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Father la Tour of the Society of Jefus. 349 ing it heroic. This man, whose name bably there will be no genuine ediin all ages will be remembered with tion of my works till after my death, admiration; and such as have imi- However, after all, I am little ambitated him, were the objects of my tious of adding to the number of books flander.”

with which the world is peftored, proNow, supposing that the Jesuit who vided I can but be considered as an heard this conteflinn, had received individual among those who have presome personal injury from all the per- A lerved their integrity, their attachfons whom the penitent had calam- ment to their sovereign, their zeal for niated ; and suppoting him a relation their country, their fidelity to their and friend of the penitent himself, friends, and their gratitude to their would he not however tell him, You first maiters. have been guilty of heinous crimes, With these sentiments, I shall ever which you cannot do too much to be, Molt Reverend Father, &c. expiate?

Paris, Feb. 7, 1746.

VOLTAIRE. This penitent, however, would per- B Gift in daily aspering all that is moft An Historical Account of the Titles of such venerable on earth, and his confeflor Princes of Wales as were born wbilf would not now be spared; for, because their Fathers were upon the Throne. he had ditapproved of his evil ways, THE heir to the crown of England he would accure both him and bis bre

has the title of Prince of Wales. thren of loose morals.

Next to his father, he is chief in the The fcribbler of the lihel is heartily

C realin, and, by course of the civil law, welcome to my namne, to charge me

is to fit at his right hand in all folemn with principles which I never adopt

allemblies of late and honour; but' ed, and books which I never wrote, or which have been Icandalously corrupt

he has no kingly prerogative by the

laws of Britain, in the life of his faved by the editors : I thall only say,

ther (a); but acknowledges a revewhat the great Corneille said on a fimi

rence, not only as to a father, but also lar occasion, I submit my writings to

as to his fovereign; and to that purthe judgment of the Church. I queition D pole, continues that motto ICH DIEN, whether he will do as much. I will

I serve (b). go Itill farther; I declare to him, and

By a statute of the 25th of Edw. III. all his associates, that if, under my

chap. 2. it is declared, “ That to comname, a single page has been printed

pass or imagine the death of the king's which flanders but the fexton of their

eldet fon and heir, is Crimen læfæ Ma. parim, I am ready to tear it to pieces

jeflatis, High treason; as also to viobefore him; that I will both live and die in the bofom of the catholic, apo

E late the wife of the king's eldest son."

Sir Willini Segar faith, he is stild ftolic, and Roman church, without

Princeps, quia principalis in firenuitate advancing or supporting any thing

poff regem (c). Since the Union, his that may prove prejudicial er offen

title is, Magna Britanniæ Princeps. He five to any of its meinbers. I detest

is born Duke of Cornwall; and immeevery thins which can in the least

diately intitled to all the rights, revedisturb society. These sentiments, which are well known to his majesty, Fdeemed in law at full age on his birth

nues, &c. belonging thereto; as being have procured me his benevolence.

day. He is afterwards (at the pleaHonoured with his favour, and at

fure of the King) created Prince of tached to his person, commanded to

Wales, at which time he is presented record the glorious atchievements of

before the king in his surcoat, cloaky his reign, and wholly taken up with this employ, I will endeavour to fulfil G with a belt of the fame, when the king

-and mantle of crimson velvet, and girt it, by putting in practice the intruc

putieth a lap of crimson velvet, intions which I received in your re.

dented and turned up with ermine, spectable houle; and if the rules of

and a coronet on his head, as a token eloquence which I there learnt should

of principality; and the king also put. have eluded my memory, I fall ne

reth into his hand a verge of gold, tire vertheless prelerve the character of a

emblem of governinent, and a ring of good subject. This character, I think,

gold on his middle finger, to intimate is legible in all my writings, disfi. H gured as they may have been by the

(a) See Brit. Compend, vol. i, p. 19. edit. 7. idiculous editions which they have

(6) Carter's Analylis of honour and are gone through ; even the Henriáde has

moory, p. 128, never been correctly publified. Pro. (s; c) Chimbers's Dictionary, PRI.

that

350 Historical Account of the Princes of Wales. that he must be a husband to his coun- England ; and from this Prince Ed. try, and a father to her children. To ward, the dukedom of Cornwall hath him are likewise given and granted ever fince slept in the crown; for the letters patent, to hold the said princi. eldeft son and heir apparent of the pality, to him and his heirs, kings of King of England is duke of Cornwall England, by which words the separa. by birth (8). tion of this principality is for ever pro

Duke Edward was likewise created hibited (a). His revenues, as duke of A Prince of Wales by his father, in the Cornwall, are computed at 14,000 1. parliament held at Pontefract, Anno per annum. The revenues of the prin- 1342, the 16th of his reign, by letters cipality were estimated, above three patent, dated the 18th of March the hundred years ago, at 4,680 l. per same year ; as also created Earl of annum (e).

Chester and Flint ; and was invested in His mantle, which he wears at the the principality of Wales, with these coronation, is doubled below the elbow B enligns of honour, viz. a chaplet of witlı ermine, spotted diamond-wise; gold, made in manner of a garland, but the robe which he wears in par: a gold ring, and a verge, red, or icepliament is adorned with five bars or ter of silver : And for the better fupguards of ermine, set at an equal dis- port of his estate, as prince of Wales, tance one from the other, with a gold granted him several lands, particularly lace above each bar. The coronet enumerated in a writ, to be delivered placed on his head at his creation (as c to this prince, or his attorney, with above) is of gold, and consilts of this dignity. croites-pattee, and Aeurs de lis, with In the ióth year of his age, this the addition of one arch, and in the prince (commonly diftinguiibed by midit: ball, and a cross, as hath the the name of the Black Prince, from the royal diadem, which was solemnly or- black armour be used to wear) acdered to be used by a grant, dated companied the king his father into Feb. 9, 1660-61, rith Charles II. France, where, at his landing, he re

King Edward I. having reduced D ceived the honour of knighthood from Wales, by a Matute made the 12th of that martial king's hands; and at the his reign, united it to the crown of battle of Crely, which was fought on England; but perceiving that the Welch the 26th of August, 1346, leading the had no affection to be ruled by tiran. van.guard, he there flew John of Luxgers, he lo ordered, that Eleanor his emburgh, king of Bohemia, and then dequeen, on the 25th of April 1284, was plumed his casque of those ostrichdelivered of a son in Cacrnarvon cassle fea: hers, which, in memory of this

E in North Wales; and then the said king victory, became his cognisance; fomecalled together the barons of Wales, and times using one feather, sometimes steinanding if they would be content three, as appeareth by his seals and on to subject themselves to one of their his tomb, with scrolls containing this own natives, that could not speak one motto, ICH DIEN ; alluding to the word of English, and against whole life words of the apostle, That the heir, they could take no jult exception, they whild he is a child, differetli nothing from readily consented; and having sworn F a servant: And these feathers and to yield obedience, he nominated this motto have been ever since borne by new-born fon, whom, in his charter our Princes of Wales, with the addi the 24th of March 1305, and 33d year tion, by the more modern kings of an of his reign, he stiled Prince of Wales, open coronet, (in which the three being the first of the sons and heirs feathers are stuck) and by the vulgar apparent of the kings of England that are called the prince's arms; tho' the bove that title (f).

G ancient arms of the princes of Wales, Edward, eldest ton of King Edward whilst they were sovereigns, were, III. was born the 15th of June, 1330, Quarterly, gules and or, four lions and in the parliament held at Wefi- paisant, counterchanged; but now the minster the 11th of his reign, was cre- arms of that prince differ from chole atei duke of Cornwall, by a charier of the king, only by the adjition of a bearing date the 17th of March, 1338, label of three points, Luna in chief, and invetted by the sword only; this

and the creit and dexter supporters

H being the first precedent for the crea. tion of the title of a duke with us in

(8) Sandford's Genalogical History of the Kings of Englan', p. 181.--The heir appa

rent (if it comes by the death of an elder (d) British Compend, vol. I, p. 23. brother) as soon as bis faiber is King, is allo i Ibid. p. 20.

Duke of Cornwall.

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age (!).

A Description of the Havannah.

351 are crowned with a prince's coronet, the middle of the town is a spacious' and gorged with a label of three points square, surrounded with uniform as in the arms; and also the omision buildings. The churches are rich. of Charlemaine's crown borne in fur. and magnificent, the lamps, candletout, being carried uncharged by the sticks, and ornaments for the altars late prince, to express his being heir being of gold and silver; some of the apparent also to the office of Arch- A lamps are of the most curious workTrealurer of the Roman Empire (b). manship, and weigh near an hundred

Edward V. was born Nov. 4, 1470, weight In 1700 the number of inthe tenth year of his father's reign, habitanss was computed at 26,000, and was created Prince of Wales, July and we may very well imagine it to 26, 1471 (i).

be encreased since. They are a more Arthur Tudor, eldest son of K. Henry polite and sociable people than the in. VIT. was born Sept. 20, 1486, the 2d B habitants of any Spanisb port on the year of his father's reign, and was continent, and of late imitate the created Prince of Wales and Earl of French, both in their dress and manChester, Oiłober 1, 1480, at three years ners. One part of the island is under of age (k).

the jurifdiction of this city, as the oEdward VI. was born Otober 12, ther'is under that of St Jago. The 1557, the 29th year of the reign of his district belonging to the Havana is by father, Henry VIII. and in Jan. 1546, far the best cultivated, yet it has not when all things were prepared for C above fix towns and villages in it. creating him Prince of Wales, his fa- The port is the best in the West Inther died, and he succeeded him at dies, and so capacious, that 1000 fail nine years of

of ships may ride there commodiously. Cbarles II. was born May 29, 1630, There is, generally speaking, fix fathe 6th year of his father's reign; and thom of water in the bay, At the in May, 1638, being then eight years entrance of the channel, which is of age, he was itiled by order, not D pretty narrow, and of difficult access creation, Prince of Wales (m).

to an enemy, being well flanked by

forts and platform of guns, there are A Description of the HAVANA, from a two Arong castles, which are supposed

Work lately published, entitled, A De- capable of defending the place against scription of the Spanish Illands and any nuinber of thips. Settlements in the Wejt Indies : illuf- El Morro is a caitle that stands upon trated with 32 Copper Plates, engraved an high rock, the fortifications are of by T. Jefferys, Geographer to his Ma. E itone, irreguiar, and so confined tojesty. IP:188)

wards the Tea, that they cannot bring HE city of HAVANNA, which is

any more than four guns to bear upon called the Key of the West Indies,lie3

one object; it is more regular towards in 23 d. 12 m. N. latitude, and 82 d.

the land, but being upon a rock, and 13 m. W. longitude from London, situa

of small compass, might with thells be. ted in the most fruitful part of the i.

rendered not tenable. It is overlooked

F Nand, and the only part where there

by the Cavanas, a high land which are any farms, the rest being almost

runs along the N. E. lide of the en-, deftitute of inhabitants. It itands on

trance into the bay, and commands the Weft side of the harbour, in a

all the fortifications that defend the very beautiful and pleasant plain; is

entrance. the residence of the

Under the faces or the S. W. angle governor and

сар

of the castle, and more within the entain-general of Cuba, and of the royal officers, as well as of an assessor, for G trance into the harbour, is a battery of the affittance of the governor and cap

stone called the twelve apostles; a littain-general of the West Indies. The

tle higher, and opposite the point-gate buildings are elegant, but not lofty,

is the la Divina Pasora or Shepherds built of stone, and make a very good

battery of stone for 13 guns (then net appearance, though it is said they are

quite finished) level with the water, bot meanly furnithed within. There

but fo fituated under the bill, (which are eleven churches and monasteries,

is here very rocky) that it will be aland two handsome hospitals. Near H most imposlible for men to it and to

their guns, on account of splinters (b) British Compendium, vol. i. p. 22.

from the rock above. (i) Suniford's Geneal. Hill. p. 22.

From the governor's house to the 1) Thid. p. 445

Punta gite, fronting the mouth of the Ibid. p. 467 (1) Ibid. p. 573

harbour. there are four batteries 0.

renen

TH

352

Account of the late Window-A8. pering one behind the other ; they off the communication with the town are all overlooked from the Cavenas by land. on the oppofite hore, and may be flank- The Lazaretto is about a mile and a ed from thence by musketry.

half froin the Punta gate; near this Over the Punta gate, and towards the A place is a small sandy bay; whété there entrance into the harbour, there is a

a . large stone battery : this is also over- From the bay to the Punta the coast looked from the oppotite hill, and like. is a low fat rock, about three feet wife from the rising ground on the N. higher than the level of the fea. fde of the village of Guadaloupe.

The garrison in August 1959, con The Puntal is a square castle, with 4 fifted of two regiments of foot, and bastions, regular, but small, about 200 part of a regiment of horse, 300 mu. yards oiftant from the gate, from which В fattoes, and 4 or 5000 militia. The it is separated by a ditch with a draw- ilanders, fexcepting thöfe that cutti, bridge. The ground here is low, wet, vated the land) are huters, well and inachy ; behind the marsh, and mounted, and inured to fatigue, projoining to inę S. W fide of the glacis vifons good and plenty, their beef, of the Puntal, there is a breast-work wild cattle, caught by the hunters in of earth pallisadoed, to cover the com- the woody parts of the ifland. munication of the castle, with the Pun. From the above observations, it is ta gate, and the road that leads to the c evident, that though the Havann is Lazareito.

well fortified, and perhaps stronger than From the Puntal gate to the dock- any other place belonging to the Sportyard, there is a rampart with bastions; niards in the Well Indies, yet it is far faced with stone, and earthen parapets, from being impregnable, as some have with a ditch, which in several places is pretended. A proper force, such as is fallen in, and almost filled up, parti- now employed against is; landed on cularly behind the Punta and land- the west fide of the city, would foon gates near the stone quarries, which if become masters of it, as the walls Joined to one another, might be of D on the land fide are low and in a pe. great detriment to the place in case of rising state ; nor could either of the a lege, as lodgments might be made caitles above described prevent their in them; the ground here rises with approaches, unless the bill upon which an ealy ascent to the land gate, and is the church of Guadeloupe rands, is either open pasture or garden ground, properly fortified : and the Spaniards weil itored with the cabbage tree. Be- then may baffle the best conducted atfore the land gate is a ravelin, the hill e temps,as the rainy season sets in in July. on a rising ground from this gate (which is the highest part of the town) Explanation of ibe lac A for laying a new istnie to the dock yard, is steeper than on

upon Window-ligbis, the other side. Almost half a mile from the gate, is B

Y the last act of parliament relative too

window-lights, the duty, after the 5th the church of Guadaloupe, being the

day of Ap» il laft, is as follows: bighest ground on the land side of the

On houses containing eight or nine win. town, and if not fortified (which it F dows, the duty of three chillings a house is was not in Auguhi 1759) seems to be continued, and onc shilling a window is added. the moft advantageous spot to com On houses containing ten or eleven winin und the town, being higher than any dows, the duty of three shillings for the house, part of it except the land-gate, which

and the tax of fixpence a window, are carria it reems to be nearly on a level with.

nued ; and a new tax of fixpence a window is

added, which makes houses of 8, 9, 10, and From the North fide of this rising

11 windows equal. grund the Punta gare may be flanked,

On houses containing 12, 13, and 14, the and from the S. E. fide the dock yard G dury of three shillings, and the oid tax of is commarded. Along the N. lde fix-nence a window are continued; and a new ruins an aquedut, which falling into tax of one Milling is added. tlie ditch at the land gate, runs down On houses containing 15, 16, 17, 18, and to the dock yard both for watering the 19, the duty of three thillings a hout, and the thips and turning a faw mill.

fax of one milling and three-penee a window Avon hzf a mule from the charcli, H are continued, and an additional tax a threeis a bridge made over a rivolet that

pence a window adders, which make Houses

of twelve to nineteen windows equal ;-16 the runs into the bay above 100 yards.

taz now Hands thus : all houses waih more From this bridge to the Lazaralo is

than lix, and lcís than 12 windows, pay 1s. about two miles, with a rifing groond a window; and every house wiin tieve wine hetwixt them, A trench thrown up du's, or upwards, pays use thilling and de le:ween the ic two pinces, would cut rence a wiadove, bel.dcs the house wuty.

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Enquiry into Oriental Despotism, continued.

353 Any Enquiry into the Origin of tbe Der to be regarded as instructive fymbols

. potism of Eastern Government. (Con- All people had then four times of sotinued from p. 3033

lemnity in a month, and four others of THE object of which these cere

yet greater folemnity in the year ; dumonies were fymbolical repre- A the lunar and solar mutations, to in

ring which, occasion was taken from fentations, was in process of time regarded as fo ftupendous and sublime,

timate to the multitudes assembled on that the priests giving up the ceremo

the occasion, that all had changed, nies to the people, and leaving them

and that all would one day change ato their own conjectures about them,

gain; the times of folemnity that rerevealed their true signification only

ferred to the renovation of astronomito a selected few, and this gave rise to

cal periods, were times of joy, those the ancient mysteries of Ceres

, Ofris; B voted to mourning and penitence.

which respected their decline were denone were admitted but after long and

Aš the lunar month consists nearly auitere preparation.

of 28 days, it is easy to conceive, that The regular revolution of the hea

the lunar holidays were for that reavenly bodies, and the harmony that

fon fixed at the distance of seven days was at length restored to the world,

from each other, and these ancient 1o.

lemnities regulated by the lunar numproduced, for a long time, a constant and unbounded gratitude to the fu C why almoft all nations have had a kind

ber ; this is also, probably, the reason preme being, yet this very regularity and harmony were made use of to

of fuperftitious regard to the number

feven. The custom of worshiping in remind men of the instability of their condition, for fear á forgetfulness of

high places, seems also to have arisen the past, aud a habit of permanent

from the gratitude with which ihose felicity, should extinguish the falutary

who survived the ruins of the world, dread of the great judge, which it was

naturally remembered the afylums in of great importance to keep alive: p which they had been preserved.

Among these reinains of mankind, every thing therefore, was made a lesion of instruction ; the decline of

there was probably no authority, but the day, and the setting of the Sun,

that of fathers, who gathered toge

ther their children, nor any law but were made to revive the ideas of the ancient darkness, the destruction of

reason, and the wants of society be, the old world, and the end of the pre

ing in such circumstances the same fent. The rising of the morning was E could neither be mistaken nor neg

with the wants of individuals, they made a fymbol of the past and future

lected. renovation, as well as of the appear- The several political governments ance of the great judge in favour of the juft. For this reason, all the an

which have since been established mult cient folemnities begun with forrow,

therefore be fought among the more and ended with joy ; they began at

numerous focieties of after times, fun-fet, and ended at the fun-fet of

which required to be held together by the next day, and this gave rise to the f stronger bands. It was natural that ancient and almost universal custom

those excellent regulations which rea, of computing time by nights, and not

fon and neceffity had dictated in the

first simple state of mankind after the by days. This is also the cause why

general desolation of the earth, should the Pagan Idolators ran to consult the

be referred by common consent to the morning or riling Sun, and why it has been an almost universal practice to

elders and chiefs of families, that they have the doors of Temples turned to that they were considered as kings and

might be preserved and inforced; not wards the East, imagining that the

sovereign masters of these societies ; great judge, like the Sun, will appear from that point of the heavens: The

but their experience, their wisdom,

their age, and the name of fathers, end and commencement of astrono

acquired for them a general and promical reriods, became the fubjects of fimilar lessons from the famecause; the

found veneration and respect : they

were then chosen to be the ministers four changes of the Moon in each month,& the varieties of thefour seasons w and fuperintendants of society, not in

dependant arbiters of the fate of o. of the year, were images of the inita

thers. bility of the universe, too ftriking not Mankind were then fenfible that (Gent. Mag. Augufl 1762.) there was a law, a kind of publick

reason,

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