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in Ireland to teach his children and serve him preposterous succession of fabulous personages, if in his house as amanuensis. The Civil War not expressly and deliberately invented, seems to ruined his prospects, but after 1641 he acquired have come from the same sources as the fictitious Latin and Greek, and took to translating. At lists of old Celtic Scottish kings. Sir Thomas, the Restoration fortune became kinder, and he having studied at King's College, Aberdeen, and was made Master of the Revels in Ireland for a travelled in France, Spain, and Italy, continued year or two; but before the Great Fire of 1666, by strenuously to support the court and oppose the which he suffered, was a printer and publisher-- Covenant. He was knighted by Charles I. in 1641, apparently prosperous-in London. He produced and even after he succeeded to his father (also a series of handsome folis on China, Japan, Africa, Sir Thomas), in the same year, was much plagued America, Britannia (Part i.), &c., with maps and by creditors—for Sir Thomas the elder had reckfine illustrations by Hollar. His principal poetic lessly and hopelessly embarrassed the family proachievements were translations of Virgil in heroic perty, and, probably on that account, had been verse, and of the Niad and the Odyssey; also a violently seized and imprisoned within ane upper rhyming paraphrase of Æsop, and some imitations chalmer (chamber] callit the Inner Dortour' by his of his own. Of these also magnificent folio editions undutiful sons. The second Sir Thomas accomwere issued with engravings by Hollar and others. panied Charles II. into England, and was taken A play and three epic or narrative poems by him prisoner at the battle of Worcester (1651). He seem never to have been printed. Pope tells us
is said to have died of an inordinate and unhe read Homer in this form with joy when a restrainable fit of joyful laughter on hearing of schoolboy. Ogilby's verses are utterly unpoetic, the Restoration. but they scan tolerably, and are perhaps hardly It is often said that the heaven-born translator bad enough to justify the place that has been must be a spiritual brother and compeer of his assigned him in the very lowest depths of the original, that it needs a profound humourist to poetical inferno. As poor poetasters have been render another profound humourist, and that more leniently judged.
Urquhart was the northern Rabelais.
Had we Thus Ogilby renders the Odyssey's picture nothing but the translation of Rabelais to judge (Book vi.) of the island king's daughter Nausicaa by, we might have been unable to dispute this so and her companions, on their washing expedition far as Urquhart is concerned. But he left us other (a sort of 'Caledonian washing ') to the river by works, and in none of them is there a single gleam the shore, just before the shipwrecked Ulvsses
of real humour, but abundance of the very contrary. presents himself to them :
Fantastical they are, eccentric, quaint, sometimes When to the pleasant Fountain they drew near
clever, copious, apt in vocables, and pointedly Where they might wash all seasons of the year,
satirical; but usually merely verbose, magniloquent, Where cleansing streams like purest Crystal spout ;
pretentious, and tedious, save where the author's There they alight and sweating Mules take out,
vanity and perverse foolishness make us laugh at And on the Margents of the purling Flood
him rather than with him. In truth, he is precisely Drove to sweet Grass ; their Chariot next unload, one of the types Rabelais most constantly makes And foul Weeds throw into the Crystall Spring, fun of-Rabelais, Cervantes, and all the humourists Which in full Troughs they trample in a ring,
-an inaccurate pedant, full of ill-digested learning, Each the Buck plying with a tab'ring Foot.
whose conceit, vanity, and vaingloriousness lay All clear from Spots, discolouring Stains and Smut, him open to incessant ridicule and satire, and They spread them forth in order near the Shore, rise to the level of sheer hallucination. No doubt Where they small Stones and Gravel 'spy most store.
Urquhart had some points in common with the Themselves then bath'd, persum'd, and neatly deckt
creator of Gargantua and Pantagruel-hatred of To Dinner went, where sitting they expect,
the conventional, contempt for ascetic ideals, an Until the Sun whiten their Weeds and dry. When feasted well, they lay their Chaplets by,
affinity for mythical genealogies and exhaustive To play at Ball. Amidst her virgin-train
lists of nearly synonymous words, and a prodiThe Princess first warbled a pleasant Strain.
gious command of language, especially of out-of
the-way words, very familiar and very unfamiliar Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty (1611-60), slang, archaisms, and neoterisms, not to speak of the translator of Rabelais, was a man of some- a free exercise of the privilege of coining. But what remarkable accomplishments and not a little the copiousness in Urquhart's case is not from curious learning, but eminently conceited and spontaneous suggestion ; it is rather the outcome eccentric, if not on some points hopelessly crazed. of the laborious or quasi-scientific imagination, He traces the genealogy of his family up to Adam, and a painful dependence on the synonyms of from whom he was the 153rd in descent, and by Cotgrave's Dictionary, which he discharges at the the mother's side he ascends to Eve. The first reader in sheaves and armfuls. He makes odd of the family who settled in Scotland was one mistakes, wholly missing the meaning of his Nomostor, married to Diosa (daughter of Alcibi- original, and trying very wild shots. He constantly ades), who took his farewell of Greece and arrived takes extraordinary liberties with the text-abridges, at Cromarty, or Portus Salutis, in 389 B.C. The alters, and greatly expands. Thus, in a famous
list of animal-cries, where Rabelais had been con- all conscience an additional increase to the heap of tent with nine, his translation gives us no less that stock which they so much adore ; which churlish than seventy-one, and suggests that he knew the
and tenacious humor hath made many that were not Complaynt of Scotlande (page 215). His style, acquainted with any else of that country to imagine all though far from perfect, is comparatively free from
their compatriots affected with the same leprosie of a Scotticism, though Scotch words (such as laird and
wretched peevishness, whereof these quomodocunquizing lairdship) and idioms do at times appear.
cluster-fists and rapacious varlets have given of late such continuator, Motteux, follows him in this, making
cannibal-like prooss, by their inhumanity and obdurate fiers comme Escossois 'as stout as any Scotch
carriage towards some whose shoestrings they are not
worthy to unty, that were it not that a more alile pen laird. Motteux, whose translation is naturally
than mine will assuredly not faile to jerk them on all more accurate, also arrogates to himself Urquhart's
sides, in case by their better demeanor for the future freedom in introducing locutions quite unknown they endeavour not to wipe off the blot wherewith their to France of the sixteenth century ; referring freely native country by their sordid avarice and miserable in the translation to Poor Pilgarlick, to Hans baseness hath been so foully stained, I would this very Carvel, and other characters equally unknown to instant blaze them out in their names and surnames, the curé of Mendon.
notwithstanding the vizard of Presbyterian zeal whereBesides his unparalleled translation of (part of)
with they maske themselves, that like so many wolves, Rabelais, the eccentric knight was author of a
foxes, or Athenian Timons, they might in all times coming treatise on Trigonometry (1650); Epigrams, Divine
be debarred the benefit of any honest conversation. and Moral (1646); Logopandecteision, or an Intro- The following paragraph, apologising for the duction to the Universal Language (1653); Ekskuba- plainness of his style in the Jewel, suddenly breaks lauron, or the Discovery of a most exquisite Jewel,
away from comparative verbal reasonableness, and which is described on the title-page as more
displays Urquhart in his most fantastic mood as precious than Diamonds inchased in Gold, the like
phrase-maker. It illustrates the same perverse whereof was never seen in any age ; found in the
fecundity of words, pedantic and otiose rather than Kennel of Worcester Streets the day after the Fight witty or amusing, put to happier use in the Rabelais : and six before the Autumnal Equinox, anno 1651.' This Jewel is a vindication of the honour of Scotland
I could truly, having before mine eyes some known
treatises of the authors whose muse I honour and the from the infamy' cast upon it by the rigid Presby
straine of whose pen to imitate is my greatest am: terian party, and from all false accusations of what
bition, have enlarged this discourse with a choicer ever sort, and is a panegyric on the Scots nation; it
variety of phrase, and made it overflow the field records the exploits of the Scot abroad-of learned
of the reader's understanding, with an inundation of doctors in foreign universities, and of gallant
greater eloquence; and that one way, tropologetically, colonels who earned renown in France, Spain,
by metonymical, ironical, metaphorical, and synecItaly, Flanders, Holland, Dutchland, Denmark, dochical instruments of elocution, in all their several Pole, Hungary, Swedland, and elsewhere, under kinds, artifically affected, according to the nature of the 'Gustavus Cæsaromastix’and other equally glorious subject, with emphatical expressions in things of great commanders. This affords him a chance of giving concernment, with catachrestical in matters of meaner at great length the (highly embellished) adventures moment; attended on each side respectively with an of the Admirable Crichton and others. He set him- epiplectick and exegetick modification ; with hyperboliself to show that it is the ‘kirkomanetick phil
cal, either epitatically or hypocoristically, as the purpose archaists' of the Covenant who by their malignancy
required to be elated or extenuated, with qualifying metaand narrow-mindedness have brought on the nation
phors, and accompanied by apostrophes ; and lastly, with the charge of covetousness. There are others, too,
allegories of all sorts, whether apologal, affabulatory,
parabulary, wenigmatick, or paræmial. And on the other who are to blame ! and of them he speaks with a
part, schematologetically adorning the proposed theam vehemency evidently bred of personal affliction at
with the most especial and chief flowers of the garden of their hands, in a breathless (but quite grammatical)
rhetorick, and omitting no figure either of diction or paragraph of one huge denunciatory sentence:
sentence, that might contribute to the ear's enchantment, Another thing there is that fixeth a grievous scandal or perswasion of the hearer. I could have introduced, upon that nation in matter of philargyrie or love of in case of obscurity, synonymal, exargastick, and palilomoney, and it is this : there hath been in London and getick elucidations ; for sweetness of phrase, antimetarepairing to it for these many years together a knot of thetick commutations of epithets ; for the vehement Scotish bankers, collybists, or coine-coursers, or traf- excitition of a matter, exclamation in the front, and fickers in merchandize to and againe, and of men of other epiphonemas in the reer. I could have used, for the professions who by hook and crook, fas et nefas, slight promptlyer stirring up of passion, apostrophal and proand might, all being as fish their net could catch, having sopopæial diversions ; and, for the appeasing and settling feathered their nests to some purpose, look so idolatrously of them, some epanorthotick revocations, and aposioupon their Dagon of wealth, and so closely, like the perick restraines. I could have inserted dialogismes, earth's dull center, hug all unto themselves, that for no displaying their interrogatory part with communicatively respect of vertue, honor, kinred, patriotism, or whatever pysmatick and sustentative flourishes ; or proleptically, else, be it never so recommendable, will they depart from with the resutative schemes of anticipation and subjecone single peny, whose emission doth not, without any tion, and that part which concerns the responsory, with hazard of loss, in a very short time superlucrate beyond the figures of permission and concession. Speeches
extending a matter beyond what it is, auxetically, digressively, transitiously, by ratiocination, ætiology, circumlocution, and other wayes, I could have made use of; as likewise with words diminishing the worth of a thing, tapinotically, periphrastically, by rejection, translation, and other meanes, I could have served myself.
His verse is cumbrous and commonplace, the following being a fair specimen :
The way to vertue 's hard, uneasie, bends
And reason in each human breast ordaines
That precious things be purchased with paines. Only the first two books of the History of Gargantua and Pantagruel were translated by Sir Thomas Urquhart in 1653. These were published in his lifetime ; and Peter Anthony Monteux (1660-1718)by birth a French Huguenot, but known as a dramatic writer in English-republished them in 1693, and added the third from Urquhart's papers. In 1708 he published a complete translation, the fourth and fifth books being his own. This joint production was again published in 1737 by John Ozell (d. 1743), with corrections
The standard edition is that in the Tudor Translations' (3 vols. 1900), by Mr Charles Whibley. The Maitland Club published Urquhart's original works (2 vols. 1834); there is an excellent monograph on Urquhart's life and works (1899) by the Rev. John Willcock.
Sir George Mackenzie (1636–91) was native of Dundee, nephew of the Earl of Seaforth. He was educated at St Andrews and Aberdeen, and studied civil law at Bourges, in France. In 1660 he published Aretine; or the Serious Romance, a tedious Egyptian story in a stilted style. He seems to have been almost the only learned man of his time in Scotland who maintained an acquaintance with the lighter departments of contemporary English literature. He was a friend of Dryden, by whom he is mentioned with great respect ; and he himself composed poetry, which, if it has no other merit, is at least in good English, and appears to have been fashioned after the best models of the time. He also wrote some moral essays, and deserves to be remembered as one of the first Scots authors to write English with purity. In 1665 he published at Edinburgh A Moral Essay, preferring Solitude to Public Employment, which drew forth an answer from John Evelyn. The writer who contended for solitude was busily employed in public life, being the principal lawofficer of the crown, the King's Advocate for Scotland ; while Evelyn, whose pursuits were principally those which ornament retirement—who longed to be delivered from the gilded impertinences of life'--stood forward as the champion of public and active employment. Other essays deal with the religion of the Stoic, moral gallantry, the moral history of frugality, reason, and the like. The literary efforts of the noble wit of Scotland,' as Dryden called him, were but holiday recreationshis business was law and politics. He was author of Institutions of the Law of Scotlanii, and Laws and Customs in Matters Criminal; Jus Regium, treatises against the Covenanters, and a vindication of the government of Charles II. in its severe treatment of them ; also A Defence of the
Antiquity of the Royal Line of Scotland, in which he gravely supports the story of the forty fabulous kings deduced from Gathelus, son-in-law of Pharaoh, and his spouse Scota (see page 256). His work on Heraldry was long a standard ; but an important historical work, entitled Memoirs of the Affairs of Scotland, from the Restoration of Charles II., lay in manuscript till 1821. Mackenzie, who in 1661 defended the Marquis of Argyll, unhappily disgraced himself by subserviency to the court, and by the inhumanity and cruelty with which, as Lord Advocate (after 1677), he conducted the prosecutions and persecutions of the Covenanters; and he lives in the memory of the Scottish people as · Bluidy Mackenzie.' There is, it need hardly be said, no bloodthirstiness in his poems, essays, or even law-books; he appears as an accomplished gentleman, a kindly philosopher, and an orthodox and even earnest Christian ; and all his moral arguments were in favour of sweet reasonableness, though somewhat strenuous against fanatics and fanaticism. He was a friend of the pious Robert Boyle, to whom he dedicated his Essay on Reason. Yet as a name of evil omen for cruelty, the accomplished advocate and public prosecutor ranks as the Scottish counterpart of Judge Jeffreys. He himself said none had screwed the king's prerogative higher than he; and he is mainly responsible for directing the savage persecution which Claverhouse had the ignoble task of seeing carried out. He it was who founded the Library of the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh ; and so all workers in literature in Scotland owe him, and those who have since his time administered the library, a deep debt of gratitude. At the Revolution he retired to England. In one of his few poems he thus chaunted the
Praise of a Country Life. O happy country lise, pure like its air ; Free from the rage of pride, the pangs of care. Here happy souls lie bathed in sost content, And are at once secure and innocent. No passion here but love : here is no wound But that by which lovers their names confound On barks of trees, whilst with a smiling face They see those letters as themselves embrace. Here the kind myrıles pleasant branches spread; And sure no laurel casts so sweet a shade. Yet all these country pleasures, without love, Would but a dull and tedious prison prove. But oh! what woods (and) parks (and) meadows lie In the blest circle of a mistress' eye! What courts, what camps, what triumphs may one find Displayed in Cælia, when she will be kind ! What a dull thing this lower world had been, If heavenly beauties were not sometimes seen! For when fair Cælia leaves this charming place, Her absence all its glories does deface.
Against Envy. We may cure envy in ourselves either by considering how useless or how ill these things were for which we envy our neighbours ; or else how we possess as much or
as good things. If I envy his greatness, I consider that he wants my quiet : as also I consider that he possibly envies me as much as I do him ; and that when I begun to examine exactly his perfections, and to balance them with my own, I found myself as happy as he was. And though many envy others, yet very few would change their condition even with those whom they envy, all being considered. And I have oft admired why we have suffered ourselves to be so cheated by contradictory vices, as to contemn this day him whom we envied the last ; or why we envy so many, since there are so few whom we think to deserve as much as we do. Another great help against envy is, that we ought to consider how much the thing envied costs him whom we envy, and if we would take it at the price. Thus, when I envy a man for being learned, I consider how much of his health and time that learning consumes: if for being great, how he should flatter and serve for it ; and if I would not pay his price, no reason I ought to have what he has got. Sometimes, also, I consider that there is no reason for my envy : he whom I envy deserves more than he has, and I less than I possess. And by thinking much of these, I repress their envy, which grows still from the contempt of our neighbour and the overrating ourselves. As also I consider that the perfections envied by me may be advantageous to me; and thus I check myself for envying a great pleader, but am rather glad that there is such a man, who may defend my innocence: or to envy a great soldier, because his valour may defend my estate or country. And when any of my countrymen begin to raise envy in me, I alter the scene, and begin to be glad that Scotland can boast of so fine a man ; and I remember, that though now I am angry at him when I compare him with myself, yet if I were discoursing of my nation abroad, I would be glad of that merit in him which now displeases me. Nothing is envied but what appears beautiful and charming; and it is strange that I should be troubled at the sight of what is pleasant. I endeavour also to make such my friends as deserve my envy; and no man is so base as to envy his friend. Thus, whilst others look on the angry side of merit, and thereby trouble themselves, I am pleased in admiring the beauties and charms which burns [sic] them as a fire, whilst they warm me as the sun.
(From Essays on Happiness.)
and true popularity is to be just ; for all men esteem him most who secures most their private interest, and protects best their innocence. And all who have any notion of a Deity, believe that justice is one of His chief attributes ; and that, therefore, whoever is just, is next in nature to Him, and the best picture of Him, and to be reverenced and loved. But yet how few trace this path ! most men choosing rather to toil and vex themselves in seeking popular applause, by living high and in profuse prodiga. lities, which are entertained by injustice and oppression ; as if rational men would pardon robbers because they feasted them upon a part of their own spoils ; or did let them see fine and glorious shows, made for the honour of the giver upon the expence of the robbed spectators. But when a virtuous person appears great by his merit, and obeyed only by the charming force of his reason, all men think him descended from that heaven which he serves, and to him they gladly pay the noble tribute of deserved praises.
(From the Essay on Reason.) Mackenzie's collected works appeared, with a Life, in 2 vols., edited by the grammarian Ruddiman. See also Thomson's edition of the Memoirs (1821); Omond, The Lord Advocates of Scotland (1883); and Taylor Innes, Studies in Scottish History (1892).
Andrew Fletcher, born in 1655, succeeded early to the family estate of Saltoun, was educated mainly by Bishop Burnet (then minister of Saltoun), and represented the shire of Lothian in the Scottish Parliament in the reign of Charles II. He opposed the arbitrary designs of the Duke of York, afterwards James II., and retired to Holland. Here he formed a close friendship with the English refugee patriots, and he returned to England with the Duke of Monmouth in 1685. Happening, in a personal quarrel, to kill another member of the expedition (one Dare), Fletcher again went abroad, travelled in Spain, and in Hungary fought with distinction against the Turks. He returned at the Revolution, and took an active part in Scottish affairs. His opinions were republican, and he was of a haughty, unbending temper ; 'brave as the sword he wore,' according to a contemporary, “and bold as a lion: a sure friend, and an irreconcilable enemy: would lose his life readily to serve his country, and would not do a base thing to save it.' Fletcher opposed the union of Scotland with England in 1707, believing, with many zealous but narrow-sighted patriots of that day, that it would eclipse the glory of ancient Caledonia. He strove for a federative, not an incorporating union, and sketched out an ingenious but doctrinaire scheme for partitioning the three kingdoms into provinces or states, each with a local capital and a large measure of home rule. So little was he merely a fanatical Conservative Scot, that Scotland was to fall into two provinces, of neither of which was Edinburgh to be capital ; he thought Edinburgh very awkwardly situated for a metropolis, as being neither central, nor on the sea, nor on a navigable river. After the Union he retired from public life in disgust, and devoted himself to promoting improvements in agriculture ; and he died at London in 1716.
Like his somewhat older contemporary, Sir
The True Path to Esteem. I have remarked in my own time that some, by taking too much care to be esteemed and admired, have by that course missed their aim ; whilst others of them who shunned it, did meet with it, as if it had fallen on them whilst it was flying from the others ; which proceeded from the unfit means these able and reasonable men took to establish their reputation. It is very strange to hear men value themselves upon their honour, and their being men of their word in trifles, when yet that same honour cannot tie them to pay the debts they have contracted upon solemn promise of secure and speedy repayment; starving poor widows and orphans to feed their lusts; and adding thus robbery and oppression to the dishonourable breach of trust. And how can we think them men of honour, who, when a potent and foreign monarch is oppressing his weaker neighbours, hazard their very lives to assist him, though they would rail at any of their acquaintance, that, meeting a strong man fighting with a weaker, should assist the stronger in his oppression ?
The surest and most pleasant path to universal esteem
George Mackenzie, Fletcher wrote only in English advantageous, but a very grievous burden to so poor a (not Scots), and did succeed in writing a vigorous country. And though the number of them be perhaps style wonderfully free from Scottish peculiarities.
double to what it was formerly, by reason of this present His Discourse of Government appeared in 1698, his
great distress, yet in all times there have been about one Two Discourses concerning the Affairs of Scotland
hundred thousand of those vagabonds, who have lived in the same year. The Discorso della Cose di
without any regard or subjection either to the laws of the
land, or even those of God and nature. . No magistrate Spagna (1698 also) was printed only in Italian.
could ever be informed or discover which way one in a His Speeches in the Scottish Parliament are both
hundred of these wretches died, or that ever they were eloquent and sincere, though his political ideals
baptized. Many murders have been discovered among were perverse and unpractical. An Account of a
them ; and they are not only a most unspeakable oppresConversation concerning a Right Regulation of sion to poor tenants (who, if they give not bread, or Governments for the common Good of Mankind
some kind of provision, to perhaps forty such villains (1703) is forcibly written, and contains much sound
in one day, are sure to be insulted by them), but they sense amidst its strong appeals in favour of rob many poor people who live in houses distant from Scottish independence. In this letter occurs the any neighbourhood. In years of plenty many thousands famous saying, so constantly quoted and so uni
of them meet together in the mountains, where versally misinterpreted, about ballads. The con- they feast and riot for many days; and at country. versation was supposed to be between the Earl of weddings, markets, burials, and the like public occaCromarty, Sir Edward Seymour, Sir Christopher
sions, they are to be seen, both men and women, Musgrave, and Fletcher himself, and had nothing
perpetually drunk, cursing, blaspheming, and fighting in the world to do with ballads such as ‘Chevy
together. These are such outrageous disorders, that it
were better for the nation they were sold to the galleys Chase' or the Robin Hood series, but the unholy
or West Indies than that they should continue any songs of the day, Tom Durfey's no doubt in
longer to be a burden and curse upon us. cluded ; ‘ballad' as used of romantic poems like the Border ballads is essentially a modern
But better than sending them to the plantations usage, the older custom always implying some
would be to keep them at home, utilising their kind of song: Fletcher's argument was on the
services, and drilling them into a higher moral
condition. utter inefficiency of all government regulations,
The scheme of setting native vagaaccording to Sir Christopher Musgrave, to put
bonds to work as serfs was not, as is commonly down the corruptions of London society in those
supposed, a novelty in Fletcher ; it was fully recogdays—the luxury of women, the number of prosti
nised by a long series of Scottish laws from 1579 tutes, and the debauchery of the poor of both sexes,
to 1661, and partially enforced too. Fletcher, howwho are daily tempted to all manner of lewdness
ever, went beyond the highest flight of Scots law by the infamous ballads sung in every corner of
in this department, and argued in favour of comthe streets. 6“ One would think," said the Earl,
pelling all Scottish landlords to take white slaves in “this last were of no great consequence.” I said
proportion to the size of their holdings. Fletcher's I knew a wise man so much of Sir Christopher's
scheme may well have suggested a similar one to sentiment, that he believed if a man were permitted
Defoe for London vagrants, expounded in Everyto make all the ballads, he need not care who
body's Business. Carlyle's views on the beneficence should make the laws of a nation. And we find
of the whip as a stimulus to honest industry at that most of the antient legislators thought they
home and abroad have also points of affinity. could not well reform the manners of any city
Fletcher's Political Works appeared, 'with a character of the
author,' in 1732, and was reprinted in 1737, 1747, and later. There without the help of a lyric, and sometimes of
is a short and rather meagre Life by G, Omond (1897), which passes a dramatic, poet.
But in this city (London] too lightly over many of Fletcher's most pregnant ideas and interthe dramatic poet no less than the ballad-maker esting characteristics. On Serfdom in Scotland, see the Edinburgh
Review for January 1899. has been almost wholly employed to corrupt the people, in which they have had most unspeakable William Cleland (1661 ?-89) showed less to and deplorable success.'
advantage as a poet than as the heroic defender Enthusiastic admiration of the Greek and Roman of Dunkeld in 1689, when the Cameronian regirepublics led Fletcher to praise even slavery as ment under his command stemmed and turned maintained by them. He represents the condition backward the rush of four thousand Highlanders of the slaves as happy and useful, and by way of flushed with the victory of Killiecrankie. The son contrast paints the state of the lowest class in Scot- of the Marquis of Douglas's gamekeeper, Cleland land in colours that (even if they be somewhat too studied at St Andrews, became a zealous Covedark) show how frightfully disorganised the country nanter, fought at Drumclog and Bothwell Brig was at that period. In the Second Discourse on (where he was a captain), and as a refugee in the Affairs of Scotland occurs this lurid picture : Holland studied law at Utrecht, and helped to
negotiate the Prince of Orange's expedition. There are at this day in Scotland (besides a great many poor families very meanly provided for by the
He was the first lieutenant-colonel of the regichurch-boxes, with others who, by living on bad food,
ment raised after the Revolution from amongst fall into various diseases) two hundred thousand people
the westland Cameronians (afterwards the 26th), begging from door to door. These are not only noway and he fell, still under thirty years of age, in