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Origin of Public Laws. reason, with tefpect to which these we have found him, becauso it is rosi. persons were upon faldevel with the ety, and ourselves as a part of it, thac meaneft of their fellow citizens, and we behold in this permanent or acle of. knowing their right to the title of rà- public reason, of which, as a mirtional and free beings, they had no tour, he is the august representation. thoughts of implicit fubmiffion to a- The idea of a king was then, one of nother when they prescribed laws to A the first which mankind directed by themselves : And though they volun- reafon, and aggregated into society tarily submitted to these laws, and conceived ; in these early ages, manthus rendered themselves dependant kind bad their attention continually upon fociety, in which they found not fixed upon the heavens, and they were only 'subfiftence but comfort, they perpetually watching the motion of were not willing to acknowledge any the planets, as upon the regularity of

other king or monarch than God, B their revolutions, the sublistence and and it was to him and to him on- well being of the earth depended; ly, that they submitted themselves and they sometimes contemplated the Sun, their new legiNation.

sometimes the Moon, and sometimes Many sentiments dictated by rea- the vast number of Star's scattered on fon, many religious impressions which ver the firmament, but remarking were then very strong, and the in- above all the sun, that angle and gloAuence of a certain superstition pec hoc the holt of heaven, they imagined

rious body, which seems to command liar to those early ages, concurred to produce to extraordinary a determi- they saw the representation of a good nation.

government, and that here they found As man was very soon convinced by the plan which ought to be followed by his wants, that he could not sublist societies upon earth, which would be but in society, he consented to be rendered happy and immutable by bound by the first fimple ties that held establishing the same order, society together ; preferring the ado Religion also came in with auxiliary vantages of a necessary and reasonable motives, mankind seeing in all nacompact, to his natural liberty and ture but one Son, was naturally led to independance.

acknowledge in the universe but one When society became numerous and God: They faw, therefore, that fomeextensive, it was found necessary, that thing was wanting to their legislation, the tacit contract which each indivi- that society was not perfect; in a duil had made with the rest by incor. word, that it was necessary to have a porating himself with them, should king, one who should be the chief, the receive a folemn and express confir- father of this great family, and who mation, that it might be authentic should conduct and regulate it, as the and irrefragable, and that order and Sun regulates all nature, and as God harmony might be preserved; to this conducts and regulates the universe. therefore, mankind alco consented,and Such were the indications which narenewed in favour of society, the sacri- ture and religion concurred to give fice which had before been made of F to mankind in the first ages, but man. their liberty, and natural equality ; kind, notwithstanding, rather eluded they acknowledged superiors and ma- than followed them, whether, they giftrates, and submitted to a civil and justly imagined, that a mortal was not political' subordination ; they pro- capable of representing. God upon ceeded yet farther, and fought a so- earth whether they feared to Tore vereign, because they were even then their liberty at once, not dreaming Sensible, that a great society without a that there were means of rendering chief, and without a king, was like a G their security compatible with a thione, body without a head ; or rather 'a or whether they were irrefitably inmonfte.; the members of which, when fluenced by fuperftition, instead of put into motion, could produce no- chusing a king from among themthing but absurdity and disorder. selves, with whom society might have

For the discovery of this great made ihe fame contract which every in truth, nothing more was neceflary,

dividual had before made with society, than to take a view of the society that they thought fit to proclain the lua was already formed : We cannot fee preme being, and determined that an aflerbly without looking for a there Mould

be no other monarch up: chief; it is natural, it is even


on earth, than he who prefided in funtary; and we also neceffarily con. heaven. template this chief with plealune whien Such was the conduct of society,



Origin of a Theocratical Form of Government.

355 when it first multiplied after the delolitical prejudices arose, by which the lation of the earth, when the miseries of primitive religion and policy were tomankind wereyer many,&their terrors tally subverted. were ftill Atrong ; they were soothed Thus did mankind, after having into tranquility only by the consola- derived their domestie ceconomy and tions of religion, to which they deli- civil laws from nature and good sense, vered themselves without reserve ; submit all to a chimera, which they they expected the fatal day which was A called the reign of God, and which we again to destroy them with resignation, have distinguished by the name of they prepared for it, and their fitua

Theocracy. tion upon earth was still so wretclied, It is true, that of the times when that they even de fired to quit it. all nations submitted to a theocratical

The return of the great judge, and form of government, thereare no trathe commencement of the future life, ces in history, or at best only obscure became in these calamitous circum


and imperfect shadows, that can scarce Aances, the only objects which were be distinguished in the general gloom confidered with a religious impatience of ages To remote that the rememas the end of their lufferings ; while brance of them scarce reached to the the disorders and fermentations of the earliest antiquity of which we have a. earth continued, they discoursed of ny certain knowledge: Yet we know them without cealing, and these doc- there have been traditions among the trines took root so deeply, that nature, most ancient nations which speak of which was established by degrees, was Cthe reign of gods upon earth, which at length perfectly restored to a state preceded the reign, first of demi.gods, of order and ftability, while mankind and then of kings : Not to mention were ftill expecting it as a future the Egyptians, the Pbænicians, the Calevent.

deans, the Greeks, and the ancient in. Such were the religious dispositions habitants of Italy, whose mythologi. of mankind when Tocieties already cal theocracies have perplexed all our multiplied and extended, endeavoured Chronologists, the Indians, the Ja.

D to give a regular form to their admi. ponese, and even the Americans prenifration, and thought of electing a served the remembrance of a time king

in which their country had been bo. Their minds, being wholly occupied noured by the residence of Gods, who with ideas of heaven, they did not at came down froin Heaven to civilize that moment remember that they and give laws to mankind, to procure were still upon earth; instead of giv- and to perpetuate their happiness. ing their government à natural tie, E When the Theocratical state was a. they fought one that was supernatu- dopted by mankind, and considered as ral, and not to lose sight of the celes- both civil and political, one of their tial kingdom to which they incessant- first cares was to place in the middle ly afpired, they imagined they could of their city, the house of their divine represent it below; when they deter- sovereign, to chufe a place in it for mined to acknowledge no other mo- his residence, and to diftinguish it by narch but God, they thought, with a throne; at this house they used to out doubt, by that sublime speculation


assemble to render him homágę, to reto anticipate their glory and their ceive his commands, and to implore happiness, to enjoy heaven upon earth, his favour. and bring forward the lingering here- There institutions were at first 110 after which religion had so often pain. more than an allegorical ceremony, ted in fuch brilliant colours.

but were at length understood literni.This, however, was the fource of ly; every civil custom became a reall their evils and all their errors ; in Gligious one, recourse was had to God consequence of their choice they ap- in his visible habitation upon all pubplied principles, which could belong lick, and even private occasions ; reonly to the reign above, to the reign ligion absorbed the police of which it below, the greatest part of which were commenced the sovereign, and in profalse, becaufe they were misplaced : portion as it augmented its temporal Their mode of government was a rights, it corrupted itself, and chanmere fation, which it was necessary to h ged its nature. The house of the dimaintain by a great number of suppo- vine monarch, and his throne, became fitions, and thefe fuppofitions were, in by degrees his temple and his fanétuprocess of time, taken for truths, ary, and man imagining that he fawhence a crowd of religious and po- voured this place more than any o




First Use of Temples. ther, at length persuaded himself that quaint them with the order and fubhe really dwelt there ; his notions of ject of the folemn festivals, and to inthe divinity became more and more cite them to labour and industry i but contracted, and instead of regarding these useful lessons were at dength rethe temple as a place where the peo- A served for a very small number of iniple were to assemble for publick praye tiated, to whom, after a long state of er, and which was rendered infinitely severe probation, they were communirespectable by that single and most cáted under the most horrid oaths of laudable destination, they came thither secrecy. to seek the lovereign whom they be of The laws deposited in the temple lieved to reside there, and not being were now believed by the vulgar to able to perceive him, they were not have come down from heaven, and long before they set up a material re


the priests favoured the nation by presentation of him and adored it. pretended revelations : But as the di

When the supreme being was con- vine monarch could not give his comfidered as the king of society, the en- mands to society in a direct manner, Signs of regal authority could not, it became necessary to devise fome exwith propriety, be put into the hands pedients by which his will might be of a man, they were therefore depo- known; this gave rise to the interpresited in the house, and upon the throne tation of meteorological phænomena of the celestial monarch the sanctuary C into intimations of the divine will, of the temple; the scepter in these and to the various oracles which were ancient times was nothing more than established in various nations; to Aua rod, the temples were cottages, and gurs, Auruspices, and many other dethe sanctuary was a basket or a box. 1 vices of the same kind. Mankind no

In some folemnities, commemora- longer consulted their reason, either tive of the ancient state of human na- with respect to civil policy nor religiture, which, according to Kempfer, the Don; but conceived a notion

that their Japonese still obferve, they exhibit all conduct, their enterprizes, & all their the rustic signs of the primitive au- measures ought to be under the imme. thority, and this circumstanceexplains diate influence and direction of Heacertain Egyptian and Grecian folemni- ven, and, as the priests were the orties and mysteries in which we find gans by which this influence and dithe same emblems.

be The code of civil and religious laws cated, they acquired a fuperiority 0.

o was also placed in the sanctuary, and E ver the rest of society, to this facred place the people used to It is so difficult to form an idea of an have recourse to obtain the knowledge infinite and omnipotent Being, who is, of these laws, and to be instructed in notwithstanding, invisible, without their duty; a custom of which all pa- the artistance of some fenfible comparigan antiquity furnishes examples : fon, that a bodily representation of All their temples had a basket or box the divine monarch was almost a newhere the laws and the symbols of au- ceffary consequence of Theocracy. dio

F thority were preserved with a religious Mankind were then much more veneration, that at length deviated in- conversant with the Supreme Being to superstition, so gross and deplorable, than at present, every act of civiljuas to confound the laws with the di- risdiction was in his name; the peovine leginator, and to dread the light of thole instructive fymbols, upon a

ple regulated their whole conduct by

his laws, they paid him tribute, they fupposition that no man could see saw his officers, his palace, and almost them and live.

Ghis seat; his feat, therefore, was at In the Pagan feasts, which were length filled, in some countries with a called Feafts of Legislation, as the Pas rude ftone, in others with one that lilie and Thefmophorie, the principal had been carved; in fome with the i. object of the ceremonial became at mage of the fun, in others with that Jength an awful secret, and those who of the moon, and many nations, exaddrelled the people made a mystery hibited an ox, a goat, a dog, a cát, of their duty.

H and these fymbolical reprefentations The most secret rites of the feasts of were honoured with all the attributes Ifis, Ceres, and Cybele, in the Sarmothra- of a God and a King, they were digs cian and Etrufcan mysteries, had ori- nified with all the sublime titles which ginally no other object than the in- suited him only of whom they were itruction of mankind how to pass thro' emblems; prayers and praises were a virtuous life to a happy end; to ac offered up to the fupreme Being bes



Scheme for raising the Stocks.

357 fore them, and before them was per- zle him to the people's mind; and then formed revery religious and judicial you know the skirmithings between act; they were, however, as yet, con- the Pruffians and Austrians are in themfidered in no other light than em, selves so happily confounded, that it blems, and the people conducted will be an easy matter to send a letter themselves before them with a religi- A from the Hague, with an account of ous and intelligent circumspection ; the defeat of the Prusians in a geneand if every nation had taken the ral engagement. You may easily fame symbol or emblem of the reign- make this up from any of the Bruffels ing deity, the unity of Worship, tho Gazettes ; omitting, their authority, degenerated, might have been prefer. which will be needless and improper. ved; the fame supreme Being was in A good fubftantial letter too against deed for a time worshipped under the German connections and continental figure of the fun, the moon, a itone, a B measures, will be of great service, and ftatue, and an ux; but these symbols two or three reports that Gibraltar is by which he was represented were ve- betrayed to the Spaniards, will help us ry different from each other.

forward ; for many folks here believe Every nation, at length, confidered that if our enemies had Gibraltar, they the emblem which it had chosen as might soon make good their landing the truest and moft holy symbol of the in England. I would also have you divinity, and every nation at length support and keep up the memory of by worlhipping God under different c the loss of Nerufoundland, and give us fymbols, fell into the notion that they an essay on its importance, and

the worshipped different Gods: The fym difficulty of retaking it. Two or three bol was insensibly established in- hints from Holland that the Dutch are stead of the Being it was at first only going to join our enemies, and will intended to represent; and each na- take their money out of our stocks, tion considering its own God and re- may also be of service, and I think ligion to be the true, and fuppofing will easily gain credit, as any thing themselves therefore to be the favou. D treacherous or base in a Dutchman wili rites of Heaven, each aspired to uni, be at once believed. A bloody marversal monarchy as due to the fupreme facre or two in Portugal will fit our Being whom each nation condidered cause it matters not whether it be said as its king.

to be committed by- Spaniards or Por. azon (To be continued.)

tuguesa: they either of them are capz

ble of it. Á storm too might be railDEFA LETTER to the Schemer. E ed at sea to destroy our Mediterranean SIR, as

fleet, and a junction of the Spanish and Am a monied man, and I have se. French fleets may be absolutely asser

veral thousands that I want to layted, with a pompous list of their fhips. out to advantage; which, to tell you I think you may report too that there the trath, I gained a few days ago, are great diffentions in the allied arwhen that glorious Bull called a peace, my, and hint at the exorbitant reve. hunted fo many poor fools into Change e nues of Prince Fd; and if you Alley. Now, Mr Schemer, if you can think fit, we may venture to afirm, invent any

d-d lie, that carries the ap- that the Cherokee captain or king, pearance of probability with it, to fink which ever you please to call him, has the ftocks as low in proportion as we dropt several hints that their whole naraised them last week, you shall have tion will revolt, for there we never half a crown per cent. brokers profit can be detected, as nobody underupon every hundred I fell. Remem- stands them; and you may add, that ber, I would not have you try a pro- G they have a method of poisoning ephecy, though it were to be of an very body who shakes hands with earthquake for I don't think it

them, which will put the wise and would go down at present; probably felf-sufficient citizens of London into

a cold sweat, and lower their fpirits would do little in the summer : neither at least 3 per cent, and s eights, if not would a private account from the Ha- the whole pound. Then two or three vannah, specifying the loss of our fleet, whispers against a certain great man, avail much ; for the English care but Hand a threwd guess that there will be little about their people so far off dreadful doings in the North soon, but I think with a litile dressing, we and some talk of a Scotch alderman may make a very good bear of the that will be elected next vacancy, and Emperor of Ruffia, if we can but muz- that poor Mr M, the great bridge




Grants for the Year 1762 árchitect, is to be turned out of his abilities, but with equal desires of, én

the public exwho is to build

the Tweed bridge ; and pence, become the gulls of knaves, and

idge ;

hurt both themselves and the credit three water-gruel houses set up in op of the nation : And depend upon it, position to Batson's, and to Jonathan's, A while you are so base and dishonouraand Grisflyses and that the fan ble as to cry out againft rogueries that for I have observed the English are yourselves, you will continue the most alert at swallowing absurdities, dupes of artful men, who see opporand weak minds are soonett affected tunities enough of enriching them. by ridiculous reports. --But oh, Mr felves by this, and ten thousand other Helter, bestir yourself in this cause, methods, at the expence of a creduand raise your tremendous voice as Blous, selfish, profuse, and unprincipled soon as poslible, or a victorious ex- people, press from Cuba may blast all our. p.s. Just as I was sending this lechopes. I never yet prayed in my ture to the press, I received a very life, and yet methinks I could almost ingenious proposal, which I thould now find in my heart to do it, that have presented to the public to day England may never fucceed against that had it not been too bulky for this place. But though I know no G-d paper, and did not my precious repubut Mammon, I would willingly take c tation stand in need of immediate demy part, Mr Skelter, in praying to that fence; for this rascal of a jobber will idol of stockjobbers, that father of probably, if I do not get the whiplies the d-1; nay I may write it out hand of him, father all the lies of plain between friends, the devil. I say, 'Change Alley for the last three

years confound and blast them, for Heaven upon me. But, as many very eminent seems to espouse a different cause. men of the profession observe, prevar Well, remember the reward, thou art leat veritas.. Vivant Rex et Regina.

Dutchman and I am a 3-av; fo we D GRANTS for the fervice of tbe year 1962. need care but little what becomes of this inand of duper, and foods_fare For any vin deurdines jo, saniberts

well P.S. Burn this as foon as you are

seamen & marines


For chapel at Gosport master of its contents. id


For the hospital at Plymouth Now, gentlemen pupils and consti- For hire of transports, and tuents, by revealing this rascal's proposals, I have an opportunity of com. E ordnance land service, in

victualling forces in tran

835,925 vincing you that I am a good naturalized subject of Great Britain. You cluding last year's extra, 642,916 see, Gentlemen, how you are cožened Towards discharging the and cheated, and imposed upon, by debt of the navy 1,000,000 designing men your trade deadened, For 67,676 land forces, in your credit funk, and your country cluding 4,008 invalids

1,629,320 fold. Do not such wretches as these, Forces in plantations, Ginesti

F how fortified soever by titles, or en- braltar, America, Africa, trenched in riches, deserve the se. and Eaf and Welt Indies 0873,780 vereit lath of satire, and the keenést Four regiments on Irish elrelentment of an injured nation ? tablishment, now in N. These are the vipers that bite and


en 23,284 fting you most when most cherished : For an augmentation of you seem satisfied of this truth, but 9,370 men

163,711 know not how to relieve yourselves.- G General and staff officers in Then hearken to the words of your Germany, &c. Schemer, and these villains thall not Embodied militia and Scothers prevail against you. To contrive re- Highlanders

4431952 medies against them is vain, for the Cloathing of embodied micel fault is in yourselves :--'Tis the ge

litia neral spirit of you all to live above, Cloathing and pay of unem

bheda! your incomes, and to try any hap-ha. H bodied militia

20,000 zard projects to gain some extraordi. Half pay of land officers

343383 nary benefit ticket: this brings to Superannuated and reduced

ST many fools to market who with lesser

horse guards

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