the Gift of Righte- rity, which attended the Imputation of Guilt ousness, thall reign in Life from our first Father Adam; namely, that if by by one, Jesus Christ.

one Man's Offence Death reigned by one, over all his
Posterity, as we observed above, they who thank-
fully and obediently receive (b) the overflowing
Abundance of free Grace, and of the munificent
Gift of Righteousness exhibited in the Gospel,
Mall much more reign in Life by the one great Re-
storer and Recoverer of his Seed, even Jesus
Christ; that is, Believers shall by him be brought
to a much nobler and more excellent Life, than
that from which Adam fell, and which they lost
in him,

Therefore

17

(b) Thankfully and obediently receive.] It is so very plain, that the abundant Reign in Life by Jesus Christ, is appropriated to Persons of a particular Character, expressed here by receiving the Gift, that it is furprizing any should have spoken of it as 'cornmon to the whole human Race. And nothing is more evident, than that the Word azußaw has often this Sense

, and signifies being active in embracing a Benefit proposed, or a Person offering himself under a Character of Importance. Compare John i. il, 12. Chap. iii. II, 32. Char. V. 43. Chap. xii. 48. Chap. xiii. 20. Fam. v. 10. 1 John v. 9. 2 John lo.

3 John 7.

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68 Whereas the Law entered, that the Offence might abound: Sect. II. Therefore on the whole you see, as I begun to 18 Therefore, as by the

observe to you before(i), that as [the Consequence] of Offence of one Fudēment Rom. V, 18.

one Offence, on the one Hand, [extended) to all Men, demnation : Even so by the to bring Condemnation upon them, so also, on the Righteousness of one, the other Side, [the Consequence], of one grand AEt of free Gift came upon all Men

unto Justification of Life. Righteoufness (extended] to all Men, who receive and embrace it; securing to them that Juftifica

tion, which will be crowned with the Enjoy-. 19 ment of eternal Life. For as by the Disobe 19 For as by one Man's

dience of one Man many were confituted Sinners, Disobedience many were that is, became obnoxious to Death, as if they Obedience of

made Sinners : So by the

one fall themselves had finned; so by the compleat and many be made Righteous. persevering Obedience of one many shall be constituted Righteous (k), that is, they shall be treated as such in the Day of God's final Account; though they have no perfect Righteousness of their own to plead, in Consequence of which they should stand before God, and claim the Reward.

20 Moreover, the Law But as for the Law of Moses, that could not

entered, that the Offence poffibly procure this great Benefit to them; for

might
that made a little Entrance (7), that is, took place
among comparatively a very small Number of
Mankind for a few Ages, that the Offence might,
instead of being removed, abound much more
than before; as in Consequence of it many

Things became offensive to God, which were
before indifferent, and the Guilt of moral Of-

fences

20

(i) As I begun to obferve, &c.] This 18th Verse feems connected with the End of the 12th, and all the intermediate Verses do undoubtedly come in as a Parenthesis ;. and the Reader, by perusing the interwoven Text alone, 'will observe, that these Verses, viz. 12th, 18th,. 19th, make one continued Sentence. But I judged it necessary here, and elsewhere, to break the Paraphrase into severa! Sentences, lest the excessive Length should have rendered the Sense obscure, and the Paffage unwieldy and disagreeable. Many of Paul's Sentences are, as they stand in the Text, obfcured by the Length. Compare 2 Cor. xi. 14. Chap. xii.

(4) Many shall be constituted Righteous.] To become liable to Death for the Offence of another, is indeed being thereby constituted a Sinner, or treated as a Sinner ; fince Death is, . in its primary View, to be considered as the Wages of Sin, or the Animadversion of a righteous-Ġod. upon it: But fimply to be raised from the Dead is not being made righteous, or treated as a righteous Person ; since it is a very supposable Case, and will in Fact be the Case of Millions, that. a Sinner may be raised in order to more condign and dreadful Punishment. The whole. Interpretation therefore, which Mr. Taylor has given of this Text, in this View, appears to me destitute of a sufficient Foundation.

(1) Made a little Entrance.] So raperonals, properly. Signifies, and is well rendered by the Vulgate, subintravit; in which Sense papiloazlok is used, Gal. ii. 4. Thus the partial and limited Entrance of the Law is distinguished from that universal Entrance of Sin, which passed on all, as Mr. Locke well observes. This I think preferable to Mr. L'Enfant's, reridering it, the Law intervened, that is, between Adam and Chrif..

(m) Grace

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· But Grace reigns thro' Jesus Christ eternal Life.

69
might abound : But where fences was aggravated by fo express a Declara- Sect. 11.
Sin abounded, Grace did tion of the Rule of Duty, violated by them :
much more abound :

Rom.V. 20,
So that on the whole, it seemed intended to con-
vince and humble, rather than to justify. Yet,
on the whole, God hath taken an Occasion to
glorify the Riches of his Mercy by that Dispen-
sation, and where Sin has abounded under the
most aggravating Circumstances, Grace hatls fu-

perabounded, so as thereby to gain a superior and
21 That as Sin hath more illustrious Triumph. That as Sin had 21-
reigned unto Death, even reigned in the wide and universal Devastation,
Righteousness unto eternal which Death had made on those whom it had
Life, by. Jesus Christ our brought under that fatal Sentence, fo Grace might
Lord.

reign to such a Degree, as to bestow eternal Life
and Happiness, thro' the glorious and compleat
Righteousness (m) which we obtain by Jesus Christ
our Lord, when we sincerely believe in him as
our Saviour, and give up our Souls to the Au-
thority of his equitable and auspicious Govern-
ment

I M P R O V E M E N T.

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ET us daily remember our Relation to God by Christ Jesus; and Ver. 17:
glory in this Relation; saying frequently,

“ He is indeed our FaThis God with all his adorable, unfathomable, immutable “ Perfections is our God. He will be our Guide unto Death, and our " Portion for ever. My Soul shall make ber Boast in the Lord. What “ Relation can be so honourable, what can afford such an unfailing

Spring of perpetual Joy!”

Let us honour him in all his Dispensations; even those which may appear the most mysterious. In this Number we are undoubtedly to reckon his constituting Adam the Covenant-Head of his Posterity, and involving our Life or Death in him; yea, adjusting the Relation so, that our spiritual State should be greatly affected by his Conduct, and we should

his Transgression become the Heirs, not only of Death but of moral Pollution, and ultimately by Virtue of our Descent from him, be fi-apen in. Iniquity and conceived in Sin.

It is a Consideration which must carry Awe and Solemnity, Grief and Lamentation throughout all Ages, that by one Man Sin entered into the Věr: 12: .

World,

(m) Grace might reign to eternal Life thro' Righteousviess, &c.). This - Trajection the Sense absolutely requires.

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Ver. 17.

Reflections on the Sin of Adam and the Grace of Christ. Sect. 11. World, and Death made such a Progress by the Entrance of Sin, as to pass di upon all Men in Consequence of that Act. Oh God how terrible are thy

Judgments! And yet how rich thy Compassion, in appointing the fecond Adam, to repair the Ruin and Desolations of the First ! Yea, more than to repair them; to deliver ús from all our most aggravated Transgressions, if we believe in him, and receive the Gift of Righteousness!.. To cause us to reign in Life by him! To bring us to a more exalted, and secure Happiness, than Adam himself enjoyed in the Day in which he was created, or than Eden, the Garden of God, could afford!

Let us adore these Superaboundings of Divine Grace, and its Reign unto eternal Life. And let all our Knowledge of the Law of GOD, our Diftress under a Sense of having broken it, and being thereby exposed to its condemning Sentence, be considered as illustrating the Riches of that Grace, whereby we are faved, and so animate us to Returns of the humbleft Gratitude, and a persevering Obedience. · Amen.

Ver. 20.

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The Apostle Jews, that the Gospel, far from dissolving our

Obligations to practical Holiness, does Arongly increase them; which is a Consideration tending highly to recommend it to the Esteem and Acceptance of all. Rom. VI. 1,---14:

ROMANS VI. I.

ROMANS VI. I. Sect. 12,

TH

HUS. we have asserted the Doctrine of WHAT Shall we say

Justification by Faith, or in other Words, tinue in Sin, that Grace Rom. VI. 1.

of Salvation by Grace. And now let us confi- may abound ?
der, how it is to be improved. What shall we say
then, concerning the practical Inferences to be
drawn from it (a)? Shall we say, let us continue
in the habitual Practice of Sin, that Grace may
abound so much the more, in pardoning and save
God forbid, that such an unworthy

2 God forbid: How

tha Thought should ever arise in our Hearts. We

have

2 ing us :

(a) What shall we say then, &c.]. The Apostle here sets himself more fully to clear and vindicate the Doctrine he taught, from the Consequence suggested before, Chap. iii. 7, 8. He had then only in strong Terms denied, and renounced it, but here removes the very Foundation of it.

(b) Dead

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