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206 Proceedings of France and Spain respecting Portugal. concurred, in consequence of general declare, that, without further repredirections, that he should consider the sentations, on their part, or any coninterest of Spain as the interest of France, sent on the part of Portugal, the Spato the following effect :

nish troops, already on the frontiers, It is not in the King of Portugal's will enter Portugal, and advance till power to contribute to a peace, ex. they shall obtain, that the ports of Porcept by exerting his force to compel tugal shall not be in the disposal of the English to listen to reasonable pro- A the enemy : It remains, therefore, say posals of accommodation, which they they, for his Portuguese majesty to chule have hitherto despised, and this he is whether he will receive those troops now invited to do.

as allies, or refuse them entrance, and The defensive alliances of Portugal oppose them as enemies ; if the latter, and England, are not so innocent as pre- Spain will take all possible precautions, tended, nor are they reasonable obfta- believing their fufpicions well foun cles against the alliance proposed with ded, that Portugal will march against

B France and Spain.

them with English forces, and endeaThey are not innocent, because, tho' vour to obstruct their just designs. called defensive only, they become in On the 5th of April, the court of reality offensive from the situation of Portugal, in answer to this reply, obthe Portuguese dominions, and the na- serves, that the declaration made in ture of the English power; for the En- it by the ministers of France and Spain, glish squadrons cannot keep the seas in “ That if Portugal did not comply all sealons, or cruize on the principal


with their requisition, (notwithstandcoasts for cutting off the French and ing the reasons fe had urged against Spanish navigation, without the ports it,) the Spanish troops, which had aland assistance of Portugal: nor would ready marched to the frontiers, should the English be able to insult all mara- enter into the King of Portugal's countime Europe, if the whole richies of Por- try, to seize his ports, and shut them tugal did not pass into their hands; up, and that no choice was left to his Portugal, therefore, furnishes England D majesty, but either to receive them as with the means of making war, conse- friends, or treat them as enemies, was quently the alliance of Portugal with most furprizing and unexpected; but England is offenfive.

that he will, nevertheleis, keep his Neither is it a just obstacle against the treaties with England, which he thinks alliance proposed with France and Spain: it unlawful to violate. It is also ob

1, Because no alliance is obligatory lerved, that if no treaty is defensive against Thaking off a yoke which one from which the parties derive advan

E nation would lay upon another, and tages, which naturally strengthen their England is far advanced in a project of hands against an enemy, there can be laying a yoke upon Portugal.

no such thing as a defensive treaty, 2dly, Portugal has received an of- the motives and intention of all treafence from England, for England at- ties being the acquisition of such ad. tacked a French squadron in one of vantages. the ports of Portugal, which gives Por- His

Portuguese majesty acknowledges Vugal a right to declare war against F that his want of experienced officers England if suitable fatisfaction is not being notorious, he has invited over made ; & if satisfaction has been made Lord Tyrawly, and some other English to Portugal, without a restitution of the officers, to exercise his troops, in which French thips, France has a right to de- he has done nothing more than has flare war against Portugal.

been commonly done by all sovereigns France and Spain do not complain of in general, without raising any sufPortugal for putting her ports in a G picion, or distrust : He acknowledges Itate of defence, but of the preference also, that he has received reparation given to England to send succours to from the King of Great Britain, for the Portugal for that purpose ; if the En- attack of the French feet in one of glish had been convinced that the pre- the ports of Portugal ; he adds, that parations of Portugal were only against he has demanded reftitution of the those who should offend against its neu- French ships, which he thinks it more trality, they would not have contri- hlikely to obtain from the friendship of buted to them with so much good will. his Britannick majefty, at a convenient

Upon the whole, the ministers of opportunity, than by a precipitate France and Spain insist upon a compli- war, which, on the contrary, may ance with the demand made in the render the restitution impracticable. memorial of the alóth of March, and For these reasons, his Portuguese me


Account of new Acquisitions in the West Indies.

207 jesty hopes the King of Spain will not I have now, my Lord, to acqupint give an example, which, if followed, you, that on the 8th instant, a French would end in the destruction of man- fleet appeared to windward of this ifkind, by attacking a neutral power, land off Trinity, and the same evening merely because it has defensive trea- sent a boat to the shore, with an officer ties with powers at war: And he de. A in it, to get intelligence. They did clares, that, if the Spanish troops en- not land, but spoke to a Frenchman and ter Portugal under any pretence, he some negroes that were at work in a will repress an invasion lo violent and field. They lay to, and stood to windd unexpected, by force, and with his 'ward until about one o'clock on the own troops, joined to those of his al- soth, when they stood before the wind, lies, do bis utmost to support his neu

and came almost within cannon fhot of trality, which is the only object for Trinity ; infomuch that Major Gordon which they shall be employed. B Graham, who commanded there with

Finally, his majetty declares, that it the second battalion of Royal Highwould affect him'less to see the last landers, thought they were going to kone of bis palace overturned, and land ; but they changed their course, the last drop of blood in his domini- and stood for the island of Dominique. ons lhed, than by such extraordinary

The Admiral immediately, on receivmeans to be made an unheard of ex- ing the account of the enemy's fleet ample to all pacific powers, who will being to windward, got under fail, and no longer be able to enjoy the benefit C went in search of the enemy, but was of neutrality whenever a war shall be not lucky enough to meet with them. kindled between any other powers This, my Lord, will be delivered to with whom they are connected by de- you by Gapt. Wood of the 98th regifensive treaties.

ment, whom I had appointed as an

additional aid de camp, on being join. Extract of a Letter from Major General ed at Barbadoes by the troops from Bel

Monckton to the Earl of Egremont, leife. I should not do him the justice dated at St Peter's in the inand of Mar- D due to his merit, did I not acquaint tinico, March 18, 1762. Received your lordship that he is very deserving the 28th of April, by Capt. Wood. of his majesty's favour.

Had the honour of writing to you I the 27th of last month, by Captain

Copy of a Letter from Brig. Gen, Walth Ricaut, one of my aids de camp, who to Major Gen. Monckton. failed from hence the ift instant, in his SIR, Ife oj Granade, March 6, 1762."

E majesty's ship the Zephir. (see p. 162.)

Have the pleasure to congratulate I have now the honour of acquaint

you on the entire rectuction of this ing you of the surrender of the island illand, together with the Grenadillas of Grenada, with its dependencies, on and their dependencies, to the obedithe sth inftant, to the thips of war and

ence of his majesty: troops, which the Admiral and I fent I arrived here the 3d instant with for its reduction, under Commodore the troops under my command ; and Swanton, and Brig. Gen. Walp. The p according to your orders, and in consame terms of capitulation were grant

junction with Commodore Swanton, I ed, as the citadel of Fort Royal and this

sent Lieut. Col. Scott the same day on iland had. Inclosed is a copy of Brig.

More, to summon the governor, with Gen. Wal/b's letter.

the troops and inhabitants to surrenBy the accountour engineers give of

der, and accept the famourable terms the situation of the fort in this island, you were pleased to offer them. They and the intrenched hills above it, the had been summoned by Commodore enemy might have defended it a long G Swanton to submit, before my arrival, time, although their whole force con

but they declined it; however, upon filted chiefly in Inhabitants and Free

being made sensible of your clemency, booters. There were but a very fmall

and the risk they ran if they continued number of soldiers.

obtinate, the inhabitants thought proAs the island of Grenada is now re- per to take the benefit of the capituladuced, I have ordered Brig. Walsh from

tion, and accordingly signed it, the the Granades, leaving the 95th regi.

night before last. opent there, to take posseihen of St H They abandoned a very strong and Vincent's ; and I am sending a detach

advantageous pofi, commanding the ment from hence to take poffefion of

fort, which the governor, with the ReSt Lucia, where there is a fort, but none

gulars and Freebuters, had determined at St l'incent's.

to defend. I landed yesterday at day


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Description of the Granadas. break with the grenadiers, light infan- to the hore, and in the bay, at leaf try, and 27th regiment, and got porc. 1000 thips may ride safe from storms. session of a favourable poft. Thego- The bason too, which is separated vernor, finding himself abandoned by from the harbour by a fand-bank, the inhabitants, and the communica- might be made capable of containing tion with the counry and every supply A a great number of shipping; but for cut off, submitted without firing a want of a cut through the laid bank, gun; so that this valuable conquest large vessels are obliged to be brought has not coft us a single man.

round within a few paces of a small HUNT WALSH. mountain at the mouth of the harbour.:

About half a mile from this mountain Account of the Island of GRANADA. is a second, of nearly the same big

of all the French Carribbees, to been built, with half moonsand the Spanish province of New Andaluha ther works of defence. Between the in South America, lies S. W. of Barba. harbour also and bason, is another fort

its form resembles a crescent, of wood, 25 feet in diameter, and being in length between nine and ten strengthened with a strong palisado of leagues, and about half as many broad whole trees. The first mountain likewhere widelt.

wise, under which ships are obliged to The first inhabitants were native c pass, is defended by batteries. At the Carribbeans, who are faid to have been two corners of the wooden fort, fronttempted to settle here in greater num- ing the sea, are two pavillions, one of bers than in any other Carribbee i- which is the residence of the goverflands, on account of the fertility of nor. The church of St Lewis is but the soil, and the great plenty of fish and a mean building, being, for the most game.

part, composed of canes, supported by Its maritime coast is mountainous,

D prọngs. In this island are many exparticularly about the Port of St Lewa cellent salt-pits, with several beauti. is, but in other parts the country is ful vales and rivers of fine water, the more level, and affords the necessaries lalt of which mostly derive their source of life in great abundance, as well from a large lake on the top of a high as good travelling. Its air also is mountain, about the middle of the i. reckoned healthy, and the fruits and fand. The rivers all form little har. timber trees which grow here, are said bours at their entrance into the sea, to be superior to those of the other i. E many of which are fortified, and yield Nands, the cocoa alone excepted, wbich good anchorage. They all too, more does not thrive near so well. Among or less, enable the inhabitants to carry the latter, that called the Latin Tree on their traffick, being convenient for is more especially noted by travellers, the mooring of ships and the unlading on account of the straitness and tall- of goods. This, with its natural proness of the trunk, and the fan-like duce, renders it a very desirable acquiform of the leaves, with which the in- sition

; and another circumstance, habitants cover their houses. The f which adds not a little to the value of principal food of the inhabitants con- Granada, is, that all the year round it lists of wild-fowl, cattle, and armadil- is free from those dreadful hurricanes Jos, the flesh of the last of which is which most of the other islands between reckoned by them equal to the best the Tropics are so subject to. mutton, Tortoises also and lamantins are found here in great plenty, to- Copy of Dr WARD'S WILL. gether with partridges, wood-pigeons,

Extra&ted from the Registry of the Preroortolans, thrushes, parrots, &c. and in G a river near a foundation of Domini

gative Court of Canterbury.

Fosbua Ward are cels, mullets, and in plenty. The other products of the i. by, as in duty bound, I return my moft iland are sugar, ginger, indico, tobac- humble and hearty thanks to Almighty co. pease and millet.

God for the manifold blessings receive Port Lewis, above-mentioned, stands ed from him in the course of my life. on the western part of Granada, in the H As also for all the good and benefit centre of a fine bay, having a sandy which others may have received thro' bottom. It is said, that the harbour my weak endeavours, hoping fuch, as alone will contain upwards of 100 well as myself, will ascribe it to his hovefsels, of 1000 tons cach, close moored ly' name.' I quit this world with a

aans, about ten miles from Port Lewis I liko nay late will & teftament, where

Dr Ward's Will. Fleas in Snow. Qu. on Human Sacrifices. 209 kind and grateful sense of all favours reduced to a fine powder had been conferred upon me by friends and be- strewed about ; at least it appeared so nefactors. I very sincerely forgive all to me on horseback, and I observed the my enemies, and earnestly with that same thing as I rode by some thickets God may pardon their offences as well of trees and shrubs,and on some plowed as mine. It is with humble confi- A fields. Being curious to know what dence that I expect to enjoy eternal they really were, I desired the servant life, as the free gift of God, through that accompanied me to alight, and Jesus Chrif. I defire that my breath- examine the snow. He told me, that leis body may be buried in Westminster the black spots which I perceived were Abbey, within the rails of the altar, fand fleas; and, having taken up and shewn as near the altar as may be; if not al- me a handful of the snow, I was surlowed to be buried there, then, as I prized to find it full of them. I then said above, as near the altar as may

be. B dismounted myself, and saw a prodigiAs to my worldly effects I give, devise, ous number of them in different parts, and bequeath the same in the manner and jumping away to avoid, as it were, following:

being caught. Several were buried Imprimis, I give to my fister Marga- deep in the snow, but all alive. When ret Garsel 500l. and to my fifter Ann I came to my journey's end, having reManly sool. I give to my neice Re- ported this itrange phænomenon to the becca Ward, daughter to my nephew gentleman I had business with, he told

с Knox Ward, 2000). I give to my servant me, that some years ago, he had obAlexander Moreton, 150 l, if living with served the same thing himself in some me at my deceafe ; I give to wm Wood snow which had fallen, and was pretty my coachman, 100l. if living with me deep ; and that at another time he had at my decease; I give to Thomas Lane seen worms in snow, but could give : my groom, sol. if living with me at me no just idea of their form. my decease; I give to Charles Tyler my

I am, Sir, Yours, &c. A. B. pottillion, if living with me at my decease, 50 l. I give to Anthony Williams D Mr Urban, may be indebted to me at my deceales W Henever I reflect on the almost

universal abhorrence of unproI give to Mary Bright, if living with me voked cruelty ; on the unwillingness · at my deceale, sol. I give to my ne- most men testify to infli&t even pain on pbew, Colonel Wm Gansel, all sums of their fellow-men ; on the horror in money whatsoever he shall be indebted which we are seized at the bare thought to me at my decease, either by bond of putting one of our own species to :

E or otherwise, and also 1000 l. in mo



on the detestation in ney ; as also I give him any three which those wretches are held, who. pi&tures he shall choose. I do appoint have perpetrated so savage a deed. I my two nephews, Ralph Ward and The- am quite at a loss to conceive, how any mas Ward, fons to my nephew Knox man, born with such sentiments, ever Ward, my whole and sole executors of could so totally divest himself of those this my last will and teftament, giving inbred feelings of humanity, and steel to them all the rest and residue of my his heart to so strange a degree, as

F effects, of what nature soever, except (deliberately, in cold blood, and unthe sum of 500 l. which I will shall be injured) to offer upia fellow-creature distributed, with the affiftance of my as a sacrifice to atone for his own fins, nephew Wm Gansel, to such as they or for the fins of his ration. I have fall all three think proper objects. often endeavoured to trace this pracWitness my hand, this first day of tice to its true origin; and should be Marcb, seventeen hundred and fixty. very glad of affiftance in the enquiry:

JOSHUA WARD. In this view, I should be much obliged

G This will was proved at London the to any of your ingenious and learned 8th of January, 1762.

correspondents, who would favour me

with their opinion on any, or all of the SIR, Norwich, 1762. following Queries.

11, At how early a period human ney a few miles from this place, facrifices commenced ? the day after the chilling storm of snow 2d, Whether the first was of a counand wind had deltroyed so many lives, tryman or of an Alien taken in war ?

H See p. 141. I perceived on the road, 3d, Whether such sacrifices were that the snow which covered the firit made use of as atonements, or to ground, was interspersed in several take omens froin, for the purposes of parts with little black specks, as if foot augury ?


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210 Cure for the Head- Ach.-Queries about Linnen Paper.

4th, Whether they were not most and applied them to the temporal arprevalent in those countries which teries, from whence they had no sooner were the least civilized ?

fucked out a certain quantity of black şth, Whether we know of any nation and melancholic blood, but the pains where they were forbidden ?

were assuaged. The same officer ex6th, Whether it was not a natural perienced on another occasion the be. inference, from the command given by nefit of this remedy: A defluxion of God to Abraham to offer up his son, A black bile had cauled a swelling in his that such an offering (in some very ex

tongue, which could not be dissipated tracrdinary cases) was in itself allowa- by the usual remedies; his tongue was ble, if not praise-worthy; tho' in that hard, dry, without motion throughout particular instance, the Deity was plea

one half of its length, and consequentled to dispense with Abraham's compli- ly incapable of jts ordinary functions ; ance, fatisfied with the proof the Pa

but, the suction of the leeches having triarch had given of his readiness to

extracted the thick viscid humour, the obey even the harshest order of his B patient intirely recovered. 7. S. M. D. God ?-I mean, whether such an infe. rence was not a a

Mr URBAN, bouring heathen

R Gerard come to the knowledge of the fact, and who must be suppoled unacquaint

discovering the time when our comed with the reasons that occafioned mon paper made of linnen rags, &c. the command ? Nay, farther, whether c was first used, has published a Memoir a Heathen in such a situation, might not thereon, in the Bibliotheque des Sciences fuppose such an offering acceptable to for : October, November, and December the Deity?

1761, p. 444, art. 12, and imagines its Yours, &c. PHILALITHES. first constant ule may be fought be

tween the year 1270 and 1302. Case of a Lady tormented with a violent He, therefore, invites the learned of Head-Ach : With the Cure.


Europe, especially librarians, record. Lady, about 30 years of age, had

keepers, ģc. to search for all ancient

manuscripts, diplomas, grants, and remented with an almost insupportable

cords, &c. wrote or printed on com. pain in her head, which had relifted all mon or linnen paper; and, if they find the remedies I thought proper in her

any, to notify, with great exactness, case; fo that, having exhausted all the

the title of lucha manuscript, &c. its resources of medicine, I had recourse date, and the place where it is now to leeches, a remedy féidom employed,

kept, always being very cautious, that though I was well acquainted with its

it is this coinmon paper, and of no other efficacy. They had not been applied

kind; and, if they will send their meabove twice, when that obstinate pain

moirs or accounts before January or of her head was mitigated, and she February 1763 to him at Rotterdam, he foon found herself perfectly cured.

will then range them in a journal like During the use of the remedy, the per: F afterwards publith them ; but to that

manner, with the author's names, and ceived, that, as long as the leeches drew blood of a bright red colour, she

author who discovers the antientest madid not find herself in the least eafed ;

nuscript or record-paper, 'wbich thall but that when, by continuing to fuck,

be really proved and confirmed so to they drew a black and viscid blood,

be, he will give a reward of 25 gold she immediately found herself deli- ducats (about gs. 64. each) which ihall livered from her pain.

be paid to the winner in money, or in The first idea I had of the utility of G books to that value, according as he the application of leeches, was frorn

likes belt, or chules. perusing the literary acts of Sweden. Szs 007.1783-1: 137.

EMANUEL MENDES DA COSTA. where I found the case of one of the military officers of that nation, who

Remedies againf the Cramp. In answer had been attacked by fo violent a pain

to a Request in cur lajt, p. 172. in his head, that it sometimes occasi- CHE cramp is produced by an ob

struction in Tome of the vessels ahle physicians of Sweden used their of the part affected, which renders best endeavours, but unsuccessfully, the motion of the blood through them to procure him some ease. Atlalt, the Nower than it ought to be, and what. violence of his pains continuing, some- ever brings the blood to Aow freely body proposed to him fome leeches, again, puts an end to it.

A gentle


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